Monitoring rural and small towns water supply in Thailand: A focus on water quality


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Monitoring rural and small towns water supply in Thailand: A focus on water quality

  1. 1. WASH Monitoring Symposium Addis Ababa , Ethiopia, April 2013 Monitoring Rural and Small Towns WaterSupply in Thailand: A Focus on Water Quality Suree Wongpiyachon Director, Bureau of Food and Water Sanitation Department Of Health Ministry of Public Health Thailand
  2. 2. Water Supply in Thailand: A short historyThailand has been developing its water supply for over 100 years:1897-1926: King Rama V assigned Metropolitan to provide a waterworks in Bangkok1927-1956: Health Management Model, Rural Health Promotion and Survey and Ground Water Development1957-1986: Local Health Development Project began, Comprehensive Rural Health Project, water supply program for rural areas throughout the Kingdom, Metropolitan Waterworks Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority state enterprises were established1982 to 1991: The Decade of Clean Water Supply and Sanitation to Rural areas in Thailand1987-2000: Extension of rural waterworks systems to cover 70% percentage of all villages2003: Rural Water Supply Division, DOH restructured and transferred to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment2003-Present: Bureau of Food and Water Sanitation in Department of Health is responsible for Drinking Water Quality (Survillance and Monitoring )
  3. 3. Drinking Water Category in Thailand (%) Tap water Bottle-packed 23.9% Water 31.5% Natural water/ Well water/ Rain Water Others 10% 34.6% Source : National Statistical Office
  4. 4. Water Supply Services in Thailand (2009)Villages With Water Villages Without Water Supply System Supply System Mil. Households Mil. Households ~21 Mil. People) ~ 6.5 Mil. People) 32% 10% Provincial Waterworks 25% Authorities Mil. Households 18% 15% ~ Mil. People) Municipalities Metropolitan Waterworks Mil. Households Authority~12 Mil. People) Mil. Households ~10 Mil. People) Source: Community Development Dept. (Ministry of Interior)
  5. 5. Royal Thai Government Safe Water Supply Ministry Of Ministry of Public Policy – Goal: Health Natural Safe drinking water coverage the whole year round of all Resource And households. Department of Environment Health Bureau of Food and Water SanitationDrinking Water Quality Development Section1. Surveillance on Drinking Water Quality2. Research and Development Quality and Technology Management of Drinking Water3. Certification of Safe Drinking Water for Tap Water Supplies4. Technology Transfer and Human Resource Developmentfor households, public places, hospitals, schools, child care, health center,drinking water distributors, emergency incidence and vulnerable areas
  6. 6. Drinking Water Quality Situation of All Types of Drinking Water in 2010 100 Bacteria Color Turbidity Fe NO3 pH Zn 80 96.5% Bacteria - Turbidity As Mn 80.0% Color F-% 60 Bacteria Fe Bangkok 56.7% 40 Province Municipality 20 Urban Rural Unsatisfactoy Satisfactory In accordance with DOH’s Drinking Water Quality Standard (Dept.of Health, 2000)
  7. 7. Cause of Water Quality Problems1. Minerals or heavy metals are naturally present in groundwater.2. Contamination of Bacteria and impurities3. Hygienic behavior especially no hand-washing, cleanliness of water container ,tank, jar , vessels for drinking
  8. 8. Safe Drinking Water Promotion Project 1: Certification Process Six qualifications before approval 1. Water sample collection at 6 areas public place, school, temple, market, households) 2. Number of water samples 3. Frequency of water sampling 4. Quality test 5. Result of quality test 6. Certified period Four qualifications after approval 1. Water sample collection at the connection point of pipeline system 2. Water sample collection at the end point of pipeline system 3. Result of quality test 4. Random checking result documents from Item 3. If any water quality is found under Drinking Water
  9. 9. Certification Process for Safe Drinking Tap Water Application to joining improvement the Process Check Water Quality (Physical, Chemical, Bacteriological)Assessment of: - at the beginning (of water supply system) and• Potable Water Supply - at the end of pipes (household) System - Sampling: 1 sample for each increment of 5,000• Structure populace• Operation• Maintenance 1st Not Satisfied to the Improvement Analysis Standard Standard Satisfaction 2nd /3 rd Analysis Every 2 months Standard Satisfaction Certification / Approval Inform the (analysed) Result Certificate to Health Center (Region 1 – by the Dept. of Health 12) Declaration : of Being Safe Drinking Tap Water Dissemination Continuous Surveillance of Water Quality
  10. 10. DOH & PWA Declare Safe Drinking Water Supply System
  11. 11. Safe Drinking Water Promotion Project 2: Development of Network Potential for Surveillance of Safe drinking Water in Community and HouseholdsNetwork • Water Supply System Operators • Volunteers Process: 1. Source of Drinking Water Survey in Community and Household 2. Sampling and analyze for water quality 3. Evaluation with The DOH’s Tap Water Quality Standard 4. Training (of network, water Supply System operators, volunteers)
  12. 12. Training Details  Importance of safe water and health effect  Hygiene and Sanitation  Using Test kit  Role of network on pioneer and counseling  Practice on test kit  Network meeting and planning to safe water in community  One and three months later : follow up and monitoring of: water supply, test kit and role of volunteers
  13. 13. Structure Community ParticipationGovernment Natural Resource Rain Water Shallow-well water Village Water works Bottled System Water Volunteer Village Villager worker Household Community For Community Test kit
  14. 14. The Kingdom of Thailand Land of Smiles
  15. 15. Extra Slides
  16. 16. About Thailand - A country in Southeast Asia - Total area 513,115 km2 - Total population 65.5 millions Male 32.1 millions Female 33.4 millions - Tropical climate
  17. 17. VisionBy 2012, with the effective cooperation of all related agencies, all Thais peoplewill get access to safe and adequate consumption water, basic hygiene, and goodsanitation.Mission Statement1. Promote all Thais to get access to safe and adequate consumption water.2. Support the works on basic hygiene and good sanitation.3. Encourage people participation in form of networking.4. Create knowledge base in order to disseminate correct information on water, hygiene, and sanitationTarget1. Thais get access to safe and adequate consumption water. Urban area – 100% of households get access to tap water Rural area – Access to tap water for villages which already have waterworks system and safe water from water sources for the rest.2. Thais have good hygienic practice.
  18. 18. Village Safe Drinking Tap Water Water Quality Surveillance at the end (household) of pipes: Survey : - Physical , Chemical, Bacteriological ProjectTap Water Examination at least once a year Follow UpDrinking - Chlorine Residual Checking everyBehavior week Standard Satisfaction Not Satisfied to the Standard Data Analysis & Progressive Reporting Public Information (of the Improvement : Water Quality) the Potable Water Supply SystemsPromotion on the Encouraging of Popular  Reliability Assurance inTap Water Drinking Safe Drinking Tap Water- Knowledge & Practices Quality. Transferring  Favor Safe Drinking tap- Dissemination of Information water among villagers.- Campaign- Rewarding
  19. 19. Chlorine
  20. 20. Knowledge
  21. 21. ExpansionVillage Village Network A (Villager) Village Village
  22. 22. Health Education -Personal Hygiene - Clean Jar
  23. 23. Water Treatment• Boiling• Filtration• Chemical Treatment Chlorine – Solution 2
  24. 24. Millennium DevelopmentGoalsMDGs : Reduce percentage of population with no access to safe water source and hygienic toilet to half by 2015.MDG Plus : Thailand has set a more ambitious goal in improving percentage of population with access to safe drinking water.