First question, what are these symbols? What do you think we are talking about?
Photos courtesy of NWHM.orgDrawing photo courtesy of senate.iowa.gov
Talk about why women’s history month mattersThis is not about discriminating against men, but recognizing and correcting systemic inequalities in society.Some Statistics About WomenViolence against women aged between 15 and 44 causes more deaths and disabilities than cancer, traffic accidents, malaria and war combinedOver 39 million girls worldwide are not attending school.Only 13 of the 500 largest corporations in the world have a female Chief Executive OfficerWomen are more likely than men to die from cardiovascular (heart) disease
The 19th-century drive to secure equal rights for women arose in part as well-educated women involved themselves in other social issues. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott met in 1840 at an anti-slavery conference in London. Unhappy at being excluded from activities of the convention because of their gender, Stanton, Mott, and other female delegates staged a walkout, then began planning a similar convention on women's rights. It took place in Seneca Falls, New York, eight years later.The Seneca Falls Convention drafted a Declaration of Sentiments based on the U.S. Declaration of Independence that had, in 1776, separated the United States from Britain. The declaration set the agenda for the movement: the right of women to their children in the event of a divorce, the right to testify against a cruel husband in court, the right of women to enter various kinds of jobs and to keep their salaries instead of turning money over to their husbands, and – the most controversial at that time – the right of women to vote.The political insight of Stanton and her equally famous partner in the 19th-century women's rights movement, Susan B. Anthony, was that in order to change society, you have to change public opinion first. Both women were bent on propagating ideas: Stanton through her writing, Anthony through personal leadership and extensive lecture tours. In addition, both women realized that freedom and liberty for some groups essentially means freedom and liberty for all groups. Arguing from the abolition of Negro slavery, they aimed to convince Americans in late 19th century that women, like former slaves, deserved well-defined and legally protected rights. Finally, they both realized that universal, fair, and free elections are necessary to allow all members of society to express their needs in an effective way.Photos: courtesy of national women’s history museum
One of the most influential women in 20th CenturyEleanor married her cousin Franklin, a rising politician, but at first, she was shy and didn’t like politics.Like many women whose lives changed dramatically during WWI, she found her identity in volunteerism during WWII, where she worked long hours in hospitals. Following that, in the 1920s, she became more involved in helping her husband develop his political skill. She became extensively involved in women’s organizations, and organizing women voters – even organizing them against her own cousin, the republican nominee Theodore Roosevelt Jr for governor. When FDR became governor in 1928, his record was heavily influenced by Eleanor. This was important because shortly after he took office, the Stock Market crashed and the Great Depression began.She was a very active First Lady, both due to her husband’s polio making him less able to travel, and her own outspoken views on social issues. Eleanor held press conferences, and wrote a newspaper column. She actively campaigned for better treatment of women in the workplace and argued for a percentage of the New Deal recovery programs created by her husband’s Administration, would be directed at women. Unlike her predecessors, Mrs. Roosevelt understood the potential of the First Lady’s position. She had many critics, but even they couldn’t deny her popularity especially after FDR was reelected.
The government’s war time efforts to recruit women had several themes, the main one being patriotism. The campaigns told women that the war would end sooner if more women worked. Women were also warned that if they did not work then a soldier would die, people would call them slackers, and they were equivalent to men who avoided the draft (Rupp 96). Women who took war jobs were praised.Rosie the Riveter "All day long whether rain or shine/She's part of the assembly line/She's making history working for victory" so that her boyfriend Charlie, fighting overseas, can someday come home and marry herAnother propaganda theme was high pay. The government cautioned, though, that wages should not be overemphasized or women might spend too much and cause inflation.As a way to lure young women into the factories, advertisers showed women workers as glamorous and even fashionable. They mentioned that women did not care much about their appearance while at work, but that they were still feminine underneath the dirt.The campaigns equated factory work with housework as a way to alleviate women’s fears about working. Therefore, women already had the skills needed. But the government cautioned that war work should not look too easy or women might not take it seriously. This method reinforced women’s role as homemaker and that her main duty was to her home.The government’s propaganda also called on husbands to encourage their wives to take jobs. It emphasized that it would not reflect poorly on the husbands and their ability to support their families if their wives worked.The campaigns told men that they should feel pride when their wives took a job much the same way that they felt pride when their sons enlisted. This campaign was based on the assumption that women did not work because of their husbands’ objection.The government focused its propaganda campaigns on white middle-class families whose women were not already working. It did not target the women who were already in the workforce and switched to higher paying jobs without any encouragement. Although there was a lot of diversity among women workers, women of color were absent in advertisements. The stars of the campaign were middle-class domestic housewives with no work experience who would leave when the war was over. At first, the propaganda campaigns featured the few women who worked in skilled and high-paying jobs, even though they were a small percentage of women workers. Not until there was a labor shortage in 1943 were the unglamorous, underpaid, low-status jobs a part of the propaganda campaigns.The propaganda campaigns used during the war never had any intention of bringing about permanent changes in women’s place in society. Rather, the government used them to fill temporary labor shortages with women workers.
After FDR’s presidency and death, Eleanor wanted to retreat to private life, but the country needed her. She became a delegate to the United Nations, where she chaired the Human Rights Commission and was one of the authors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights passed in 1948. President John F. Kennedy asked her to return to the United Nations. She chaired his Commission on the Status of Women, where she worked for the Equal Pay Act.President Kennedy nominated Eleanor Roosevelt for the Nobel Peace Prize, though she did not win the award.She passed away in New York City in 1962 at age 78.
Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world. In the United States the movement was initially called the Women's Liberation Movement and lasted through the early 1980s.It later became a worldwide movement that was strong in Europe and parts of Asia, such as Turkey and Israel, where it began in the 1980s, and it began at other times in other countriesWhereas first-wave feminism focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to legal gender equality (i.e., voting rights, property rights), second-wave feminism broadened the debate to a wide range of issues: sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, and official legal inequalities.At a time when mainstream women were making job gains in the professions, the military, the media, and sports in large part because of second-wave feminist advocacy, second-wave feminism also focused on a battle against violence with proposals for marital rape laws, establishment of rape crisis and battered women's shelters, and changes in custody and divorce law. Its major effort was passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the United States Constitution, in which they were defeated by anti-feminists led by Phyllis Schlafly, who argued as an anti-ERA view that the ERA meant women would be drafted into the military.1963 Betty Friedan publishes her highly influential book The Feminine Mystique, which describes the dissatisfaction felt by middle-class American housewives with the narrow role imposed on them by society. The book becomes a best-seller and galvanizes the modern women's rights movement.June 10 Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job.1964 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act bars discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex. At the same time it establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate complaints and impose penalties.1966 The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded by a group of feminists including Betty Friedan. The largest women's rights group in the U.S., NOW seeks to end sexual discrimination, especially in the workplace, by means of legislative lobbying, litigation, and public demonstrations. 1967 Executive Order 11375 expands President Lyndon Johnson'saffirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on gender. As a result, federal agencies and contractors must take active measures to ensure that women as well as minorities enjoy the same educational and employment opportunities as white males.1968 The EEOC rules that sex-segregated help wanted ads in newspapers are illegal. This ruling is upheld in 1973 by the Supreme Court, opening the way for women to apply for higher-paying jobs hitherto open only to men.1969 California becomes the first state to adopt a "no fault" divorce law, which allows couples to divorce by mutual consent. By 1985 every state has adopted a similar law. Laws are also passed regarding the equal division of common property.In Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co., a U.S. Court of Appeals rules that jobs held by men and women need to be "substantially equal" but not "identical" to fall under the protection of the Equal Pay Act. An employer cannot, for example, change the job titles of women workers in order to pay them less than men.1971 Ms. Magazine is first published as a sample insert in New York magazine; 300,000 copies are sold out in 8 days. The first regular issue is published in July 1972. The magazine becomes the major forum for feminist voices, and cofounder and editor Gloria Steinem is launched as an icon of the modern feminist movement.Photo of Betty Friedan from NYTimesPhoto of Women’s Liberation from David Felton/Getty ImagesPhoto of Gloria Steinem from http://womensenews-openingtheway.blogspot.com/2010/12/recording-powerful-womens-voices-gloria.html
In 2009President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allows victims of pay discrimination to file a complaint with the government against their employer within 180 days of their last paycheck. Previously, victims (most often women) were only allowed 180 days from the date of the first unfair paycheck. This Act is named after a former employee of Goodyear who alleged that she was paid 15–40% less than her male counterparts, which was later found to be accurate. The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) is a United States federal law (Title IV, sec. 40001-40703 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, H.R. 3355) signed as Pub.L. 103–322 by PresidentBill Clinton on September 13, 1994. The Act provides $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposes automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allows civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted. The Act also establishes the Office on Violence Against Women within the Department of Justice. Male victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking may also be covered. In February 2013, the Senate passed an extension of the Violence Against Women Act by a vote of 78-22, and the House of Representatives passed it by a vote of 286-138, with unanimous Democratic support and 87 Republicans voting in the affirmative. The extension was signed by President Barack Obama.Current issues for Women’s Empowerment include access to affordable adequate healthcare, including contraception, safety and security particularly with respect to domestic violence and other violence against women, economic equality, political access and representation, rights for marriage equality for same-sex partners.These issues remain in the United States, but around the world Photo from China: AFPPhoto from Peru: Milagros Salazar/IPS
Photo copyright ofCharles Dharapak/AP
First – go over questions submitted by audience:Second – add in missing questionsDo you think men and women enjoy equal rights? Why or why not?Who are the women leaders in your community? In your country?What challenges do you think face women today? Are they different that your mother’s generation? Your grandmother’s?
Women’s day quilt project by Ryan Brux in Tarapoto, PeruProject Description:To celebrate International Women’s Day (March 8, 2013), the bi-national center in Tarapoto Peru hosted an information session with presentations by local women leaders in the community who spoke to students about their experience in education and women's health. After learning more about the history and purpose of International Women's Day, students then designed an individual square of cloth with messages related to women's empowerment, women issues, and/or female role models Each student applied a purple ribbon, symbolizing the collective stance of preventing violence against women. The cloth squares were then assembled together to make large quilt panels. The completed panels will be hung throughout the school as part of a major exhibition recognizing women and women's contributions to society.
The completed project, purple ribbons symbolize domestic violence.
You can facts about Girls Education in your country to help Examples about Peru, according to the article:52 percent of the indigenous girls and 70 percent of indigenous boys are enrolled in school. 30 percent of the Quechua girls are enrolled in secondary education.9.7 percent of the girls in the indigenous Amazon communities go to secondary school.According to the World Bank, a girl with an extra year of education can earn up to 20 percent more as an adult. Usually poverty forces them to work both in and out of the home. Often, there simply aren’t any education centers or schools close to their communities.Abuse prevents young women from completing their secondary education. Stereotypes and misconceptions in rural and indigenous communities also tend to decrease expectations for young women, and give males more opportunity when it comes to continuing their education. As the film says, one girl with courage is a revolution.
Modify authentic reading for the reading level. Yellow words are modified to be easier than the word or phrase crossed out. Other phrases or sentences are deleted to make the reading shorter and more comprehensible.For high levels, no changes will need to be made.
[RELO] American Culture Series: Women's History Month
American CultureWebinarsForEnglish Language TeachersBrought to you by:U.S. Embassy Lima’s Public Affairs Section
WELCOME!Our goal: To provide info on U.S. cultureAND to help you create an effective plan to use inyour classroom.Please ask questions! That’s why we’re here.
Eleanor Roosevelt• One of the most influential women in 20thCentury• Eleanor married her cousin FranklinRoosevelt, a rising politician, who becamegovernor of New York right before theGreat Depression began.• She was First Lady from 1933-1945. Her work focusedon issues of gender, racial, and economic equality.• During WWII, she became involved in three main areas:refugee affairs, home front issues, and the welfare ofsoldiers.
Eleanor RooseveltAfter FDR’s presidency and death, Eleanorwanted to retreat to private life, but thecountry needed her. She became a delegateto the United Nations, where she chairedthe Human Rights Commission and was oneof the authors of the Universal Declarationof Human Rights passed in 1948.President John F. Kennedy asked her toreturn to the United Nations. She chairedhis Commission on the Status of Women,where she worked for the Equal Pay Act.President Kennedy nominated Eleanor Roosevelt for the Nobel PeacePrize, though she did not win the award.She passed away in New York City in 1962 at age 78.
Today’s Struggle• The struggle for gender equality not over yet… in theUnited States or around the world.• What is most needed to help the situation of women andgirls around the world?EDUCATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
What the U.S. President says…“Empowering women isn’t just theright thing to do – it’s the smartthing to do. When women succeed,nations are more safe, more secure,and more prosperous. Over the lastyear, we’ve seen women and girlsinspiring communities and entirecountries to stand up for freedomand justice….”– President Barack ObamaMarch 8, 2013
Plan your Lesson Plan1) What are your topics?2) What kind of questions/conversations starterswill you ask?3) What new vocabulary do you need?4) What activities can you do with your students?
Discussion Questions• Do you think men and women have equalrights? Why or why not?• Who are the women leaders in yourcommunity? In your country?• What challenges do you think face womentoday? Are they different that your mother’sgeneration? Your grandmother’s?
Activities - Quilt Project1) Activity #1 Women’s day cooperative quilt projectObjectiveTo celebrate International Women’s Day or Women’s HistoryMonth, students will design a fabric square focused on a specificwoman or an issue related to women. The fabric squares of allstudents will then be put together to create a quilt (blanket) fordisplay.DirectionsProvide a short reading about International Women’s day. Go overthe reading and vocabulary related to the reading.Instruct students to represent their thoughts on women throughwords, pictures, and/or symbols. Ex. choose a specific woman anddescribe their impact or choose an issue related to women(domestic violence, equality, women leaders, women in theworkforce, trafficking/prostitution) and express their ideas)
ActivitiesActivity # 2 – Girl Rising Video trailerObjective• To increase awareness about girls’ lack of education opportunitiesworldwide.• Secondarily, to consider the factors of discrimination ofopportunities, especially for girls from poor or indigenouscommunities.DirectionsPre-video viewing questions:Not everyone attends school. Why might some students not attendschool?• Show movie trailer: Girls Rising.– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJsvklXhYaE• Ask post video discussion questions (show video again, if needed)
Pre and Post-Listening Task• What did you see? (Low/intermediate)• Try to remember 3 words you hear (All levels)• How did the girls show courage?(Intermediate/high)• What impressed you most? (High)(Play the video more than once, if needed!)
Activities - Reading to WritingActivity # 3 – Girls EducationObjective• To increase awareness about girls’ lack of education opportunitiesin your students country. Additionally, to consider the factors ofdiscrimination of opportunities, especially for girls from poor orindigenous communities.Instructions• Find article with statistics on your country or a story (see example)• Modify the reading for your class level.• Have students in a small group discuss and write a paragraph aboutwhat a student like Senna might feel or think about going toschool.
http://www.peruthisweek.com/culture-114-documentary-shines-light-on-education-gap-for-indigenous-girls-in-peru/Example: Show an article on Girls EducationOr use the Photo to stimulate discussion
Adapting an Authentic ReadingFor High/Intermediate (modify text)Senna is a teenager from the icy peaks mountains of LaRinconada, Peru. an Andean mining town at an elevation of17,000 feet. Her mother and father spend their liveshammering rock in the gold mines, never acquiring having anygold for themselves. Her father is adamant believes thatSenna should go to school so that she can “do better thanhim.” At school she finds strength and courage in poetry. Oneday at school, her teacher read the poem Masa by CésarVallejo. and it awakened something within Senna. She saw areflection of herself within the lines of Vallejo’s poetry. Herteacher allowed her to copy the poem in her notebook afterclass. She treasured and memorized the poem. repeating it likea mantra. Later came more poems, her own.
ResourcesAmerican English webpage– americanenglish.state.govRELO Andes webpage– reloandes.com (Link to this presentation found here!)National Women’s History Museum (in Wash, DC)– http://www.nwhm.org/
QUESTIONS?Remember:You can check out the webinars and thecorresponding resources on theRELO Andes blog - reloandes.com