Research Faecal Sludge Treatment
Background
Gap Analysis in Emergency Water,
Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion
(HIF 2013)
1. Latrines in locations where no ...
Problem
• Lack of space for treatment (urban area)
• High water table (no digging possible)
• No off site treatment/dispos...
Objective
• Sanitization Faecal Sludge
• Simple & rapid & easy to
put in place
• Easy to operate & maintain
& reliable
• D...
Field testing Malawi
• 5 Students from Unesco-
IHE & TUD
• 3 Treatment Methods for
Centralised Treatment :
– Lime, Ammonia...
Emergency Faecal Sludge Treatment Methods:
Preliminary Field Testing Results
Treatment
• Treatment Time
• Final Concentrat...
Lactic Acid Experiments
• 3 Log removal for E-coli
7-9 days
• 10% w/w milk
preculture, 10% w/w
molasses ( 2kg simple
sugar...
UREA EXPERIMENTS
• 3 Log removal 4-8 days
after addition of urea
• 2% Urea observed to be
the most effective
• pH 9 – 9.5
...
LIME EXPERIMENTS - MALAWI
• 50L Drum Experiments
• pH Control - Addition of
Hydrated Lime ( CaOH)
& 10’ mixing
• > pH 10.2...
Future Work
Additional Research is essential to ensure that
a robust method which safeguards public
health can be establis...
Future work
(De-) centralized treatment:
• Upscale options, test robustness of process on different
sludge types & in diff...
Thank you for your input!
www.emergencysanitationproject.org
www.speedkits.eu
emergencysanitation@waste.nl
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Research findings faecal sludge treatment

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Jan Spit from WASTE presented the research findings on faecal sludge treatment during the Faecal Sludge Management Lunch Meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 17 April 2014.

This meeting was organised by IRC with support from DGIS.

Published in: Environment
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Research findings faecal sludge treatment

  1. 1. Research Faecal Sludge Treatment
  2. 2. Background Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (HIF 2013) 1. Latrines in locations where no pits are possible (urban, high watertable/flooding) 2. Latrine emptying and desludging 3. Faecal sludge disposal options after desludging and treatment !!MOST CHALLENGING GAP!! 4. Urban alternatives for excreta disposal
  3. 3. Problem • Lack of space for treatment (urban area) • High water table (no digging possible) • No off site treatment/disposal site, no skilled labour • Security • Faecal sludge source of disease (Cholera Haiti) • Raised latrine full after 1 week
  4. 4. Objective • Sanitization Faecal Sludge • Simple & rapid & easy to put in place • Easy to operate & maintain & reliable • Demonstrate feasibility at scale and document the whole process • Process to be incorporated in the Oxfam and/or IFRC catalogue • From Speed to Seed
  5. 5. Field testing Malawi • 5 Students from Unesco- IHE & TUD • 3 Treatment Methods for Centralised Treatment : – Lime, Ammonia, Lactic Acid • 3 Decentralised Treatment (SEED)- on- going research: – Worm Toilet, Terra Preta Toilet, Anaerobic Digester
  6. 6. Emergency Faecal Sludge Treatment Methods: Preliminary Field Testing Results Treatment • Treatment Time • Final Concentration of E-coli, Salmonella and Faecal Coliform • pH • Quantities of Chemical Addition for Treatment Ammonia • 4-8 days • <1000 cfu/ 100ml • pH 9 • 2% Urea w/w (20g urea/kg Sludge =9g TAN/kg Sludge) Lime • 2 hours • <1000 CFU/ 100ml • pH 11 • 12-16g Lime per kg Sludge ( The buffer capacity varied considerably between sludges) Lactic Acid • 7-9 days • <1000 cfu/ 100ml • pH 4 • 20-30 g/L Lactic acid concentration (using 10%w/w preculture, 2g simple sugar/kg sludge)
  7. 7. Lactic Acid Experiments • 3 Log removal for E-coli 7-9 days • 10% w/w milk preculture, 10% w/w molasses ( 2kg simple sugar/1000kg sludge) • 20-30g/L lactic acid • pH: 3.8-4.2 • Next Phase – knowledge applied to Terra Preta Toilet
  8. 8. UREA EXPERIMENTS • 3 Log removal 4-8 days after addition of urea • 2% Urea observed to be the most effective • pH 9 – 9.5 • Reactors must be sealed • High temperature can enhance treatment • Next Phase – upscale to Bladder
  9. 9. LIME EXPERIMENTS - MALAWI • 50L Drum Experiments • pH Control - Addition of Hydrated Lime ( CaOH) & 10’ mixing • > pH 10.2 to <1000 CFU/100ml within 1 hour • No distinct reduction in COD and TS or VS within • Further research  Control pH 7 pH 9 pH 10 pH 11 pH 12 1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 0 2 4 6 E-coliConcentration(CFU/100ml) Time elapsed since Lime addition (hours) E-coli Removal Control ( no mix) Control ( mixing pH 9 pH 10,2 pH 11 pH 12
  10. 10. Future Work Additional Research is essential to ensure that a robust method which safeguards public health can be established for faecal sludge treatment in an emergency context (De) Centralized: • Lime Treatment • Urea Treatment On site: • Self-mixing Anaerobic Digester • Worm Toilet • Terra Preta Sanitation Toilet
  11. 11. Future work (De-) centralized treatment: • Upscale options, test robustness of process on different sludge types & in different settings • Investigate sanitization, stabilization, costs • Devise the process conditions required for Faecal Sludge Treatment to achieve the WHO guideline sanitation requirements. On-site systems: • Compare and contrast each of the on-site sanitation systems • Investigate the functionality of the on-site sanitation systems • Investigate sanitization, stabilization, costs, useful byproducts
  12. 12. Thank you for your input! www.emergencysanitationproject.org www.speedkits.eu emergencysanitation@waste.nl

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