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Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
Discurso de Steve Jobs
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Discurso de Steve Jobs

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Pronunciado en Stanford University en 2005

Pronunciado en Stanford University en 2005

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  • 1. eJournal USA A n S p e c i a l©AP Images / Palo Alto Daily News / Jack Arent Stay hungry. Stay Foolish… Stanford University Commencement Address, 2005 Steve Jobs • CEO • Apple Computer and Pixar Animation StudiosI am honored to be with you today at your commence- ment from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’veever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you threestories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories. The first story is about connecting the dots. I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayedaround as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. Sowhy did I drop out? It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwedcollege graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. Shefelt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so every-
  • 2. Steve Jobs at the 2007 MacWorld Conference & Expo in San Francisco. The background photo depicts Apple co-founders SteveWozniak and Jobs as young men. (©AP Images / Paul Sakuma)thing was all set for me to be adopt- spent on my college tuition. Aftered at birth by a lawyer and his wife. six months, I couldn’t see the valueExcept that when I popped out they in it. I had no idea what I wanteddecided at the last minute that they to do with my life and no idea howreally wanted a girl. So my parents, college was going to help me figurewho were on a waiting list, got a it out. And here I was spending allcall in the middle of the night ask- of the money my parents had saveding: “We have an unexpected baby their entire life. So I decided to dropboy; do you want him?” They said: out and trust that it would all work“Of course.” My biological mother out OK. It was pretty scary at thelater found out that my mother had time, but looking back it was onenever graduated from college and of the best decisions I ever made.that my father had never graduated The minute I dropped out I couldfrom high school. She refused to stop taking the required classessign the final adoption papers. She that didn’t interest me, and be-only relented a few months later gin dropping in on the ones thatwhen my parents promised that I looked interesting.would someday go to college. It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t And 17 years later I did go to col- have a dorm room, so I slept on thelege. But I naively chose a college floor in friends’ rooms, I returnedthat was almost as expensive as coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits toStanford, and all of my working- buy food with, and I would walk theclass parents’ savings were being 7 miles across town every Sunday —2—
  • 3. night to get one good meal a week None of this had even a hope ofat the Hare Krishna temple. I loved any practical application in my life.it. And much of what I stumbled into But ten years later, when we wereby following my curiosity and intu- designing the first Macintosh com-ition turned out to be priceless later puter, it all came back to me. Andon. Let me give you one example: we designed it all into the Mac. It Reed College at that time offered was the first computer with beau-perhaps the best calligraphy instruc- tiful typography. If I had nevertion in the country. Throughout the dropped in on that single coursecampus every poster, every label on in college, the Mac would have nev-every drawer, was beautifully hand er had multiple typefaces or propor-calligraphed. Because I had dropped tionally spaced fonts. And sinceout and didn’t have to take the nor- Windows just copied the Mac, it’smal classes, I decided to take a cal- likely that no personal computerligraphy class to learn how to do would have them. If I had neverthis. I learned about serif and san dropped out, I would have neverserif typefaces, about varying the dropped in on this calligraphyamount of space between different class, and personal computersletter combinations, about what might not have the wonderful typo-makes great typography great. It graphy that they do. Of course itwas beautiful, historical, artistically was impossible to connect the dotssubtle in a way that science can’t looking forward when I was in col-capture, and I found it fascinating. lege. But it was very, very clear look- ing backwards ten years later. Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only con- nect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something— your gut, destiny, life, karma, what- ever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life. My second story is about love and loss. I was lucky—I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 em- ployees. We had just released our finest creation—the Macintosh—a year earlier, and I had just turnedSteve Jobs with the first “Macintosh” personal computer after 30. And then I got fired. How cana shareholder’s meeting in January, 1984. The Mac introducedthe mouse and a user-friendly graphic interface. (©AP Images you get fired from a company you/ Paul Sakuma) started? Well, as Apple grew we —3—
  • 4. Disney’s Richard Cook and Steve Jobs at the Hollywood world premiere of Disney/Pixar’s “Monsters, Inc.,” in November 2001.Jobs acquired Graphics Group from director George Lucas’ Lucasfilm in 1989, renamed it Pixar and created an award-winninganimation studio. “Toy Story” (1995) was the first of many successful animated films. Disney bought Pixar in 2006. (©AP Images/ PRNewsFoto)hired someone who I thought was did. The turn of events at Apple hadvery talented to run the company not changed that one bit. I had beenwith me, and for the first year or rejected, but I was still in love. Andso things went well. But then our so I decided to start over.visions of the future began to di- I didn’t see it then, but it turnedverge and eventually we had a fall- out that getting fired from Appleing out. When we did, our Board of was the best thing that could haveDirectors sided with him. So at 30 I ever happened to me. The heavinesswas out. And very publicly out. of being successful was replaced byWhat had been the focus of my the lightness of being a beginnerentire adult life was gone, and it again, less sure about everything. Itwas devastating. freed me to enter one of the most I really didn’t know what to do creative periods of my life.for a few months. I felt that I had let During the next five years, Ithe previous generation of entrepre- started a company named NeXT,neurs down—that I had dropped the another company named Pixar, andbaton as it was being passed to me. fell in love with an amazing womanI met with David Packard and Bob who would become my wife. PixarNoyce and tried to apologize for went on to create the world’s firstscrewing up so badly. I was a very computer-animated feature film, Toypublic failure, and I even thought Story, and is now the most success-about running away from the val- ful animation studio in the world.ley. But something slowly began to In a remarkable turn of events, Appledawn on me—I still loved what I bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, —4—
  • 5. and the technology we developed at like any great relationship, it justNeXT is at the heart of Apple’s cur- gets better and better as the yearsrent renaissance. And Laurene and roll on. So keep looking until youI have a wonderful family together. find it. Don’t settle. I’m pretty sure none of this My third story is about death.would have happened if I hadn’t When I was 17, I read a quotebeen fired from Apple. It was awful- that went something like: “If youtasting medicine, but I guess the live each day as if it was your last,patient needed it. Sometimes life someday you’ll most certainly behits you in the head with a brick. right.” It made an impression onDon’t lose faith. I’m convinced that me, and since then, for the past 33the only thing that kept me going years, I have looked in the mirrorwas that I loved what I did. You’ve every morning and asked myself:got to find what you love. And that “If today were the last day of myis as true for your work as it is for life, would I want to do what I amyour lovers. Your work is going to about to do today?” And wheneverfill a large part of your life, and the the answer has been “No” for tooonly way to be truly satisfied is to many days in a row, I know I needdo what you believe is great work. to change something.And the only way to do great work Remembering that I’ll be deadis to love what you do. If you haven’t soon is the most important tool I’vefound it yet, keep looking. Don’t set- ever encountered to help me maketle. As with all matters of the heart, the big choices in life. Because al-you’ll know when you find it. And, most everything—all external expec-Steve Jobs shows off the NeXTstation, a product of NeXT Computer, Inc., a company Jobs founded after he was forced out ofApple in 1985. (©AP Images / Eric Risberg) —5—
  • 6. tations, all pride, all fear of embar- say this to you with a bit more cer-rassment or failure—these things tainty than when death was a use-just fall away in the face of death, ful but purely intellectual concept:leaving only what is truly impor- No one wants to die. Even peo-tant. Remembering that you are ple who want to go to heaven don’tgoing to die is the best way I know want to die to get there. And yetto avoid the trap of thinking you death is the destination we all share.have something to lose. You are No one has ever escaped it. And thatalready naked. There is no reason is as it should be, because Death isnot to follow your heart. very likely the single best invention About a year ago I was diag- of Life. It is Life’s change agent. Itnosed with cancer. I had a scan at clears out the old to make way for7:30 in the morning, and it clearly the new. Right now the new is you,showed a tumor on my pancreas. I but someday not too long from now,didn’t even know what a pancreas you will gradually become the oldwas. The doctors told me this was and be cleared away. Sorry to be soalmost certainly a type of cancer dramatic, but it is quite true.that is incurable, and that I should Your time is limited, so don’texpect to live no longer than three waste it living someone else’s life.to six months. My doctor advised Don’t be trapped by dogma—whichme to go home and get my affairs is living with the results of otherin order, which is doctor’s code for people’s thinking. Don’t let the noiseprepare to die. It means to try to tell of others’ opinions drown out youryour kids everything you thought own inner voice. And most impor-you’d have the next 10 years to tell tant, have the courage to followthem in just a few months. It means your heart and intuition. They some-to make sure everything is buttoned how already know what you trulyup so that it will be as easy as pos-sible for your family. It means tosay your goodbyes. I lived with that diagnosis allday. Later that evening I had a bi-opsy, where they stuck an endo-scope down my throat, through mystomach and into my intestines, puta needle into my pancreas and got afew cells from the tumor. I was se-dated, but my wife, who was there,told me that when they viewed thecells under a microscope the doc-tors started crying because it turnedout to be a very rare form of pan-creatic cancer that is curable withsurgery. I had the surgery and I’mfine now. This was the closest I’ve beento facing death, and I hope it’s the Admirers the world over paid tribute to Steve Jobs after learn- ing of his death on October 5, 2011. Here a man in Tokyoclosest I get for a few more decades. holds up an iPad that displays a commemorative candle. (©APHaving lived through it, I can now Images / Hiro Komae) —6—
  • 7. want to become. Everything else its course, they put out a final issue.is secondary. It was the mid-1970s, and I was When I was young, there was your age. On the back cover of theiran amazing publication called The final issue was a photograph of anWhole Earth Catalog, which was early morning country road, theone of the bibles of my generation. kind you might find yourself hitch-It was created by a fellow named hiking on if you were so adventur-Stewart Brand not far from here in ous. Beneath it were the words: “StayMenlo Park, and he brought it to Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was theirlife with his poetic touch. This was farewell message as they signed off.in the late 1960’s, before personal Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And Icomputers and desktop publishing, have always wished that for myself.so it was all made with typewriters, And now, as you graduate to beginscissors, and polaroid cameras. It anew, I wish that for you.was sort of like Google in paper- Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.back form, 35 years before Google Thank you all very much.came along: it was idealistic, andoverflowing with neat tools and This is a prepared text of the Commencementgreat notions. address delivered by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Stewart and his team put out Computer and Pixar Animations Studios , onseveral issues of The Whole Earth June 12, 2005. Courtesy of Stanford UniversityCatalog, and then when it had run News Service.A woman uses her iPad to photograph the impromptu memorial created outside Steve Jobs’ Palo Alto home after the news of hisdeath spread. (©AP Images / Noah Berger) —7—
  • 8. ©AP Images / Shizuo Kambayashi Steve Jobs 1955–2011 “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wishedthat for myself. And now as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.” United StateS dePaRtMent OF State BUReaU OF inteRnatiOnaL inFORMatiOn PROGRaMS

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