We don’t monitor for the sake of data collection, we monitor to apply these data to improve our programmes, and achieve our goals.
If the first goal, than monitoring is often numerical, coverage driven, looking at household access and infrastructure. If this broader goal is the goal we work towards, monitoring should go much beyond the numbers and the access, to include assessments of sustainability, service delivery and the sanitation chain, equity, behaviour, and more. This presentation will attempt to give a brief overview of the current thinking and practices around monitoring this full spectrum of elements, and some of the complexities involved. Over the next three days, the further sessions in the Sanitation and Hygiene Stream will go more in-depth to really increase our understanding of challenges and best practices around these various elements.
In rough lines, over the decades sanitation and hygiene programming has moved from using supply-driven, infrastructure-focused approaches where government and support agents were the main ‘drivers’ of change, to a demand-driven, behavior-focused approach where government and support agents facilitate communities’ own change processes and where there is increasing scope for the private sector to respond to household demands. This presented a real paradigm shift, as it included changes in anything from approaches (from education to promotion; from supply to facilitation; ‘hardware’ to ‘software’; enforcement to encouragement, etc) to roles and responsibilities of all those involved, and a more considered role for new actors such as the small-scale private sector. Alongside this paradigm shift, the monitoring methodologies and focus have had to change as well. For example in order to understand and strengthen the various elements of the sanitation and hygiene service chain, many different actors need to be monitored, in terms of their roles and functions, the value they add, the problems they face, the support they need, the costs they incur, and so on. Currently, this is not yet common practice and it often presents interesting challenges. With a broadening of what gets measured, comes a broadening of who gets measured, and who DOES the measuring. Two main trends illustrate for this broadening: service chain thinking and CLTS/CATS
One key realisation or ‘trigger’ of CLTS is that while it is understood that use of sanitation is an individual decision, the decision whether or not to practice safe disposal of faeces has huge implications for the wider community environment, health and wellbeing. “I am eating my neighbours’ shit!” is an often-heard realisation at successful CLTS triggering exercises. These community aspects of an individual issue have large implications for the programme and monitoring approach, as the way in which progress towards the outcome of reaching Open Defecation Free (ODF) status is tracked, becomes a key part of ensuring that outcome.
Monitoring sanitation and hygiene: An overview of trends and challenges
Monitoring Sanitation and Hygienean overview of trends and challengesCarolien van der Voorden, WSSCC
Why monitor?‘We can’t manage what we don’t measure’• To ensure inputs and activities lead to intendedresults and outcomes• To adjust course where necessary• To measure progress against a given goalMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
What goal?• To halve, by 2015, the proportion of peoplewithout access to improved sanitationOr rather• To ensure hygiene practices and sanitationservice chains that sustain themselves, andare accessed and used by allMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Two shiftsFour trendsMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Sanitation and hygiene servicechainService chain thinking forces us to assess the potentialfor any practice or service to sustain itself over time,without external interventions apart from thoseproviding the service. This includes monitoringDemand and behaviourService provision chain – who builds, empties,treatsFinances – who pays for capex, opex, etcSystematically, over timeMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Community Approaches to TotalSanitationUnlike water supply, sanitation and hygiene are highlypersonal, a factor of behaviour, mostly dealt with at ahousehold or individual level, BUT with impact on the wholecommunity.In CLTS / CATS, the way in whichprogress towards the outcome ofreaching ODF status is tracked,becomes a key part of ensuringthat outcome.Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Some implications• Participatory monitoring at its best, or at its worst?– peer pressure and exclusion• Systematisation and harmonisation for scale –linking community monitors to broader systems• Independent verification and certification – keysteps to ensure transparency, correct datarecording, and sustainabilityMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery SymposiumSession: Monitoring for sustainable Open Defecation Free status
Trend: from monitoring outputsto outcomes and impact• Monitor use and service delivery rather than access• Monitor behavioural outcomes: ending opendefecation, washing hands with soap, etcThe elements that are easier to monitor, (presence ofinfrastructure, level of knowledge) may not tell us muchabout sustainability and actual level of behaviour change• Outcomes over impactFocus on whether actions result in the intended behaviourchange, rather than on the health impact of thesebehaviours?Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
ChallengesFinding feasible, affordable and reliablemethodologies and systems to monitor qualitativeand quantitative aspects of behavioural outcomes atscale-triangulation of methods- appropriate proxys-simple systems-use of ICTMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery SymposiumSessions: Monitoring behaviour change outcomesMonitoring handwashing behaviour change
Trend: Diversification of actorsand aspectsParadigm shift impacting on the range of actors andthe roles they play, and on what and how to monitor.Examples:•Monitoring the market•Monitoring the enabling environment•Monitoring technology’s ’soft side’•Community ownershipMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery SymposiumSession: Markets, technology and toolkits: viability & sustainability
Challenges• Further development and adoption ofmethodologies to monitor the different aspectsand actors• Building widespread capacity to perform qualitymonitoring• Developing systems to both display and ensure thelinkages between the various actors and elementsof the service chainMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Trend: Monitoring sustainabilityand equitySystematic monitoring for sustainability and equityincludes efforts to:•measure cost-effectiveness and self-sustainingcapacity of the sanitation service chain;•monitor sustainability of ODF and hygiene behaviours;•measure availability, acceptability, accessibility,affordability and safety of services for all people at allstages of life.Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery SymposiumSession: Monitoring for sustainable ODF statusFinancial monitoring to assess cost effectivenessMonitoring behaviour change outcomes for all
Challenges• Systematic identification of poorest /marginalisedgroups for transparent targeting and measuring ofefforts and finances• Systematic verification, certification and follow-up ofODF status• Systematic follow-up and revisiting of outcomes,change and impact over time and at scaleMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Trend: Systematisation andHarmonisationGlobal level: processes such as JMP, Post 2015 targetsetting, SACOSAN, positively impact on national processes– prioritisation, comparability, allocations etc.National level: more allignment between community,project, local level and national systems for dataprocessing, analysis and reporting – for oversight,comparison, targeting, financing etc.Programme level: contribute and allign to nationalsystemsMonitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Challenges• Incentives to consolidate and harmonised are notrecognised strongly: governments, agencies, donors,NGOs, service providers use different methodologies,definitions, indicators, and data sources.• Large data gaps still exist on effectiveness, practice,behaviour, inclusion, need, service delivery models,cost and cost effectiveness, etc.Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
Our challenge• emphasise the importance of monitoring sanitationand hygiene,• share best practices,• collaborate to avoid duplication, and• demonstrate the usefulness of monitoring resultswith respect to achieving and sustaining beneficialoutcomes, for all.Thank you!Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene, Carolien van der VoordenMonitoring Sustainable WASH Service Delivery Symposium
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.