National statistics and global monitoring: Working towards mutual reinforcement

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National statistics and global monitoring: Working towards mutual reinforcement

  1. 1. 1The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012NWI Seminar, 8 April 2013, Hilton Hotel, AddiAbaba, EthiopiaNational WASH Inventory (NWI) seminar:Lessons learned and maximising valueNational statistics andglobal monitoring:Working towards mutualreinforcementDidier ALLELYWater, Sanitation, Hygiene & HealthWorld Health Organization
  2. 2. 2The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Presentation outline• The JMP: Role and functions• Access estimates: potential reasons fordiscrepancy• JMP estimates for Ethiopia and comparison withNWI• Future developments and mutual reinforcement
  3. 3. 3The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Global monitoring and the Joint Monitoring ProgrammeThe WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programmefor Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)• A joint programme between WHO and UNICEF• Established in 1990 to monitor progress and trends of accessto drinking-water and sanitation• Official UN mechanism to monitor MDG Target 7c:MDG 7 Target 7c“Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access tosafe drinking-water and basic sanitation”
  4. 4. 4The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP Strategic prioritiesMaintaining JMP data(data compilation and analysis)Disseminating JMPdata and estimates(Reports, snapshotswebsite)Fulfilling JMPs normative role(indicator development etc.)Country Outreach(Workshops,data reconciliation,training material etc.)
  5. 5. 5The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP definitions : Monitoring accessMDG 7 Target 7c calls to halve, by 2015, the proportion ofpeople without sustainable access to safe drinking water andbasic sanitationTwo Indicators:7.7 Proportion of population using an improved watersource, urban and rural7.8 Proportion of population using an improved sanitationfacility, urban and rural
  6. 6. 6The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP definitions: “Improved” means…An improved drinking water source is:“a source that by the nature of its construction adequatelyprotects the source from outside contamination in particularwith fecal matter”An improved sanitation facility:“ a facility that hygienically separates human waste from humancontact”
  7. 7. 7The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP Categorization of Improved / UnimprovedUse of the following sources of watero Piped water into dwellingo Piped water into plot/yardo Public tap or standpipeo Tube well or boreholeo Protected dug wello Protected springo RainwaterUnimprovedUse of the following sanitation facilitieso Flush/pour flush to elsewhereo Pit latrine without slabo Bucketo Hanging toilet or hanging latrineo No facilities, bush or fieldo Shared facilitiesUse of shared facilities of any typeNo facilities, bush or field (opendefecation)Use of the following sanitation facilitieso Flush / pour flush to- Piped sewer system- Septic tank- Pit latrineo Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP)o Pit latrine with slabo Composting toiletSanitationUse of the following sources of watero Unprotected springo Unprotected dug wello Cart with small tank/drumo Tanker trucko Surface watero Bottled waterDrinking waterImproved
  8. 8. 8The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP Data SourcesJMP estimates are based on :• National censuses and nationally-representative surveys:DHS Demographic and Health SurveyMICS Multiple Indicator Cluster SurveyLSMS Living Standard Measurement StudyCWIQ Core Welfare Indicator QuestionnaireWHS World Health surveyHBS Household Budget Survey… and other user-based household surveys• Surveys are conducted by National Agencies: NationalStatistic Offices, Ministries of Health...
  9. 9. 9The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP produces comparable estimates :national, regional, global (urban, rural, total)but differences with country estimates and differences within countriesJMP applies harmonized approach between countries and overtime
  10. 10. 10The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012 Different data providers and sources of data Different definitions of access Different additional criteria to qualify access Difficulty to update the data Different classifications for Improved/Unimproved Different categories / denominations used Different definitions of urban/rural Different methods of calculationMajor reasons for discrepanciesBetween national and global andbetween national institutions (Sector and Statistics)Why different estimates ?
  11. 11. 11The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012NWI Seminar, 8 April 2013, Hilton Hotel, AddiAbaba, EthiopiaCensus (NSO)Measures use of infrastructure(all households)Survey (NSO)Measures use of infrastructure(Sample of household)Different sources of data – measuring use or provisionInventory (Sector)Measures infrastructureand service provision
  12. 12. 12The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012NWI Seminar, 8 April 2013, Hilton Hotel, AddiAbaba, EthiopiaSpring water isavailable closerSurface waterhas better tasteWater is tooexpensiveDifferences between provision and usePump notfunctionalNewPumpdifficult to updateand impact on ratio of number of people covered / infrastructureEffective use : difficult to estimateFunctionality, new equipment:A water point mayserve more than whatit was designed for
  13. 13. 13The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012NWI Seminar, 8 April 2013, Hilton Hotel, AddiAbaba, EthiopiaDifferent definitions – national /global and within countryProportion of population using an improved water sourceurban and ruralAccess (provision)RuralProportion of rural populationthat is provided access to 15l/c/d water within 1.5 km of thewater supply pointUrbanProportion of urban populationthat is provided access to 20l/c/d improved water from thedomestic/household waterconsumptions inventoryMinistry of Water and Energy of Ethiopia :WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme :UsageRuralProportion of rural populationthat is using water from waterpoint irrespective of quantitiesused and distanceUrbanProportion of population servedby the water supply utilities
  14. 14. 14The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Different categories of infrastructures used ininventory and surveys (Water)NWIScheme InventoryNWIScheme InventoryHouseholds DHS 2011Rural & small towns urban Urban and rural Urban/ruralDeep well with distribution Tap inside the house Tap inside the house Piped into dwellingSpring with distribution Tap in compound Private Tap in compound Private Piped to yard/plotTap in compound shared Tap in compound sharedTap outside compound private Tap outside compound privatePublic tap / Fountain Tap outside compound shared/public Public tap / standpipeTubewell/borehole (with handpump)Shallow well Protected community well or spring Protected wellHand dug well normal pumpHand dug well rope pumpProtected on spot spring Protected community well or spring Protected springRain waterOther protectedBottle water with other improvedsourceUnprotected well / spring Unprotected wellUnprotected springUnprotected surface water River/dam/lake/ponds/stream…Self-supply in or near compound Bottle water with unproved sourceNeighbor’s self-supply Cart with small tankTanker truckOtherUnimprovedNot measured Not measuredImprovedProvision Use
  15. 15. 15The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Different categories of infrastructures used ininventory and surveys (Sanitation)Use UseHouseholdsUrban and rural(improved /unimproved)DHS 2011Urban/rural(Improved / unimproved)Flush toilet Private Flush to piped sewer systemFlush toilet shared (?) Flush to septic tankFlush to pit latrineFlush to somewhere elseFlush, dont know wherePit /VIP Private Ventilated Improved Pit latrine(VIP)Pit / VIP shared (?) Pit latrine with slabComposting toiletUnimproved /traditional latrineprivatePit latrine without slab/open pitUnimproved /traditional latrinesharedHanging toilet/hanging latrineBucket toiletNo toilet facility No facility/bush/fieldOther
  16. 16. 16The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Different additional criteria to qualify access between institutionsCriteria fromnational policyMeasured in NWIScheme inventoryMeasured by CSA(DHS)JMPDistance to source Water point within 1.5kmTime to source (DHS) Time to source lessthan 30’ but not yet acriteria for access(Post-2015)Quantity Quantity of wateravailable:Rural: 15 l/c/dUrban: 20 l/c/dRarely informed Not measuredDrinking-water
  17. 17. 17The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sources of data2013 : 10 datasets• Census 1994• Welfare and monitoring Survey 1997• Welfare and monitoring Survey 1998• Demographic and Health Survey 2000• Welfare and monitoring Survey 2000• World Health Survey 2003• Welfare Monitoring Survey 2004• Demographic and Health Survey 2005• Census 2007• Demographic and Health Survey 2011
  18. 18. 18The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia (2013)Water : Rural estimatesProportion of population using animproved drinking-water source
  19. 19. 19The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia (2013)Water : Rural estimatesClose estimates between JMP and NWI (household survey and schemeinventory)N.B. Latest DHS estimates are 42%HouseholdsurveySchemeinventory(with quantity& distancecriteria)Schemeinventory(All schemes)13839 45 49 61412061NWI 2010/2011JMPSurface waterTOTAL UNIMPROVED2011Piped onto premisesOther improved sourceTOTAL IMPROVEDOther unimprovedEthiopiaTrends of drinking water accessRURAL
  20. 20. 20The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia (2013)Water : Urban estimatesProportion of population using animproved drinking-water source
  21. 21. 21The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for EthiopiaWater : Urban estimatesDifferences between JMP and NWI. Origin of discrepancy could be attributed tothe following (to be explored):• Tubewells, protected wells and springs not considered improved in someurban settings (large cities). DHS estimated use of these 3 categories at 8%.• Number of people using schemes might be greater than expected.HouseholdsurveySchemeinventory(with quantity& distancecriteria)Schemeinventory(All schemes)494897 82 75 87303NWI 2010/2011JMPOther improved sourceTOTAL IMPROVEDOther unimprovedSurface waterTOTAL UNIMPROVEDEthiopiaTrends of drinking water accessURBAN2011Piped onto premises
  22. 22. 22The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for EthiopiaWater : Total estimates191340363450170204060801001990 2011Coverage(%)Total drinking water trendsSurface waterOther unimproved sourcesOther improved sourcePiped onto premisesProportion of population using animproved drinking-water source
  23. 23. 23The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for EthiopiaWater : Total estimates191340363450170204060801001990 2011Coverage(%)Total drinking water trendsSurface waterOther unimproved sourcesOther improved sourcePiped onto premisesSimilar estimates between JMP and NWI (householdsurvey and scheme inventory)HouseholdsurveySchemeinventoryexcludingquantity &distanceSchemeinventory(no additionalcriteria)94049 50 52 65341751JMP NWI 2010/20112011Other unimprovedSurface waterTOTAL UNIMPROVEDEthiopiaTrends of drinking water accessTOTALPiped onto premisesOther improved sourceTOTAL IMPROVED
  24. 24. 24The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sanitation : Rural estimatesProportion of population using animproved sanitation facility
  25. 25. 25The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sanitation : Rural estimatesImportant differences between JMP and NWI but origin of discrepancy is linked toclassification of improved/unimproved:• Shared facilities are considered improved in Ethiopia.• The definition of pit latrine with slab is currently stricter by Ethiopian standards.However, the proportion of population without facilities is relatively similar betweenJMP and NWI.Comparison requires more analysis and harmonization/alignment/correspondenceneeds to be established between the different institutions.NWI 2010/2011EthiopiaTrends of sanitation accessRURAL1990 2011Household surveyPopulation havingaccess to latrinefacilitiesImproved facilities 0 19Shared facilities 0 6Other unimproved 0 22Open defecation 100 53 55JMP45
  26. 26. 26The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sanitation : Urban estimatesProportion of population using animproved sanitation facility
  27. 27. 27The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012JMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sanitation : Urban estimatesNWI 2010/2011EthiopiaTrends of sanitation accessURBAIN1990 2011Household surveyPopulation havingaccess to latrinefacilitiesImproved facilities 19 27Shared facilities 28 42Other unimproved 12 23Open defecation 41 8 18JMP82Important differences between JMP and NWI on improved facilities due toclassification of improved/unimprovedProportion of population without facilities relatively similar between JMP and NWI.Comparison requires more analysis and harmonization/alignment/correspondenceneeds to be established between the different institutions.
  28. 28. 28The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 201222141212293450204060801001990 2011Coverage(%)Total sanitation trendsOpen defecationOther unimproved facilitiesShared facilitiesImproved facilitiesJMP estimates for Ethiopia :Sanitation : Total estimatesEthiopiaTrends of sanitation accessTOTAL1990 2011Improved facilities 2 21Shared facilities 4 12Other unimproved 1 22Open defecation 93 45JMP NWI 2010/2011Household surveyPopulation havingaccess to latrinefacilities5050Important differences between JMP and NWI on improvedfacilities due to classification of improved/unimprovedProportion of population without facilities relatively similarbetween JMP and NWI.Comparison requires more analysis andharmonization/alignment/correspondence needs to beestablished between the different institutions.
  29. 29. 29The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Goal: Improve information flow between monitoring stakeholdersfor evidence based decision making• Understand differences (e.g. definitions, classifications…)• Harmonize definitions at national level (e.g. Sector and NSO areusing the same categorization of infrastructures).• Establish correspondence between national and global definitions(e.g. categorization of infrastructures can fit both)• Learn from differences (e.g. Update sector ratios based on census)• Develop tools to ensure implementation and continuity (e.g.enumerators manual developed together for surveys)• Develop appropriate institutional framework bringing the differentactors together to prepare censuses, surveys, annual reviews…• Establish, based on same set of data and correspondence, nationalestimates and global estimates.Future development and mutual reinforcementData reconciliation
  30. 30. 30The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012- Harmonizing the data collection classifications: CSA for differentsurveys (DHS; WMS; Census; NWI) and MoWE NWI.- Keep the continuity of involvement between MoWE, MoH andCSA in things like Joint Technical Review and Multi StakeholderForum: MoWE/National WASH Coordination- Promoting the importance of data/monitoring related activities tothe sub-national levels, including the dissemination ofdata/lessons: MoWE, MoH, CSAMain recommendations from data reconciliation workshopAddis Ababa, 24-25 November 2011Future development and mutual reinforcementData reconciliation
  31. 31. 31The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Publication of NWI opportunity to continue the data reconciliationprocess and bring together the different actors:• to analyse further the results of the NWI and analyse differences(especially for sanitation)• continue work on harmonization between institutions andalignment with the JMPFuture development and mutual reinforcementData reconciliationNew tools will be available to countries (Global InformationManagement System –GIMS):• Add new data,• Reclassify the data according to national definition• Recalculate estimates based on national definition• Compare estimates based on use and on provision.
  32. 32. 32The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012Proposed targets (still in development)• Target 1: By 2025 no one practices open defecation.• Target 2: By 2030 everyone uses basic drinking watersupply (improved sources within 30 minutes) andhandwashing facilities when at home, all schools andhealth centres provide basic drinking water (improvedsources on the premises), adequate sanitation andhygiene facilities (hand washing and menstrual hygiene).Future development and mutual reinforcementDevelopment of Post 2015 targets and indicators
  33. 33. 33The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012• Target 3: By 2040, everyone uses adequate sanitation athome, the proportion of the population not using anintermediate drinking water supply (improved, on premises,water quality and functional) at home reduced by half, theexcreta from at least half of schools, health centres andhouseholds with adequate sanitation are safely managed.• Target 4: All drinking water supply, sanitation and hygieneservices are delivered in a progressively affordable,accountable, and financially and environmentallysustainable manner.Future development and mutual reinforcementDevelopment of Post 2015 targets and indicators
  34. 34. The Future of Water in the United Nations System – 19 Sept 2012WHO / UNICEFJoint Monitoring Programmewww.wssinfo.orgThank you for listeningWorld Health OrganizationWater, Sanitation, Hygiene and Healthwww.who.int/water_sanitation_healthUNICEFWater, Sanitation and Hygienewww.unicef.int

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