COMMUNITY
MANAGEMENT OF
RURAL WATER SUPPLY
SYSTEMS
(Community Water Plus)

Dr. V. Kurian Baby, India Country Director,
IRC...
Key phases in the evolution
of rural water sector policy
GLOBALLY POSITIVE PICTURE
– WE ARE GETTING THERE

70% functional
Rural coverage (%); JMP, 210
Community-based management
Private contracting (includes to
NGOs or CBOs)
Local govt. /munici...
Rural areas lag far behind urban areas
• 84% of the world
population without
improved drinking-water
source lives in rural...
Increasing coverage is not the whole story
Breakdowns, failures, nonfunctionality, slippage ........... a
tipping point wh...
Sustainability a Big Issue…..
30 to 50 % of facilities are no longer functioning after a few years
Causes : Poor design, n...
Recent Evidences

• CBM emerged as a dominant rural
service delivery model enhancing
coverage globally
• Large Number of b...
Whither CBM or Emerge CBM +?
• Sceptics argue against CBM as a means to
attain sustainable service delivery
• Others argue...
RWSS in India: Why CBM Critical ?

India Community rural water supply sytems
are orphans left out by partially
implemented...
RWSS in India: Why CBM Critical ?
• CBM has emerged as a dominant model of RWSS
service delivery in India
• XII plan targe...
12

Presentation Title
Challenge of last mile coverage + asset
management
Danger zone: as basic
infrastructure is
provided, coverage
risks stagna...
Challenge of ‘Slippage’ – High Investment –
low outcome trap: India
>30%

Information presented at IRC Slippage roundtable...
15

Presentation Title
10.00

0.00

20.00
11.40

9.90

8.80

7.50

6.80

3.70

2.60

30.00

40.00

50.00
42.50

41.40

34.90

31.00

30.80

29.50...
India has many CBM success stories….
• CBM best practices across India – (Maharashtra,
Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Punjab,...
Community Management Plus
• Support agency functions --- water quality, technical advice , capital
maintenance, risk finan...
Research Objectives
• Investigate functioning, successful, community
managed rural water supply programmes in
India

• Det...
Research Approach
• Research best practice/ successful 18
community based RWSS systems in India
• Assess how the level of ...
Research Outputs
• Series of working papers and 18 case studies with
• Report on the successful models for management and
...
Partners
• Consortium lead: Cranfield University, United Kingdom
• Members:
– IRC International Water and Sanitation Centr...
Thank You
23
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Community water plus ppt delhi workshop kurian

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Community management of rural water supply systems. Presentation by Dr V.Kurian Baby at the stakeholders meeting of the India Community Water Plus Project in New Delhi, Sept 2013.

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  • Looking at the global picture – the numbers of rural people being served are growing and conversely those un-served are declining – JMP data tells us this that rural un-served are now at around 720 million Placing this against longer-term trends we actually see that the global rural population will peak at around 2020/2030 (UNDP) and that IF functionality rates can be maintained at high levels full coverage can be reached within a generation So one of the first things to say is that in fact across all of the countries in the study and more globally a lot of progress has been made in putting infrastructure in place – but the big question as a sector is how to address the new – or next generation of challenges and problems of service quality and sustained benefit We know it is no longer enough to simply invest in construction of civil works, carry out some fairly light/short term training activities and then assume that communities will be able to manage, maintain and replace/upgrade their own services – this is the next big challenge for us and what I hope the country study findings highlight
  • Figures from study in Ghana in 2010 - Community Ownership and Management model (COM) is the most prominent one for rural areas. The COM model and the utility model are what can be described as the ‘formal’ or ‘officially recognised’ models.
  • Access to improved drinking water sources is predominantly a rural problem. A number of countries face an uphill battle: 884 million people worldwide still rely on unimproved water sources for their drinking, cooking, bathing and other domestic activities. Of these, 84 percent (746 million people) live in rural areas.In Sub Saharan Africa, 54 per cent of rural households still do not have access to safe water, followed by 27 percent in Latina America and Caribbean, 16 percent in Southern Asia and 9 percent in Eastern Asia. Across the globe, only 27 percent of the rural population enjoyed the convenience of having water piped into their homes or premises in 2006.MDG 2009 report
  • Sustainability remains a huge concern. Many of the rural water facilities that have been constructed have not continued to work over time. It has been estimated that only two out of three installed hand pumps are working at any given time. Many rural piped systems are partly or fully out of service. This phenomenon not only represents a wastage of hundreds of millions of dollars of public money but it also means that thousands of people, who once benefited from a safe drinking water supply in rural area and small towns, now walk past broken hand pumps or taps to access water from their traditional, dirty water point.
  • Community water plus ppt delhi workshop kurian

    1. 1. COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS (Community Water Plus) Dr. V. Kurian Baby, India Country Director, IRC National Stakeholder workshop New Delhi 20 September 2013
    2. 2. Key phases in the evolution of rural water sector policy
    3. 3. GLOBALLY POSITIVE PICTURE – WE ARE GETTING THERE 70% functional
    4. 4. Rural coverage (%); JMP, 210 Community-based management Private contracting (includes to NGOs or CBOs) Local govt. /municipal Provider Self supply Association of community or user associations Urban utility (public, private or mixed) USA South Africa Colombia Thailand Sri Lanka Honduras India Benin Ghana Uganda Burkina Mozambq Service delivery model options Ethiopia CBM Dominate RWSS Model Globally 29 26 72 64 74 69 84 77 88 98 73 78 94 P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
    5. 5. Rural areas lag far behind urban areas • 84% of the world population without improved drinking-water source lives in rural areas • i.e. 743 million rural people against 131 million living in urban area (JMP 2010 Progress report) • 75% of the world poor still live in rural areas (2008 WDR)
    6. 6. Increasing coverage is not the whole story Breakdowns, failures, nonfunctionality, slippage ........... a tipping point which is now a threat to achieving the MDGs? Build on current progress, but shift from infrastructure to service delivery
    7. 7. Sustainability a Big Issue….. 30 to 50 % of facilities are no longer functioning after a few years Causes : Poor design, no ownership, inadequate service/technology , lack of capacity/ incentives, no O&M, lack of spare parts, water quality, source drying up, no back support, Service Level (access, quantity, quality…) Capital investment /Project approach 1 2 3 4 5 Waste of hundreds of millions of USD per country Adapted from IRC Years
    8. 8. Recent Evidences • CBM emerged as a dominant rural service delivery model enhancing coverage globally • Large Number of best practice CBM models across the world and in India • However sustainability is a serious concern - critical post construction (PCS) gaps in service delivery 8
    9. 9. Whither CBM or Emerge CBM +? • Sceptics argue against CBM as a means to attain sustainable service delivery • Others argue for a community plus model for improving sustainability where – Governments to continue a critical role in providing predictable post construction support and professionalize CBM 9
    10. 10. RWSS in India: Why CBM Critical ? India Community rural water supply sytems are orphans left out by partially implemented decentralisation and demand responsive sector reforms 10
    11. 11. RWSS in India: Why CBM Critical ? • CBM has emerged as a dominant model of RWSS service delivery in India • XII plan target 60% of RWSS operated and managed by LSGs and communities with at least 50% cost recovery • Wash is constitutional mandate of PRIs (73rd and 74th amendment) • Monolithic water boards and departments plan, design and construct schemes and hand over to PRIs/VWSCs de jure responsible yet de facto NOT-empowered • CBM is critical for equity and subsidiarity 11
    12. 12. 12 Presentation Title
    13. 13. Challenge of last mile coverage + asset management Danger zone: as basic infrastructure is provided, coverage risks stagnating at around 60 – 80% Sector effort and costs Recurrent expenditure and support effort dominates Capital expenditure dominates Capital maintenance expenditure dominates 25% 50% 75% 100% Coverage rates WATER SERVICES THAT LAST …13
    14. 14. Challenge of ‘Slippage’ – High Investment – low outcome trap: India >30% Information presented at IRC Slippage roundtable Briefing, Delhi, June 2009
    15. 15. 15 Presentation Title
    16. 16. 10.00 0.00 20.00 11.40 9.90 8.80 7.50 6.80 3.70 2.60 30.00 40.00 50.00 42.50 41.40 34.90 31.00 30.80 29.50 28.70 26.90 25.20 24.50 20.20 60.00 70.00 63.90 63.60 63.40 59.40 59.30 56.40 55.80 55.70 51.80 50.20 80.00 90.00 100.00 95.20 95.00 88.70 84.80 82.60 79.30 77.80 77.50 Challenge of service levels - Tap Connection(Census 2011)
    17. 17. India has many CBM success stories…. • CBM best practices across India – (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Punjab, UP etc.) • Many non-documented models even in low performing states – however; • Replicability and scaling up a are critical limitations • There are critical post construction support gaps • Cracks are seen in CBM questioning rationale/ sustainability • We need to identify the limiting factors and evolve context specific modalities for sustainable CBM in India 17
    18. 18. Community Management Plus • Support agency functions --- water quality, technical advice , capital maintenance, risk financing, tariff setting, training, monitoring etc. • Service authority– adequate fulfilment of function • Water security and source sustainability • Adequate financing of different costs - Life cycle costs • Transparency, governance and provider accountability • External agency on-going support to community + enabling environment • CBM + is Professionalization or professionalised support of community management 18
    19. 19. Research Objectives • Investigate functioning, successful, community managed rural water supply programmes in India • Determine the extent of support required to sustain services while retaining a valid level of community engagement. • Analyse and categorize the different levels of support required for different types of rural water supply 19
    20. 20. Research Approach • Research best practice/ successful 18 community based RWSS systems in India • Assess how the level of community management impacts on indicators such as service levels, service provider performance and equity • Collaborative - Consultative and Participatory Engage with policy makers at national and State level for strategic guidance, validation and policies 20
    21. 21. Research Outputs • Series of working papers and 18 case studies with • Report on the successful models for management and support to rural water supply in India • Policy briefs with the highlight findings of the research • Guideline document with proposed categories of management models and support entities fit to different contexts in India • Evidences for most applicable trajectories for development of CBM 21
    22. 22. Partners • Consortium lead: Cranfield University, United Kingdom • Members: – IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (from the Netherlands), – Administrative Staff College of India (based in Hyderabad), – Centre for Excellence in Change (based in Chennai) – Malawya National Institute of Technology (based in Jaipur) – ?? • Work closely with national and State government agencies. 22
    23. 23. Thank You 23
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