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  • 1. 10 t h a nni v ersa ry • 2 0 0 2 – 2 0 11 Retail Global Expansion: A Portfolio of Opportunities The 2011 A.T. Kearney Global Retail Development IndexTM
  • 2. Figure 1The 2011 Global Retail Development IndexTM Change Market Country Market Time in rank 2011 attractiveness risk saturation pressure GRDI compared rank Country Region (25%) (25%) (25%) (25%) score to 2010 1 Brazil Latin America 100.0 79.4 42.9 63.9 71.5 +4 2 Uruguay Latin America 85.0 73.8 63.6 39.6 65.5 +6 3 Chile Latin America 84.3 100.0 30.3 44.3 64.7 +3 4 India Asia 28.9 59.9 63.1 100.0 63.0 –1 5 Kuwait MENA 80.4 80.6 57.3 27.1 61.3 –3 6 China Asia 49.5 76.5 31.0 87.7 61.2 –5 7 Saudi Arabia MENA 70.9 80.7 50.6 35.7 59.5 –3 8 Peru Latin America 39.8 61.5 72.0 59.5 58.2 +1 9 United Arab Emirates MENA 87.6 88.9 12.6 42.9 58.0 –2 10 Turkey MENA 83.8 65.5 45.0 37.0 57.8 +8 11 Lebanon MENA 56.3 43.0 57.5 53.8 52.6 N/A 12 Egypt MENA 22.1 49.5 85.5 52.7 52.5 +1 13 Albania Eastern Europe 19.9 48.3 79.6 60.5 52.1 –1 14 Russia Eastern Europe 76.2 49.1 30.9 51.0 51.8 –4 15 Kazakhstan Asia 29.2 30.1 87.5 60.1 51.7 N/A 16 Indonesia Asia 38.2 53.0 54.5 58.8 51.1 0 17 Morocco MENA 22.6 72.9 52.8 54.8 50.8 –2 18 Philippines Asia 26.2 54.3 66.1 51.0 49.4 +4 19 Tunisia MENA 37.5 75.2 63.0 21.3 49.3 –7 20 Sri Lanka Asia 8.4 52.6 86.5 42.4 47.5 N/A 21 Malaysia Asia 53.9 64.0 18.0 52.7 47.2 –4 22 Mexico Latin America 74.6 67.5 16.3 23.8 45.6 +3 23 Vietnam Asia 8.4 35.0 48.8 85.1 44.3 –9 24 Colombia Latin America 45.7 54.0 35.8 36.9 43.1 +2 25 Argentina Latin America 60.4 26.6 44.2 38.4 42.4 N/A 26 South Africa Sub-Saharan Africa 46.9 89.3 15.2 17.2 42.2 –2 27 Panama Latin America 44.3 47.3 44.5 27.6 40.9 N/A 28 Dominican Republic Latin America 39.5 0.0 74.2 49.0 40.7 –5 29 Iran MENA 33.5 3.4 89.2 31.0 39.3 N/A 30 Bulgaria Eastern Europe 45.1 56.2 4.9 50.2 39.1 –11 Notes: MENA = 0 = low attrac- 0 = high 0 = saturated 0 = no time Middle East and On the radar Lower Legend tiveness risk pressure North Africa; screen priority Key Scores are rounded. 100 = high attrac- 100 = low 100 = not 100 = urgency To consider tiveness risk saturated to enterSources: Euromoney; Population Reference Bureau; International Monetary Fund; World Bank; World Economic Forum; Economist Intelligence Unit; Planet Retail; A.T. Kearney analysis
  • 3. T his year marks the 10th edition of the Global Retail Development Index™ (GRDI). Since its first publication in 2002, much has changed in the developing world: The population has grown 11 percent,from 5 billion to 5.7 billion, retail sales per capita has risen by more than90 percent, from $2,000 to $3,850, and retail sales space has expandedby more than 200 percent, from 40 million to 130 million square meters.As the retail giants made big investments to enter new markets —experiencing both successes and failures — they learned that retailexpansion is a portfolio game: An optimal mix of countries, formats andoperating models is the key to success.the 2011 Global Retail Development index is unique because it not only identifies whichreflects dramatic changes in the global economy markets are the most successful today but alsoand the different ways in which developing coun- which markets offer the most potential in thetries have been affected.1 some developing markets future. for the third time, the GRDi includeshave emerged from the recession stronger than a Retail Apparel index.before, while others succumbed to the political to mark this 10th anniversary of theupheaval that economic distress brings. today, as study, a retrospective captures the insights andleading international retailers are rewarded for lessons learned from the past decade. Please visittheir flexibility and long-term outlook in the face www.atkearney.com/GRDi to download GRDI:of short-term uncertainty, it is time to focus on A 10-Year Retrospective.a portfolio of countries—with different levels ofrisk, at different stages of maturity and with dis- Stability and Turmoiltinct consumer profiles—to balance short- and in 2011, some developing markets are explodinglong-term opportunities. and changing the balance of power. China recently the GRDi is an annual study that ranks overtook Japan as the world’s second biggest econ-the top 30 developing countries for retail expan- omy, while india is expected to grow even fastersion worldwide (see figure 1). the index analyzes than China in the long run, given its younger25 macroeconomic and retail-specific variables, population. these developing markets now driveboth to help retailers devise successful global the agenda in global arenas; the recession hasstrategies and to identify emerging market invest- accelerated the shift in global production andment opportunities (see sidebar: About the Global consumption from west to east, north to south,Retail Development Index on page 5). the GRDi developed to developing.1 A.T. Kearney uses a proprietary classification method to categorize 170 countries as “developing;” analysis is based on prior year (2010) data. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 1
  • 4. However, while Asia leads the global recovery, lines in 2011. While it may affect immediate plans south America has made the biggest jump in the of entry to some countries (particularly tunisia index this year, thanks to its continued growth and Egypt, where the leaders were ousted), we and a lack of investment fatigue that has affected believe the region’s extraordinarily young and some traditional chart-toppers. brazil leads our increasingly outspoken population could, eventu- rankings this year, with an expected GDP growth ally, lead to greater economic stability and more of 5 percent over the next few years, a large and global integration. Even more important, Kuwait, mostly urban population, surging retail sales and saudi Arabia and the united Arab Emirates significant investments planned for the upcoming (uAE), which still rank in the top 10, have not Olympics and World Cup. uruguay ranks 2nd on experienced the turmoil of some of their neigh- the index, and as figure 2 shows, that country’s bors and are expected to remain stable. Global window of opportunity is nearing its peak phase. retailers generally prefer longer term expansion Political unrest in the Middle East and north strategies. Economic and political tensions may Africa (MEnA) region has dominated the head- accelerate or decelerate retailers’ entry and expan- Figure 2 The GRDI window-of-opportunity analysis Opening Peaking Maturing Closing High priorit gh priority Brazil (2011) Poland (1995) Vietnam (2010) China (2003) 3) Ch China (2006) Russia (2003) ) Russia (2010) 3) India (2003) Vi Viet Vietnam R Russia (2006) a( K Kuwai Kuwait (2006) Ind India (2011) Colombia (2010) (2011) (2 20 India (2006) C China (2011) ) Uruguay (2011) T Turkey (2011) S South Africa (2010) D Dominican Republic (2011) P Poland (2000) GRDI C Chin China (1995) priority H Hun Hungary (2005) Rus Russia (1995) R H Hungary (2011) I Indi India (1995) Kazakhstan (2011) K S Slovenia (2011) Czech Republic (2010) ) Poland (2005) 05) P Poland (1990) Low priority w Definition Middle class is growing; Consumers seek organized Consumer spending has Consumers are accustomed consumers are willing to formats and greater exposure expanded significantly; to modern retail; discretion- explore organized formats; to global brands; retail shopping desirable real estate is more ary spending is higher; government is relaxing districts are being developed; difficult to secure; local competition is fierce both restrictions real estate is affordable and competition has become from local and foreign retail- available more sophisticated ers; real estate is expensive and not readily available Method Minority investment in local Organic, such as through directly Typically organic, but Acquisitions of entry retailer operated stores focused on tier 2 and 3 cities Labor Identify local skilled labor Hire and train local talent and Change balance from Use mostly local staff strategy for management positions balance the expatriate mix expatriate to local staff Source: A.T. Kearney analysis2 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 5. sion decisions, but the overall trend of globaliza- resources with an increasingly sophisticated andtion will continue. diversified business environment, an abundant beyond regional trends, new channels such labor force and stable relationships with a diverseas e-commerce and mobile commerce are proving range of trading partners (from China to iran),to be an increasingly important part of success- the region has not only attracted attention, butful global expansion plans. leading retailers also investment.understand these channels, know the domestic As mentioned earlier, brazil leads this year’splayers that currently dominate them and appre- rankings, thanks to rapid GDP growth. uruguayciate the improvements in last-mile delivery that followed its neighbor’s lead to enjoy explosive growth and earn 2nd place in the index. the Andean eco- nomic region, including ChileEconomic and political tensions and Peru, has recovered from the recession even stronger.may accelerate or decelerate Chile is reaping the benefits of a long-term growth strategyretailers’ entry and expansion based on solid socioeconomic policies and a balance betweendecisions, but the overall trend incentives to domestic busi-of globalization will continue. nesses and attracting foreign investments. Peru still has room for growth, but it is increasingly becoming the target of inter-will drive their usage. these channels have the national retailers as its formal economy expands.potential to impact “big-box” retail—and per- While some south American markets are smaller,haps lead to less physical retail development— taking a regional approach to the spanish-speakingbut we are confident that global consolidators can markets may make sense.develop the next-generation retail value chains as Brazil: Driven to the top. brazil — which waseffectively as they have achieved success in the 30th in the 2002 GRDi and unranked as recentlycurrent retail model. as 2004 — is the leader of the 2011 GRDi, climb- ing four spots from 2010. Overall, the outlook isThe 2011 GRDI Findings positive for brazil. A GDP growth of close toOnce again, the 2011 Global Retail Development 5 percent is expected through 2013, and prepara-index holds many surprises. tions for the 2016 Olympic Games and 2014 fifA World Cup are expected to generate moreSouth and Central America than $50 billion in new investment.2 it is clearsouth America has survived the recession better that brazil is now one of the developing world’sthan most regions and posted an impressive most attractive markets for retailers (see figure 36 percent GDP growth in 2010. Rich in natural on page 4).2 All monetary amounts are in U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 3
  • 6. Figure 3 2011 GRDI country attractiveness 100 Chile 90 Kuwait UAE South Africa Country risk (economic and political) 80 Saudi Arabia Brazil Tunisia China Uruguay Morocco 70 (0 = high risk; 100 = low risk) Mexico Turkey Malaysia Peru 60 Philippines Indonesia ppines India Bulgaria a Colombia Sri Lanka Egypt 50 Albania Panama ssia a Russia Le Lebanon 40 Vietnam 30 On the radar screen Kazakhstan Argentina To consider 20 Lower priority 10 Size of bubble indicates Iran net retail sales, 2010 Dom Dominican Republic 0 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Market potential* (0 = low potential; 100 = high potential) * Based on weighted score of market attractiveness, market saturation and time pressure of top 30 countries Source: A.T. Kearney analysis the past eight years of center-left government has chain Magazine luiza, brazil’s largest women’s resulted in a staggering 40 percent increase in shoe retailer Arezzo, food services company GDP per capita, and a growing and more affluent international Meal and drug store Droga Raia had middle class has resulted in increased consump- successful initial public offerings (iPOs) in the tion. brazil, with a population of 193.3 million, is past six months. Most investors view brazil as a now the world’s eighth-largest economy, and the relatively stable market compared to other devel- government is bolstering long-term GDP growth oping economies, with a pro-business government by increasing infrastructure investments.3 However, that welcomes foreign investment. Major real inflation remains a concern. Recently, brazil’s estate investments have also driven retail growth. strong real led to an interest rate increase from shopping malls, which account for one-fifth of 11.25 percent to 12 percent, and a high exchange retail sales, have exploded, with 16 openings in rate is boosting consumer imports. A growth slow- 2010, 25 in 2011 and 30 planned for 2012. down is possible as brazil’s central bank adjusts More than half have been heavily concentrated in to these challenges. the southeast region, signaling a future opportu- As a testament to brazil’s sizzle, retail invest- nity for additional real estate development in the ment is on the rise. Household appliance retail north and east. 3 All population figures are Population Reference Bureau estimates for mid-2010.4 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 7. About the Global Retail Development Indexthe annual A.t. Kearney Global tively small, representing limited Modern retail sales area per urbanRetail Development index ranks opportunities for growth. inhabitant (20 percent): A score of30 developing countries on a 100- zero means the country ranks high in Urban population (20 percent):point scale—the higher the ranking, total retail area per urban inhabitant, A score of zero means the countrythe more urgency there is to enter close to the average Western Euro- is mostly rural; 100 indicates thea country. Countries were selected pean level. Modern formats are stores country is mostly urban.from a list of 200 based on three predominantly selling food (hyper-criteria: Business efficiency (20 percent): markets, supermarkets, discount and• Country risk: 35 or higher in the Parameters include government convenience stores). Euromoney country-risk score effectiveness, burden of law and reg- Market share of leading retailers• Population size: 2 million or more ulations, ease of doing business and (20 percent): A zero indicates that• Wealth: GDP per capita of more infrastructure quality. A score of zero the market is highly concentrated than $3,0004 means the country has poor business with the top five competitors (local GRDi scores are based on the efficiency, while a score of 100 indi- and international) holding morefollowing four variables: cates high efficiency. than 55 percent of the retail food market; 100 indicates the marketCountry and business risk Market saturation (25 percent) is still extremely fragmented.(25 percent) Share of modern retailing (30 per-Country risk (80 percent): politi- cent): A score of zero indicates a large time pressure (25 percent)cal risk, economic performance, share of retail sales made through a the time factor is measured bydebt indicators, debt in default or modern distribution format within the compound annual growth raterescheduled, credit ratings and access the average Western European level (2006 to 2010) of modern retail salesto bank financing. the higher the (200 square meters per 1,000 inhab- weighted by the development of therating, the lower the risk of failure. itants). Modern formats include economy in general (CAGR of the stores predominantly selling food GDP and consumer spending fromBusiness risk (20 percent): business (hypermarkets, supermarkets, dis- 2006 to 2010) and the CAGR fromcost of terrorism, crime and violence, count stores and convenience stores) 2006 to 2010 of the retail sales areaand corruption. the higher the rating, and mixed merchandise (department weighted by newly created modernthe lower the risk of doing business. stores, variety stores, u.s.-style ware- retailing sales area. house clubs and supercenters). Results are from zero to 100,Market attractiveness Number of international retailers with 100 indicating that the retail(25 percent) (30 percent): the total score is sector is advancing quickly, thus rep-Retail sales per capita (40 percent): resenting a short-term opportunity. weighted by the size of retailers inA score of zero indicates that the retail Data and analysis are based on the the country—three points for tier 1sector (total annual sales of retail united nations Population Division retailers (among the top 10 retailersenterprises excluding taxes) is still Database, the World Economic worldwide), two points for tier 2underdeveloped. A score of 100 indi- forum’s Global Competitiveness retailers (within the top 20 retailerscates that the retail market is already Report 2009–2010, national statis- worldwide) and one point for tier 3mature, indicating an opportunity. tics, Euromoney and World bank retailers (all others). Countries withPopulation (20 percent): A score the maximum number of retailers reports, and Euromonitor and Planetof zero indicates the country is rela- have the lowest score. Retail databases.4 The GDP per capita threshold for countries with populations of more than 35 million is more flexible due to the market opportunity. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 5
  • 8. those investments are attracting an influx of both in large part a result of brazil’s growth. foreign capital and major international chains. uruguay is relatively small, with a population of the united Kingdom’s Debenhams plans to 3.4 million, and nearly 95 percent of the popula- enter through a partnership or brand licensing, tion has easy access to urban areas. the country’s while burberry entered brazil in 2010 and now limited scale and positive macroeconomic condi- operates two stores. based on media reports, tions make it an appealing choice for retailers other possible entrants in the next few years seeking more “contained” markets, in which they include sweden’s H&M, Japan’s uniqlo and the can exercise greater control and test concepts united Kingdom’s topshop. the main barrier for before entering other south American markets. foreign apparel companies is the seasonal differ- uruguay’s economic success has been tied his- ences between the northern and southern hemi- torically to brazil and Argentina, and as such it spheres and high import taxes. Partnerships with has benefited from brazil’s recent growth. former local producers have helped address the latter president tabaré Vázquez’s “growth plan” has problem, but these can take time to set up and helped uruguay achieve real GDP growth, diver- require greater oversight. sify its economy and streamline its public sector. Chile-based retailer Cencosud, Mexican bev- As a result, poverty and unemployment decreased erage company fEMsA and french cosmetics significantly while public consumption grew in giant l’Oréal have operated in brazil for years, but 2010. A recent J.P. Morgan report cited an influx are now planning to expand via acquisitions to of foreign investment, a tourist sector boom, real strengthen their positions against new entrants. estate bargains, strong export growth and strong Cencosud is planning to enter markets where it appreciation in brazil’s real as factors that will does not currently operate to compete with larger attract many outside investors. Additionally, chains such as local leader Pão de Açúcar and Moody’s investors service issued a two-notch Carrefour. Competing in brazil isn’t easy for for- upgrade on uruguay—on the verge of investment- eign retailers, as the major hypermarket players grade territory — citing progress in the nation’s have found. Early in 2011, Carrefour announced debt and fiscal indicators. However, there are a a $722 million loss due to accounting adjust- few cautions with uruguay, including its aging ments, while Wal-Mart has faced resistance from population and the consequent pension pressures. local associations due to its aggressive pricing. the market for large and international retail- Drug stores are facing intensified competition ers is concentrated in Montevideo and its sur- after Droga Raia’s iPO and the merger of Drogaria roundings. local brands, with the exception of são Paulo and Drogão. Germany’s Otto Group france-based Groupe Casino, control most shop- has recently announced plans to enter through ping mall and supermarket environments, and a majority stake in one of its partner companies, hypermarkets are still limited due to government in the hopes of replicating its mail-order success restrictions on store size in local neighborhoods. in Russia. tackling the dynamics of the Montevideo market Uruguay: Riding Brazil’s coattails. uruguay and seasonal demand in tourist areas are critical climbs to 2nd place this year, following a 6.5 per- success factors. the pressure to enter the market is cent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) since not particularly high today since there has not 2006, including 8.5 percent growth in 2010— been significant investment in retail real estate,6 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 9. but uruguay is one to watch as the infrastructure strong retail growth has intensified thecatches up to the market’s potential. demand for retail space. investments in commer- Chile: Growing retail power. Chile rises three cial real estate will add 10 shopping malls to thespots to 3rd place, after a strong recovery from current 15 by 2011 and up to a total of 100the 2009 recession. it is now considered one of by 2015. interbank acquired real estate firmlatin America’s most competitive and promising Millenia — which owns four main locations ofretail markets. Chile’s retail sector is projected to its direct competitor Metro — from Cencosud.grow 10 percent in 2011 as aresult of increased middle-classpurchasing power and a younger,urban population. Government Chile is considered one of Latinincentives to stimulate retail con-sumption, led to a 5.2 percent America’s most competitive andGDP growth in 2010 and anexpected growth of 6.1 percent promising retail markets, with ain 2011. However, these incen-tives will decrease throughout retail sector projected to grow2011, as the government con- 10 percent in 2011.tinues to redirect spending toinfrastructure development fol-lowing the 2010 earthquake.Chile’s political environment is considered fairly interbank also plans to complement its super-stable, and President sebastián Piñera, a billion- market operations by integrating the recentlyaire businessman, is planning structural reform to acquired inkafarma pharmacy chain.increase market competitiveness. foreign retailers are investing heavily in Peru. the nation of 17.1 million has a heavily con- Cencosud, which runs Peru’s Wong chain, hascentrated market, with the top five grocery retail- received approval to create banco Cencosud anders commanding almost 60 percent of sales. As also plans to create private label brands. it will alsoa result, entering this market is fairly difficult, and introduce its Paris brand in 2012 to compete withacquisition is the most viable route for the grocery Chilean retailers falabella and Ripley. Ripley issector. in 2011, in the apparel sector, Gap, inc. not standing still, though, as it plans to nearlyannounced plans for its first south American store double its store count by 2013. subway, present inthrough a franchise partner in santiago. Peru during the 1990s, is planning to return with Peru: Retail space needs to catch up. Peru 10 stores in 2011. As marketplace competitionmoves into the 8th spot, up one position from grows, first movers may have the most success2010. Peru (population 29.5 million) experienced in Peru as they acquire the best locations in the5 percent year-over-year GDP growth for the past highest-profile cities and offer complementaryfive years. As with most countries in this region, services, such as credit.large cities drive economic activity, in this case the Mexico: Back on track. Mexico’s economycapital, lima. recovered in 2009, highlighted by a GDP growth REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 7
  • 10. rate of 5.5 percent. unemployment has decreased desirable real estate and to offer credit facilities for from an historical high of 5.9 percent in mid- low-income consumers. 2009 to 5.4 percent. the stronger economy has Colombia: Still in recovery. Colombia is in restored consumer confidence, reflected in retail 24th place this year. the country of 45.5 million sales growth. As a result, Mexico is ranked 22nd was affected more deeply by the global economic this year, up three spots. downturn than some of its neighbors and has not Mexico remains an attractive destination for fully recovered. the market is still dominated by retailers due to its growing middle class, a retail small independent retailers, but operators such sector that is expected to expand 12 percent by as Casino and Carrefour are using the hyper- 2014 and a large population of 110.6 million. market format to target middle-class customers. Current and new players are seeking to capture inflation continues to be a concern, but new market share. the leading retail chains plan to entrants have still moved in, including sodimac, increase their investments significantly, focused Cencosud, inditex (bershka, stradivarius and mostly on new compact hypermarket stores in tier Massimo Dutti) and Payless shoesource. 2 cities, given the saturation of tier 1 cities. Argentina: Back on the list. Argentina Walmex is planning 365 new stores, while soriana dropped off the index in 2010 but returns this will open 50 and Chedraui 30. As Comercial year in 25th place. it experienced strong 9-plus Mexicana recovers from last year’s bankruptcy, percent GDP growth in 2010, but its rising other domestic players are trying to capture addi- inflation rates may be distorting this growth as it tional market share. leads consumers to make advance purchases. the two formats are leading the retail expansion country of 40.5 million has not experienced in Mexico. top retailers, including Grupo Elektra, significant changes in the inflow or outflow of are targeting compact hypermarkets, low-cost foreign retailers, with Carrefour, Cencosud and “bare-bones” formats that target low-income con- Wal-Mart still the leading international retailers sumers. Convenience stores are also expanding in the country. rapidly, with OxxO, Circulo K and 7-Eleven Panama: A new hub. Panama enters the leading the way. GRDi in 27th place. Panama’s economy is experi- Given the grocery segment’s saturation, atten- encing an economic boom and is one of latin tion has shifted to specialty retail. u.s. and America’s fastest-growing and best-managed mar- European retailers are entering mostly through kets. in the past five years, Panama’s GDP growth joint ventures or franchises; sephora, Payless of 6.1 percent and GDP per capita growth of 6.9 shoesource and luxottica are examples in the percent have been among latin America’s highest. apparel and accessories segment. Alsea, Mexico’s While Panama is relatively small (population 3.5 leading fast-food operator, recently opened P.f. million), a few factors position it as a key retail Chang’s and is experiencing accelerated growth. it location: there has been a recent real estate and plans to open 500 new locations across its brands infrastructure boom, the country is becoming over the next five years. A number of international a key financial hub (in addition to being a key retailers, such as Gap, inc., Victoria’s secret and transportation and logistics hub), and its econ- Cb2 entered the market through e-commerce. omy is based on the dollar. Retailers are entering Critical to success in Mexico is the ability to secure the market (for example, Juicy Couture), while8 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 11. others that are already present (such as nautica) spend on non-food purchases, and have moreare expanding and opening new stores. exposure to brands. the result is a powerful, more Dominican Republic: Slow rise continues. discerning consumer class. india’s population ofAt 28th position, the Dominican Republic contin- nearly 1.2 billion — forecast eventually to over-ues to see retail development. the country of 9.9 take China’s — also is an attractive target.million has experienced significant expansion in Organized retail accounts for 7 percent ofshopping space with three large malls currently india’s roughly $435 billion retail market and isunder construction. luxury (louis Vuitton and expected to reach 20 percent by 2020. big-boxCartier) and mid-level (nike, Desigual and timber- retail, in the form of hypermarkets, has gainedland) retailers are entering as santo Domingo prominence — a refocus from the burgeoningbecomes the Caribbean’s shopping capital. supermarkets and small formats of several years ago. food accounts for 70 percent of indian retail,Asia but it remains under-penetrated by organizedindia and China have occupied the GRDi’s top retail. Organized retail has a 31 percent share inthree places for several years, yet both fell this year, clothing and apparel and continues to see growthwhich may come as a surprise to our readers. in this sector. the home segment shows promise,While these countries are large and growing, on growing 20 to 30 percent per year. india’s morea relative basis, several latin American markets urban consumer mindset means this sector isoutshine both india and China. And as retailers poised for growth.continue to enter india and China—particularly the recession proved an opportunity forin tier 2, 3 and 4 cities where consumers are domestic and foreign retailers to optimize theirincreasingly accepting global brands, have rising store portfolios and drive more profitable growthdisposable incomes and are becoming more dis- in india. they are now in much better and smartercerning in their tastes—in several instances, traffic positions to take advantage of india’s retail possi-to stores has yet to meet expectations. bilities. Domestic players are selectively growing the outlook for southeast Asia remains in india — postponing aggressive expansion plans,bright, with increased domestic demand and adding stores judiciously and shifting gears to tierexports, stabilizing retail sales and improving con- 2 and 3 cities. Aditya birla Group plans to opensumer confidence. Grocery remains the region’s about 100 supermarkets and 10 hypermarkets bymost important sector, accounting for almost mid-2011. spencer’s is expected to add up totwo-thirds of total organized retail sales. 25 hypermarkets through 2012. Reliance Retail, India: The time to enter is now. india’s strong india’s organized retail leader, plans to open 150growth fundamentals — 9 percent real GDP Reliance trends apparel and accessories stores ingrowth in 2010; forecasted yearly growth of the next year. foreign players are also adding8.7 percent through 2016; high saving and invest- stores — the united Kingdom’s Marks & spencerment rates; fast labor force growth; and increased is planning 50 retail outlets in the next five years.consumer spending—make for a very favorable Wal-Mart is planning up to 12 outlets in itsretail environment and the 4th spot in the GRDi. wholesale format by the end of 2011, and MetroAs has been the case for several years, indian con- Group plans 50 wholesale stores in the next fivesumers continue to urbanize, have more money to years. international food retailer spar plans to REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 9
  • 12. open another 24 hypermarkets in the next two selecting the right partner is crucial for success. years. Zara opened in Delhi and Mumbai last beyond having access to the right real estate, the year, has already added a third store in Delhi and, skills to customize assortments to local tastes and after early success, plans to expand across india. financial stability, there also needs to be intangible Carrefour entered india in December 2010 with “chemistry” between top management at both com- its first wholesale cash-and-carry store and has panies. While india is a difficult market to enter, plans to open more stores by end of 2011. the potential payoff is huge. Private equity firms though the biggest cities will remain retail have taken note and retail investment has quintu- centers in coming years, retailers have started pled in the past year to more than $370 million. focusing on tier 2 cities to gain the early-mover Examples include a $200 million investment in Café Coffee Day by KKR, an $86 million investment in lilliput Kidswear by bain Capital Indians continue to urbanize and tPG and several invest- ments in fast-food restaurants. and have more money to spend China: A hot economy. China places 6th on the 2011 on non-food purchases…. The index. China’s economy con- tinues to boom — the country result is a powerful, more dis- of more than 1.3 billion had cerning consumer class. GDP growth of 10.3 percent in 2010 and is expected to grow between 9 and 10 percent in 2011. China’s retail market size advantage and to get in while the real estate is still is $2.1 trillion, or roughly 50 percent of the u.s. available. the increased salaries and growing aspi- retail market, and retail growth remains strong at ration levels of tier 2 consumers is allowing the 15 percent between 2009 and 2010. However, a neighborhood store, the large-format retail store booming market does not come without its draw- and the foreign investor-funded retail store to co- backs. increased inflation worries weakened con- exist. Retailers with plans to enter tier 2 cities sumer confidence last year, and the benchmark include spencer’s, spar, Reliance Retail, Pantaloon deposit and lending rate was raised four times Retail, shoppers stop and trent’s Westside. during 2010. nevertheless, Chinese consumers While india remains a hot market for retail- remain positive about personal income levels and ers, it has its difficulties. foreign direct investment employment prospects for the future. this was (fDi) regulations continue to require single- reinforced by the country’s latest five-year plan, brand retailers to enter the market through which calls for a major shift of resources toward an indian partner or joint ventures. Government domestic consumption. this is expected to increase policy-change discussions have intensified recently, consumer spending by $100 billion per year. but whether or not there will be new rules remains Rapid organic growth of local and foreign uncertain. the regulatory challenges mean that retailers continues, with their main targets today10 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 13. in the suburban areas of tier 1 cities, tier 2, 3 and lenging well-known brands that don’t provide4 cities, and even rural areas—the result of high good quality and service; some retailers havesaturation and competition levels in tier 1 cities. exited China due to poor reception. Mattel closedfor example, in 2010, Wal-Mart, Carrefour and its flagship barbie store in shanghai after twoRt-Mart opened 13, 18 and 17 stores respectively, years because of poor performance — the barbiemostly in tier 2, 3 or 4 cities. Retail industry con- doll failed to reflect unique local tastes and pricessolidation continues, with the market share of the were high; the $30 (200 RMb) average price of atop 20 retailers increasing from 8.4 percent to 8.9 barbie was more than triple most local brands.percent from 2009 to 2010. Carrefour acquired best buy closed stores under its own banner andseven supermarket stores from baolongcang, a decided to focus instead on its local brand, fiveregional player in Hebei. Wumart, a leading local star. five star has an operating model similar toplayer, purchased four lotus stores in tianjin to local players and reflects the way consumers arestrengthen its presence there. Another top local used to shopping for electronics in China.retailer, Vanguard, purchased roughly 2,000 stores While the Chinese retail market will holdfrom regional players between 2004 and 2010. substantial promise for years to come, achieving Retail formats are diversifying, with specialty profitability in the market is not easy. success willstores growing most rapidly. for example, cosmet- not happen overnight, or without putting theics used to be sold through department stores, but right mechanisms in place to ensure consumernow they can be accessed in personal care stores acceptance. Outside of major cities, retailers aresuch as sephora. Wine specialty stores opening in often “ahead of the consumer,” and store trafficeastern and southern China allow customers to has not yet materialized. Also, success in Chinabuy mainly imported wine with a broader price means doing business the “Chinese way”— simplyand product selection. Online shopping is increas- cutting and pasting your existing operating modeling dramatically, at a CAGR of 105 percent from won’t fly.2004 to 2010 (including business-to-consumer Indonesia: Strong underlying growth.and consumer-to-consumer), and is driven primar- indonesia’s retail sales are expected to grow fromily by young consumers in more developed regions, $134 billion in 2011 to $223 billion by 2015,increased internet access and improved door-to- thanks to strong underlying economic growth anddoor fulfillment support.5 China’s major online the world’s fourth largest population (235.5 mil-shopping sites are 360buy, taobao, Amazon.cn lion); the country ranks 16th this year. increased(formerly Joyo), Dangdang and newegg, which per capita incomes and continued development inaccounted for 80 percent of the total market in the organized retail infrastructure are boosting2010. leading traditional retailers are also moving food retail sales. Other retail sectors are also poisedonline, including department stores blemall, for growth — consumer electronics sales, led byDashang and tianhong, and appliance retailer computers, are predicted to rise 13 percent year-Gome, which acquired online rival Coo8. over-year for the next five years. Chinese consumers in both urban and rural Domestic player Pt Matahari Putra Prima hasareas are maturing and trading up for more expen- held discussions with potential buyers regardingsive, higher-quality products. they are also chal- a 20 to 30 percent stake in its hypermarkets and5 For more information, see “China’s E-Commerce Market: The Logistics Challenge” at www.atkearney.com. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 11
  • 14. supermarkets, worth up to $1 billion. no deal has Harvey norman is one foreign retailer taking been announced yet, but several global retailers advantage of the bbbs. and private equity funds have reportedly entered Vietnam: Traditional retail still dominates. into bidding. Vietnam is in 23rd place, and is still attractive, Philippines: Urban areas fueling growth. with an expected market size of $113 billion by the Philippines, 24th this year, is expected to see 2012 and a growing population of 88.9 million. retail sales grow from $39 billion in 2011 to $42 Vietnam officially opened its retail market to billion by 2015, thanks to an expanding urban international entrants with 100 percent foreign population and rising consumer spending that is capital in early 2009, at the height of the global fueling growth in organized retail. GDP is also economic crisis, when many multinational com- expected to increase at a CAGR of 5.3 percent panies were taking a more conservative approach over the next five years, with per capita GDP pre- to expansion. dicted to increase by more than 25 percent in the While consumer confidence is high, poor dis- same time frame. today, half of the Philippines’ tribution infrastructure and expensive retail space total retail sales are concentrated in the Manila remain barriers to entry by foreign retailers. metropolitan area. in urban areas, a growing traditional retail channels still dominate the number of dual-income, middle-class families market, but modern retail formats are growing and young professionals are driving retail sales. more prominent. Consolidation is expected among the country’s young population—40 percent of foreign retailers trying to deepen their market the Philippines’ 94 million people are between penetration. u.K.-based tesco and singapore- the age of 15 and 39—represents a key element based fairPrice plan to enter the market in 2011. of future retail spending. Malaysia: Concerns down the road. Malaysia’s Middle East and North Africa economy is expected to expand by 6.2 percent this Middle East and north Africa (MEnA) includes year, and retail sales have grown steadily over the eight of the top 20 countries in the GRDi and, past two years, but there are concerns beyond despite the region’s political turmoil that has 2011 for this country of 28.9 million, ranked 21st gripped the world since December 2010, includ- this year, because of a potential property bubble ing government overthrows in tunisia and Egypt, and high household debt levels. civil war in libya and protests in numerous other the government stepped into the retail arena countries, it remains a promising retail growth to support “big-box boulevards” (bbb)—con- opportunity. centrated centers of shopping outlets in city out- the GRDi measures long-term potential, and skirts. Retailers are offered cheaper rental rates, through that lens there are many indicators that savings that in turn can be passed on to consumers. the region will bear watching for years to come. the goal is to group six to 10 different retailers— it recovered quickly from the recession, consumer for example, clothing, auto, home furnishings, confidence is growing, most countries are expect- sports and furniture—along a single boulevard, ing 3 to 5 percent GDP growth over the next year, with the Malaysian government helping to iden- disposable incomes are high, its population is tify suitable locations and working with promot- young and middle class is growing, and the con- ers to bring multiple retailers together. Australia’s sumer base is increasingly connected and engaged.12 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 15. Many hurdles existed before this winter’s rev- more than saudi Arabia’s underlying fundamen-olutions, including foreign ownership regulations tals. saudi Arabia, with 29.2 million citizens, isthat differ from country to country, the high share clearly a retail hot spot worth watching.of family-owned businesses, the relatively frag- Consumer confidence in saudi Arabia is high;mented retail landscape, and limited foreign own- bullish sentiments mean greater spending and lessership outside free zones in most countries. these saving. Consumer spending is increasing rapidly,issues and continued political instability require with most disposable income spent on food,close consideration by any retailers considering apparel, health and beauty. non-food categoriesexpansion. but in the long run, we believe the grew 8 percent and food categories 4 percent inoutlook is positive. 2010. Given its young population (two-thirds Kuwait: Small but highly attractive. Kuwait, under the age of 29) and high discretionary5th in the GRDi, remains MEnA’s highest- income, saudi Arabian consumers are consideredranked country. While it has only 3.1 million by many retail experts as early adopters.inhabitants, 96 percent live in cities and 65 per- new brands and international players arrivedcent are between the ages of 15 and 39. these in 2010, and current operations expanded in mostdemographic trends have led to retail sector retail sectors, including fashion, electronics, digi-growth of 8 percent annually over the past five tal products, furniture, home products, automo-years. Overall, retail sales are expected to grow tive, health and beauty products. On the foodfrom $8.41 billion in 2011 to $11.92 billion scene, local players dominate, with Panda andin 2015. binDawood as the leading hypermarkets, while Disposable income will remain exceptionally Carrefour brings international know-how andhigh, driven by low utility costs, extensive welfare expertise to help drive the sector’s development.provisions and high salaries for government jobs. saudi firm savola Group plans to increase theKuwait has one of the highest retail sales per number of Panda stores to 120 supermarkets andcapita of any country in the index ($4,300), and 40 hypermarkets in 2012 and has acquired severalstrong government support for improving citi- competitor assets, including 11 Géant stores fromzens’ welfare should boost consumer confidence the fawaz Alhokair Group.and spending. in January 2011, to help citizens several international retailers entered theimprove living conditions and to celebrate the market in the past year. boots, the u.K. health50th anniversary of independence, Kuwait’s gov- and beauty retailer already present in the uAE,ernment presented its citizens with $3,500 and Kuwait, bahrain and Qatar, opened its first saudifree food staples for 13 months. store in Jeddah in 2010. indian mobile handset While Kuwait offers an exciting destination maker Micromax plans to enter saudi Arabia into international retailers, given its small popula- 2011 through several partners.tion, entry will most likely make sense as part of When considering saudi Arabia, retailersa regional approach. have to bear in mind the constraints of govern- Saudi Arabia: A young and engaged popula- ment regulations. Retailers must hire saudition. saudi Arabia dropped three places to 7th employees, particularly for operational positionsposition in the GRDi this year, but that reflects such as checkout, and they often need to complythe relative performance of higher-ranked nations with the religious laws (such as Halal principles REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 13
  • 16. for food preparation). Despite these challenges, mate forced france’s Auchan to close its Dubai saudi Arabia should not be ignored. DragonMart hypermarket in January 2011; and UAE: Becoming saturated. the uAE (popu- major luxury fashion and accessories player lation 5.4 million) is recovering quickly from the binHendi Enterprises closed its 26-store wing in economic downturn, reflected by the second- Deira City Centre after its customers, no longer highest ranking in market attractiveness of all suited to its high-end products, started going to countries in the GRDi. tourism, sizable house- newer malls. now, retailers are paying more atten- hold consumption and ample retail space is tion to consumer profile and location and the boosting the retail sector. still, the uAE dropped selection they offer in each location. from 7th to 9th place this year. One cause is an increasingly sat- urated market as many foreign entrants have set up operations Consumer spending in the UAE in the country. Consumer spending grew a grew a healthy 9 percent last healthy 9 percent last year, a good indicator of consumers’ stabiliz- year, a good indicator of stabi- ing confidence. Overall, however, lizing confidence. consumers remain cautious with discretionary spending and, com- pared to pre-crisis years, have a greater propensity to save. Prices are rising faster Turkey: Leapfrogging into the top 10. turkey than wages, and many consumers are feeling their jumped eight spots to take 10th place in the purchasing power declining. in response, the gov- index. the economy has recovered from the ernment temporarily lowered prices at hypermar- global recession, with GDP growing by 8.9 per- kets for 260 basic commodities in March 2011 cent in 2010. turkey’s population of 73.6 million and began supervising pricing tactics by retailers. is mostly urban, and more women have entered for many retailers, the uAE remains the pre- the workforce. the demand for convenience ferred entry point into MEnA for new products shopping is increasing, and the number of shop- and brands. in 2010, bloomingdale’s opened its ping malls is surging, especially in istanbul and first store outside the united states in Dubai, and other large cities. Retailers are also investing Victoria’s secret opened its first store in the region in medium-sized cities by introducing smaller through a partnership with M.H. Alshaya. formats to improve market access. the turkish the economic downturn gave uAE retailers market has potential, but the domestic and inter- pause for thought. until recently, many of them national competition is intense. Growth along established outlets in whatever mall space was with consolidation will be the key highlights of available, failed to consider the market position, the market in the coming years. adjacent facilities or store location within the Domestic discounter biM is the market mall, and as a consequence paid the price: leader by revenues, followed by Migros türk unfavorable location and a poor economic cli- (owned by private equity) and Carrefour (in a14 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 17. partnership with local conglomerate sabanci fairly strong, which distinguishes it from mostHolding). the other main players are Metro MEnA markets. the electronics and home appli-Group (Real Hypermarkets), domestic player ances sector has also grown rapidly over the pastbizim toptan, tesco Kipa, Kiler (which had a five years, with Khoury Home leading the pack.2011 initial public offering), Makromarket and it pioneered the concept of a one-stop-shop fordiscounter A101. Regional and local retailers home appliances and is undergoing a large-scaleexpanded by 50 percent in the past two years, and expansion, with five major outlets planned.the market is consolidating. there is still room for Azadea Group’s le Mall concept was launchedconsolidation as the top four players make up in 2009 by the local Azadea Group, which alsoonly 14 percent of the industry. Private labels are holds franchise rights for retailers such as ZARAjust 8 percent of sales, below European levels, but and Mango and has placed all of its banners inthat is expected to increase in the next few years. le Mall, resulting in significant cost savings. no major grocers entered in 2010. in the A second le Mall was introduced in 2010 in saidaelectronics sector, best buy exited turkey in 2011 in the south, the city’s first high-end mall. A thirdafter a two-year trial run with two stores. Apparel le Mall is under construction in a northernretailer H&M entered in late 2010, while C&A suburb of beirut, providing additional opportuni-ramped up its commitment to turkey with plans ties for retailers to enter or expand in lebanon.for 10 new stores on top of its existing base of 24 Egypt: Growth despite turmoil. the dust isstores, focused predominantly on the Anatolia still settling from the demonstrations that led toregion. Another retailer betting on turkey is the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak, butGerman shoe retailer Deichmann, which opened when all is said and done, the movement could44 stores in 2010 and has committed $8.5 million lay the groundwork for a promising mid- to long-to opening a further 20 stores. it is seeking to have term retail opportunity. Egypt moved up one spot200 turkish stores in 10 years. this year, to 12th place. Lebanon: A solid debut. lebanon, with its 4.3 Egypt’s retail market is expected to growmillion inhabitants, is new to the GRDi, taking 10 percent over the next five years, driven by11th place. it is an attractive market for many a large, active and growing population of moreretailers, thanks to the liberal mindset of its con- than 80.4 million that is gaining purchasingsumers and recent investment in new malls. While power. still, Egypt has a low share of modernGDP grew at a 7 percent CAGR for the past five retailing compared to other north African coun-years, there are several challenges. Additional infra- tries such as Morocco and tunisia. this, coupledstructure investment is needed to repair insuffi- with low levels of market consolidation and grow-cient road networks and communications lines ing consumer demand, continues to make Egyptoutside of beirut, and disposable income remains attractive for large global retailers.fairly low. further, lebanon’s stability, measured Within grocery, international retailers haveby the country risk score, is lower than most of its a strong foothold in the hypermarket sector, whereneighbors on the GRDi—a factor to gauge when the focus is on the middle-income population andevaluating the market for entry. the sale of local products. Competition in this lebanese consumers are among the most lib- space is increasing with the arrival of new inter-eral in the Middle East. the alcohol industry is national grocery retailers and the expansion of REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 15
  • 18. existing international retailers. the modern gro- in 2010, the grocery sector saw significant cery retail area is expected to grow by 23 percent consolidation and growth. Metro Group, which annually over the next few years. lulu Hyper- entered in 1998, agreed to sell its eight Moroccan market, from Abu Dhabi-based EMKE, entered stores to local chain label’Vie, the first time Metro in 2010, with plans to expand in coming years. exited a country. it cited limited growth and Carrefour has doubled its sales area in Cairo and expansion potential for its self-service wholesale Alexandria over the past five years, with plans for business in Morocco. label’Vie also partnered 15 more stores in Egypt. Metro Group entered in with Carrefour to open Morocco’s first Carrefour 2010 under its Makro Cash & Carry banner and hypermarket last year. in addition, turkish super- plans to open 20 outlets in the long-term. Metro market retailer biM announced plans to open sources 90 percent of its products locally. Dubai- approximately 40 new stores, increasing its based spinneys also plans to expand its presence Moroccan footprint to 85. Elsewhere in retail, in coming years. Growth in grocery, and particu- luxury players are drawn to Morocco’s expanding larly hypermarkets, is partly driven by an increase and progressive middle class. Dior opened a store in women in the workforce who are looking for in Marrakesh and has plans to open a second in more convenient food preparation. Casablanca. the suburbs of both of these cities Policy reforms in Egypt, such as tariff and tax present new and interesting retail opportunities. reductions, helped pave the way for entry by for- Tunisia: Slowing consumer spending. After eign non-grocery retailers. in 2010, Marks & a year of political turmoil and a drop in consumer spencer opened its first Egyptian store in con- spending growth to 1 percent per year, tunisia, junction with uAE-based franchise partner a nation of 10.5 million inhabitants, drops eight Al-futtaim Group, while Debenhams expanded spots to 19th. by regional standards, tunisia has into Africa with its first store in the Alexandria a more advanced and diversified economy, and the City Centre mall. Al-futtaim has stated that government has gradually loosened its control of future plans to expand the iKEA brand into Cairo the market in favor of greater privatization. depend on regional stability—both international However, retail space development continues to retailers were forced to shut down temporarily in lag behind its neighbors. While tunisia remains Cairo and Alexandria due to the violent protests on the radar as a good opportunity, we envision early in 2011. a two- to three-year slowdown in store openings Morocco: Retail sales bolstered. Morocco and development due to the political uncertainty. drops from 15th to 17th place this year. the retail sector represents 13 percent of the country’s GDP Eastern Europe and Russia and is expected to grow 5 percent annually in Eastern Europe is a diverse region, with several coming years. A strong performing tourism sector markets dropping off the index because of slow and a shift toward more modern retail channels retail and GDP growth rates relative to latin has bolstered retail sales. Key drawbacks in America, the Middle East and Asia. Russia also Morocco (population 31.9 million) include low continued its decline in the GRDi and is now consumer spending per capita compared to outside the top 10. tunisia, complexities in the distribution models Russia: Hurdles are surmountable. the and the need for local knowledge. Russian economy recovered from the downturn,16 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 19. with the retail market returning to pre-crisis levels understanding and adapting to local operatingand expected to grow at a CAGR of 10 percent conditions, including logistical challenges. linesover the next five years. food retail is at pre-crisis at borders and ports, poor service quality, infra-levels, while non-food retail is expected to grow structure issues and long distances between largefaster. nevertheless, Russia fell four spots in the cities cause delays and make the supply chainGRDi this year to 14th place. While some under- a strategically crucial function. Additionally, therelying metrics have grown stronger—retail sales can be long lead times and a steep learning curveper capita has increased to about $3,700 in to build and open stores in Russia. iKEA, for example, spent years overcoming bureaucratic hurdles before opening stores in Russia. nevertheless, it isRussia, expected to become possible to overcome these hurdles and be successful in the market.Europe’s largest consumer Multinationals such as Metro Group and Auchan have operated in Russiamarket with rising disposable for years, understanding the rules of the game and continuing to growincomes and an expanding through expansion. Companies enter- ing Russia should also pay closemiddle class, is a priority for attention to risk-mitigation strategies,many retailers. including establishing government relations. Albania. Albania slides one spot to 13th position this year. Albania is2010—Russia is hampered by its relative political relatively tiny (population 3.2 million), but itsinstability and a drop in newly created retail sales high ranking is driven by a lack of market satura-area. still, the fact that Russia (population 141.9 tion. it is a good country to have on the radarmillion) is expected to become Europe’s largest in the medium term, but it may not be theconsumer market with rising disposable incomes most pressing country to enter today. Carrefour’sand an expanding middle class makes it a priority plans to enter southeastern Europe in partnershipfor many retailers seeking long-term options.6 with Greece’s Marinopoulos will include stores Russia’s retail market continues to consolidate in Albania.through mergers and acquisitions (M&As), par-ticularly among local companies. We expect this The Retail Apparel Indextrend to continue, with the largest domestic chains in 2008 and 2009, A.t. Kearney published theacquiring both national and medium-sized regional Retail Apparel index, and this year it returns withplayers. for foreign companies, entry via M&A an improved methodology that highlights thehas proven difficult as local companies have strong subset of GRDi markets most attractive from anlobbying advantages. Entering Russia requires apparel perspective. We have evaluated more than6 See Riding Russia’s Consumer Boom in Executive Agenda at www.atkearney.com.. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 17
  • 20. 30 apparel markets to identify the top 10 coun- Figure 4 tries in terms of clothing market attractiveness, The 2011 Retail Apparel Index levels of retail development and country risk (see sidebar: About the Retail Apparel Index). in the past two years, a few trends shaped the Market Retail 2011 attrac- develop- Country global apparel market. After a downturn in 2009, rank Country tiveness ment risk Score the market is recovering and forecast to accelerate, 1 China 37.0 14.3 10.1 61.4 thanks to more apparel consumption, increased 2 UAE 38.8 8.2 11.9 58.9 disposable income, low interest rates and improv- 3 Kuwait 31.4 7.2 9.9 48.6 ing consumer sentiment. E-commerce is also 4 Russia 30.4 8.1 7.8 46.4 helping, as clothing retailers use it to “test” a 5 Saudi Arabia 25.6 7.4 10.9 43.9 market without significant capital expenditures. 6 India 25.8 8.0 8.2 42.0 A few retailers use this tactic, including J. Crew, 7 Brazil 23.6 7.5 9.0 40.1 Gap, inc. and Victoria’s secret. 8 Turkey 21.3 7.3 8.8 37.4 let’s look at the Apparel index’s top three 9 Vietnam 23.3 6.9 7.1 37.3 countries (see figure 4): 10 Chile 16.4 8.3 12.2 36.9 China. China’s top ranking is driven by its Source: A.T. Kearney Note: Scores are rounded. large population and the growing disposable income of its middle class. Apparel retail in China has grown at a CAGR of 20 percent for the past clothing retailer Gap, inc. opened stores in beijing few years, a trend expected to continue for the and shanghai in late 2010 and may tap the online next five years. Retail formats are diversifying in market with the simultaneous launch of Gap.cn. China—beyond traditional department stores, PVH Apparel Group entered China with its izod specialty stores, outlets, discount stores and online brand and plans to open 3,000 stores in the next sales are growing. five years. italian retailer RDM announced an foreign companies, including luxury brands, investment of $910 million to set up five italian- have aggressively entered the market. American style luxury outlet centers in China under the About the Retail Apparel Index the Retail Apparel index is calcu- includes share of modern retailing allow for relative comparison to be lated by analyzing three metrics: and sales area growth. made across metrics. for example, Clothing market attractiveness Country risk (20 percent). uAE had the highest clothing sales (60 percent). this includes clothing Country risk indicators include per capita at $785, giving it a score sales, clothing sales growth, youth political and financial risk, business of 100 points for that metric. and urban populations, and level of readiness and the business cost of international presence. crime, terrorism and corruption. retail development (20 percent). Within each metric, a country’s the retail development indicator value is indexed from 0 to 100 to18 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
  • 21. brand “florentia Village.” Established players, surprises festival) provides shoppers with dis-including Adidas (2,500 planned stores), are also counts and offers special ticket fares for tourists.expanding in the tier 3 and 4 cities. Kuwait. Kuwait takes 3rd place in the Apparel beyond brand and retail format extension, spe- index this year. the main factors include a favor-cific apparel segments are also growing. sportswear able long-term economic outlook, a sophisticatedand outdoor gear have boomed in recent years— consumer base with high levels of disposable20 and 50 percent annual growth rates respec- income and fashion awareness, more womentively—as a result of the 2008 Olympics and the entering the workforce and significant expansion2010 Asian Games. these sectors are expected to in retail real estate. Kuwait is among the top coun-continue upward, particularly as minimum wage tries in attracting new retailers, and Kuwait City isincreases in several Chinese provinces. becoming a fashion hub. UAE. the uAE takes 2nd place thanks to its the gross leasable area expanded frompopulation’s high disposable income and immense 345,000 square meters in 2006 to 1.15 million infashion consciousness, a large expatriate popula- 2010. in particular, ultramodern shopping mallstion and tourism, and the country’s role as a are expanding — the 2010 openings of 360 MallMEnA commerce hub. the uAE has become and the Avenues are good examples. Kuwait hasa preferred point for entering the overall MEnA a strong luxury presence, including Givenchy,market and testing new products. Versace, Cartier, Gucci, bottega Veneta, burberry Dubai has become a hotbed for upscale retail- and Yves saint laurent, which entered last year.ers. Prada and Gucci recently signed joint ventures Other mid-market retailers are entering thewith Al tayer insignia to develop a retail network country, including Hong Kong’s shanghai tang,across the Middle East. Hugo boss re-opened American Eagle Outfitters, Destination Maternitya boss store in Dubai in collaboration with and Redtag.binHendi Enterprises. Other international playersare entering the uAE as part of a regional strategy. Expansion and Long-Term Successfor example, American Eagle Outfitters opened As we look ahead, the distinct and significantits second Dubai store as a platform for regional challenges of operating internationally will per-expansion. bloomingdale’s recently opened a loca- sist, as will the ever-changing competitive envi-tion in the Dubai Mall. Azadea Group opened ronment that forces retailers to consider balancinga Decathlon sports store and a superdry youth their domestic businesses with investments infashion store, with plans to roll out 13 stores over developing markets. Considering their perfor-the next three years. Destination Maternity also mance in the past 10 years, the top retailers in theannounced plans to open a Dubai store under next 10 years will be those that focus on a port-a franchise agreement with Multi trend. folio of countries — with different levels of risk, With tax-free shopping and the annual Dubai at different stages of maturity and with distinctshopping festival, established in 1996, Dubai has consumer profiles. the top retailers will createembraced the notion of being a “shopping capi- a balance of short- and long-term opportunitiestal.” the festival (along with the Dubai summer to meet their short- and long-term objectives. REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney 19
  • 22. Authors Hana Ben-Shabat is a partner in the firm’s consumer products and retail practice. Based in the New York office, she can be reached at hana.ben-shabat@atkearney.com. Mike Moriarty is a partner in the firm’s consumer products and retail practice. Based in the Chicago office, he can be reached at mike.moriarty@atkearney.com. Deepa Neary is a consultant in the firm’s consumer products and retail practice. Based in the New York office, she can be reached at deepa.neary@atkearney.com. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions and insights of their A.T. Kearney colleagues around the world who helped write this paper, especially Guilherme Barreto, Sonali Chaudhuri, Katie Finnegan, Thierry Le Compte, Marcelo Marques, Nithya Rajagopalan, Helen Rhim, Fabiola Salman, Can Savasan, Smriti Tankha and Sheryl Yang. This material was prepared in conjunction with the a.t. Kearney GLOBaL COnsUMer institUte, a worldwide network of professionals and executives that combines proprietary and public data resources with local knowledge to deliver strategic and operational insights to executives in consumer-facing industries seeking long-term growth and competitive advantage. For more information, please contact gci@atkearney.com.20 REtAil GlObAl ExPAnsiOn: A PORtfOliO Of OPPORtunitiEs | A.t. Kearney
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