South Asia and Sanitation Monitoring• The region has held 4 sanitation conferences to date. Sacosan V is planned for Kathmandu, 11-14th November• Monitoring is integral to South Asian regional meetings on sanitation. SACOSAN II in 2006, committed to reporting against a common set of indicators to be developed by the Inter Country Working Group (ICWG).• The objective: To develop harmonised monitoring mechanisms with roles and responsibilities clearly defined, using agreed common indicators which measure and report on processes and outcomes at every level including households and communities, and which allow for disaggregated reporting of outcomes for marginalised and vulnerable groups
Common Indicators for monitoringsanitation and hygiene across South AsiaOutputs/Outcomes IndicatorsAccess/Practice 1. % of household using improved sanitation 2. % of household practising open defecationHealth and 1. % of schools with functional toilets separate forEducation boys and girls 2. % of schools having functional hand washing facilitiesEquity 1. The gap in improved sanitation coverage by wealth quintile 2. % of total sanitation budget allocated and utilized for poor and marginalizedFinance 1. % of total sector budget allocation to sanitation and hygiene 2. % of total sanitation and hygiene budget utilization 4
Regional positioning and coherence• The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) –organisation of 8 SA nations for economic and social progress.• A recognition that challenges are transborder – and so are resources and solutions!• In April 2012: a meeting of SAARC Health Ministers urged member states to ‘formulate an actionable framework to address the common challenges of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in the region.’• The SAARC framework that is being developed will incorporate the regional monitoring framework agreed in November 2012 at the ICWG in Kathmandu. 5
Summary: Global Targets1. Everyone has water, sanitation and hygiene at home.2. All schools and health centres have water, sanitation and hygiene3. Water, sanitation and hygiene are equitable and sustainable As elaborated by the 4 Working Groups convened in 2011 by the JMP Programme of WHO and UNICEF and finalised in 2012. 6
Targets and datesDates Sanitation Hygiene Water2025 No open defecation2030 Universal adequate Universal adequate Universal basic sanitation in schools handwashing and drinking water in and health centres MHM in schools schools and health and health centres centres2040 Universal adequate sanitation at home Progress towards safe management of excreta
Ground truthing and reality checksOn 27th November, 8 countries in South Asia deliberated: Are these goals and targets relevant, feasible and politically palatable? 8
‘Looks good, but …..’• For countries with long conflicts and natural disaster , WASH and Emergencies need to be incorporated in the targets and goals.• The targets on open defecation (2025) looks achievable• The targets for schools and health centers planned far ahead of the target of open defecation (2020).• In Afghanistan there is lesser focus on sanitation and Hygiene , but the national WASH policy focuses on provision of all the three component (package). However does not detail about excreta management and equity.
‘Yes, in line- but reach higher perhaps?’• Bhutan policies are more ambitious in terms of dates for universal access• Good to focus on open defecation but is it really possible to achieve 100%?• We recommend:• A focus on public toilets (as well as schools and health facilities) – particularly transit settings• Focus on community participation to ensure ownership• Advocacy and awareness raising at all levels 10
‘In Line, ‘not new …’• India feels that all the draft goals are in line with its current policies and commitments• Target 1: India’s Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has already committed to achieve the same by 2022• Target 2: Except health centers, all others already covered in the NBA, particularly WASH in schools to be achieved by March 2013• Target 3: A strong foundation for the same is already laid in NBA and INDIA will be achieving the same probably much earlier• Target 4:Social Audit, Conjoint approach, focus on Equity and inclusion, Centralised database etc are already very much in support of the same. 11
‘Yes but……..’• In principle Maldives is in line with what has been proposed for global targets. But key issues for us-• Availability of freshwater in outer islands• make water stocks available within atolls in emergencies and disasters• introduce renewable energy in water supply and sewerage projects• ensure water supply and sewerage facilities are developed free from climatic change impacts (e.g sea level rise) 12
South Asia largely in line with Global.. Focus on universality, equity, reduction in disaparities Emphasis on participation and social audits Clear mention of hygiene and use versus access Strong endorsement of affordable, accessible, functional facilities in schools. Reccommendations from South Asia:- Targets not ambitious enough – need something for high achievers too Include emergency contexts, climate change impacts In South Asia targets need to also focus on governance related outcomes such as effective utilisation of resources and financing, Need to reflect the importance of community participation and advocacy High population density targets must include public WASH facilities 13
Detailed targetsTarget 1: by 2050 no one pratices open defecation,and inequalities in the practice of open defecationhave been eliminated.Target 2: By 2030 everyone uses a basic drinkingwater supply and hand washing facility when athome, all schools and health centres provide userswith basic drinking water supply and adequatesanitation, hand washing facilities and menstrualhygiene facilities and inequalities in access ...havebeen eliminated.
Detailed targets contd.Target 3: By 2040 everyone uses adequate sanitation when at home, the proportion of the population not using an intermediate drinking water supply service at home has been reduced by half, the excreta from at least half of the schools, health centres and households with adequate sanitation are safely managed and inequalities in access to each of these services have been progressively achieved. 16
Detailed targets contd.Target 4: all drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene services are delivered in a progressively affordable, accountable and financially and environmentally sustainable manner. 17
Objectives behind the targets• Progressive realisation through: – increasing the numbers of people using the services – Reducing inequalities – Increases in service levels • Progress in schools, health centres and households • Achievement of universal coverage by 2040 • Sustained coverage over the long term 18