What is Jazz? This is a most difficult question. Disclaimer: I am not a jazz expert, so this will be a basic introduction to the wonderful world of jazz. JAZZ is a music style that originated in the beginning of the 20th century within the African-American communities of the Southern United States. Some definitions say that Jazz emerged from the music of ragtime and blues, two other popular styles of music during the early 20th century, but it really can be seen as originating from the same place – the melding and mixing of African musical elements with European harmonies.The hardest part for me is to talk about Jazz when really you need to be “feeling Jazz.” Listening to the music. So bear with me. I hope at the end of this webinar, you are motivated to go out and search for some jazz records, listen to some tunes, and experience jazz for yourself and encourage your students to do so also.
April is Jazz Appreciation Month. In 2003, the U.S. Congress passed legislation signed by the President by directing the Smithsonian Institution in the United States to create Jazz Appreciation Month.The Smithsonian is a network of museums and research centers run by the U.S. government. This institution has been around for over 160 years.During JAM, the Smithsonian’s national museum of American history will present stories, images, and music highlighting various jazz artists and people who helped shape this American art form. UNESCO’s International Jazz Day April 30 every year. This is an indication of how global jazz has become. These commemorations provide platforms for individuals and communities to explore jazz and focus on the shared ideals such freedom, inclusion and creativity, which are very important to the spirit of jazz in the United States and around the world.
Jazz elementsThis slide might be my most controversial.Jazz has many forms and we won’t have time to talk about them all. But the universe of Jazz is large and diverse, and still evolving.We will also focus more on early jazz and up through the 1960s. Elements: Improvisation – creating new music on the spot, based on a melody or harmony, and a relationship to the dominant chords; this element very prevalent in early forms of Jazz, many people think that the quality of a jazz musician is determined by his or her ability to improvisePolyrhythms, the concept that more than one rhythm can be occurring at the same time, interacting, complimenting or conflicting with each other; and Syncopation, an unexpected change or interruption to the regular rhythmRelationship to Time – structure of time is less rigid in Jazz; some call this element “swing”Group interaction – or the call and response component; between the leader and members of the groupJazz can be played on any instrument or be sung.Traditional jazz bands were usually born out of brass bands – so there is emphasis on horns and woodwinds (like the trumpet, saxophone, etc…) but the piano and drums have always been a big part as wellSince the beginning, there have been Latin elements included in Jazz, most prominently links to Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs – the habanera.
Origins – Turn of the CenturyAs 1800s gave way to the 20th century, ragtime was a very popular musical tradition. Ragtime very focused on syncopated rhythms that deviate from the main theme in a “ragged” manner. The most famous ragtime composer was a pianist by the name of Scott Joplin. Joplin wrote Maple Leaf Rag and the Entertainer.Blues was another popular musical tradition in the south that drew on African musical influence and grew out of African-American spirituals, work songs, and other narrative ballads. Songs that told a story, expressed deep emotion. Blues is still part of American music today, although many people use the term R&B today – Rhythm and Blues.New Orleans – town in Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi river. Very influential to early Jazz. Many of the early performers played there. Bands included both self-taught and classically trained musicians. Jelly Roll Morton began his career in NO. His music was the first jazz music to be put into print. Morton acknowledged the Latin flavor to his music – or Spanish tinge, he called it. Also loosened ragtime’s syncopation to give it “swing.” “Swing" is really hard to define. Greats artists like Louis Armstrong famously said, “If you don’t feel it, you’ll never know it.” Band leader Duke Ellington composed a famoussong entitled, “It don’t mean a thing (if it ain’t got that swing.)”
The Jazz Age: 1920s and 1930s.The Jazz Age is a period that roughly coincided with the Prohibition Era. During the Prohibition, alcohol sales were banned. Underground clubs where alcohol was served were called speakeasies. Jazz music, as well as popular dance music and show tunes, was popular. This led to jazz developing a bad reputation for a period of time. In 1925, the Jazz Age was in full swing. That’s the year that Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong made their first recordings. Jazz bands like Jelly Roll Morton’s or Duke Ellington’s took up residency at clubs and hotels and the style evolved into “big band swing style Jazz” that people could dance too. During this same time, American jazz was reaching Europe, it became popular in France especially. Jazz was becoming globalized.
Dave Brubeck photo – DaveBrubeck.comHerbie Hancock photo from WikicommonsElla Fitzgerald, Image courtesy of William Gottlieb, from nprjazz.orgNeed copyright info for Miles Davis photo and Billie Holiday
The Jazz Ambassadors who toured the globe for the U.S. Department of State from the 1950s to the 1960s. This was during the Cold War.What is interesting is not just that the U.S. could send these major artists on tour, but that they were representing the United States during a time of intense social turmoil. Many of the traveling jazz bands included both white and African-American artists — a powerful symbol of integration at a time when many U.S. cities and towns were still segregated.While the artists were glad to represent their country and spread their love of jazz, many also recognized the irony of representing the American ideals of freedom and equality abroad while these ideals were not universally enjoyed back home.Louis Armstrong, one of the program’s most prolific and best-known participants took a stand in 1957 when he refused to perform in Moscow to protest the Eisenhower administration’s failure to enforce newly passed school desegregation laws in Little Rock, Arkansas. His angry reaction made the front pages of newspapers around the world.Two weeks later, facing pressure not only from Armstrong but from all segments of the country, Eisenhower sent in the National Guard to ensure that African-American students could safely attend desegregated schools in Little Rock. Armstrong publicly praised the move and agreed to continue serving as a Jazz Ambassador.Thanks to these incredible artists, Jazz was present as a platform for freedom and inclusion around even in the early days of the Jazz Ambassador program.Armstrong immortalized his feelings in the 1961 recording of the album The Real Ambassadors:Who's the real ambassador?Certain facts we can't ignore;In my humble way I'm the USA.Though I represent the government,The government don't represent some policies I'm for.Read more: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/inbrief/2013/03/20130311143943.html#ixzz2QBRmDFo6Louis Armstrong in Germany AP photoBenny Goodman in Moscow – from Irving S. Gilmore Music Library, Benny Goodman Papers, Yale UniversityPhotos: Special Collections, University of Arkansas Libraries, FayettevilleClark Terry and his Jolly Giants perform at the Pakistan American Cultural Center in Karachi, Pakistan, 1978.Count Basie in Rangoon
One of the most important things to remember is that Jazz in the United States and around the world is still vibrant. We still bring Jazz music to other countries through Embassies and Department of State program.This is a picture of the Jed Levy Quartet from NYC, playing for a crowd of 3000 in the Plaza Mayor of downtown Lima last year. This was part of the The Rhythm Road: American Music Abroad tour. They visited Panama, Haiti, Mexico and Venezuela before coming to Peru. This week in Peru we have the Johnaye Kendrick Quartet from Seattle and I know other Embassies around the region are hosting jazz programs as well. So hopefully you can all catch some live jazz music this month.Now, let’s turn it over to Rae to talk about classroom applications.
Ask the questionState reason is to develop the vocabulary for various kinds of music45 second slide
30 second slide
While this song is not Jazz, it was written by Louis Armstrong, one of the Jazz greats. It is one of his most famous songs, and one he said that was one of his favorites.2 min without playing the video4 min if it includes playing the short version
1.5 minute slide
2 min slide -Could consider a follow-up with Michael Jackson’s We are the world
1.5 minute slide
2 min slide
General Music discussions questions/writing prompts. 2 min.
Larry Ferlazzo YouTubehttp://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2012/07/11/an-abridged-history-of-western-music-in-16-genres/
Larry Ferlazzo YouTubehttp://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2012/07/11/an-abridged-history-of-western-music-in-16-genres/
Larry Ferlazzo YouTubehttp://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2012/07/11/an-abridged-history-of-western-music-in-16-genres/OJDB – start video at second -33 to second 1:03Miles Davis – start video at second 5
Music – n. An art form characteristic of a particular people, culture, or traditionThe sounds so produced, especially by singing or musical instruments Jazz – n. Music originating in New Orleans around the beginning of the 20th century in the United States, generally marked by intricate improvisatory, virtuosic solos, melodic freedom, and a harmonic idiom.Sing – v. To produce melodious sounds, usually high in pitch, as certain birds or insects.Listen – v. To give attention with the ear; attend closely for the purpose of hearingVoice – n. A range of such sounds distinctive to one person, or to a type of person or animalRhythm – n. Movement or procedure with uniform or patterned recurrence of a beat , accent, or the like. Beat – v.to sound, as on a drum; to mark time by strokes (can also be a noun, an individual beat)Harmony – n. The combination of simultaneous musical notes in a chord, also pleasing or congruent arrangement of partsInstrument – n. Amechanical tool or implement, especially one used for delicate or precision work:A tool or device designed for precision work, can be for musical purposes. Latin Jazz – p.n. The product of Afro Cuban music (rhythms) and American jazz, however, as it changed and evolved it embraced the most diverse rhythms from Latin America and developed into a defined genre with a Pan-American projection.The Jazz Age – n. The period between the end of World War I and the beginning of the Depression during which jazz became popular. Soundtrack - n. The sound recorded on a motion-picture film; audio portion of a film.A track (as on a motion-picture film or television videotape) that carries the sound record.
Improvise – v. to compose, play, recite, or sing (verse, music, etc.) on the spur of the moment extemporaneously pose and perform or deliver without previous preparation (noun – Improvisation)Influence – n. the capacity or powers of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behaviors, opinions, etc., of others Rhythmic - adj. marked by or moving in pronounced rhythm, relating to or having rhythm, recurring with measured regularity. Eclectic - adj. Selecting or choosing from various sources.Syncopation – n. Music.a shifting of thenormal accent, usually by stressing the normallyunaccentedbeats. Scale – n. Music. a succession of tones ascending or descending according to fixedintervals, especially such a series beginning on a particular note:themajorscale of C. Blues – n. a song often of lamentation characterized by usually 12-bar phrases, 3-line stanzas in which the words of the second line usually repeat those of the first, and continual occurrence of blue notes in melody and harmony; A state of depression or melancholy Ragtime - n. A style of music characterized by elaborately syncopated rhythm in the melody and a steadily accented accompaniment.Swing - n. Also called Big Band music, swing music. a style of jazz, popular especially in the 1930s and often arranged for a large dance band, marked by a smoother beat and more flowing phrasing than Dixieland and having less complex harmonies and rhythms than modern jazz.Adj. the rhythmicelement that excites dancers and listeners to move in time to jazzmusic. Bebop – n. Americanism; probably from the nonsense syllables typical of scat singingAlso called bebop jazz marked by often dissonant harmony, fast tempos, eccentric rhythms, and melodic intricacy. Hip-Hop - n./adj. The popular subculture of big-city teenagers, whichincludes rap music, break dancing, and graffiti art.n. Stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also : rap together with this musicFunk -n.A type of popular music combining elements of jazz, blues, and soul and characterized by syncopated rhythm and a heavy, repetitive bass line. adj.An earthy quality appreciated in music such as jazz or soul
American CultureWebinarsForEnglish Language TeachersBrought to you by :U.S. Embassy Lima’s Public Affairs Section
WELCOME!Our goal: To provide info on U.S. cultureAND to help you create an effective plan to use inyour classroom.Please ask questions! That’s why we’re here.
Preservation Hall, New Orleans, LouisianaOzier Muhammad/The New York Times
Jazz Appreciation Month• APRIL is Jazz Appreciation Month• UNESCO declared April 30th asInternational Jazz Day in 2011
Elements of Jazz• Jazz has many forms, with distinctive style;even today, it is still evolving and changing• Some common elements:– Improvisation– Multiple rhythms, “polyrhythms”– Syncopation– Flexible time structure, that “swing” or feeling– Group interaction, call and response style
Origins of Jazz• Beginning of 20th century, ragtime and blueswere popular music. Both influenced jazz andvice versa.• New Orleans, Louisiana, became hometo early Jazz. “Jelly Roll” Morton beganhis career in New Orleans.
Bebop and Beyond• Bebop was a deviation from the big band dance musicstyle, fans said it was a return to “musicians’ music” whilesome critics called it “noise”• Bebop style was rhythmically complex, with unexpectedchanges in chords
Jazz GreatsDave BrubeckElla FitzgeraldBillie Holiday
Example of Music TypesJazz, country, classical, reggae, rock, rap, pop, hip hop, heavymetal, gospel, blues
What a Wonderful Worldby Louis ArmstrongVideo of children around the world singing What a WonderfulWorld.Short version: 1.5 minuteshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGFCQ30xMygFull version:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddLd0QRf7VgSong lyrics:http://www.lyricsty.com/louis-armstrong-what-a-wonderful-world-lyrics.html
Lyrics: What a Wonderful WorldI see trees of green........ red roses tooI see them bloom..... for me and for youAnd I think to myself.... what a wonderful world.I see skies of blue..... clouds of whiteBright blessed days....dark sacred nightsAnd I think to myself .....what a wonderful world.The colors of a rainbow.....so pretty ..in the skyAre also on the faces.....of people ..going byI see friends shaking hands.....saying.. how do you doTheyre really saying......I love you.I hear babies cry...... I watch them growTheyll learn much more.....than Ill ever knowAnd I think to myself .....what a wonderful world
What a Wonderful World Speaking ActivitiesBeginner:• What colors are in nature? (pre-listening activation)• In groups, circle the nature words in the lyrics.Intermediate:• What do you think these lines means?I hear babies cry...... I watch them growTheyll learn much more.....than Ill ever know• What do YOU think makes the world wonderful?Advanced:• What do you think these lines means?The colors of a rainbow.....so pretty ..in the skyAre also on the faces.....of people ..going by• Do you think that music can contribute to world peace? How?
Album Cover Projects• Create a music album cover for “your band”– Name of your band– Type of music?– Song titles listIntermediate level extension:• One paragraph review of the album
Music Video ProjectsStudents create their own music videos• In groups, they will need to:– Choose an appropriate song– Memorize the words– Practice together– Video tape their performance using a camera, cellphone or computer camera• Consider creating a class blog to display thestudent videos in order to “publish” student workwith parents, administration and other students.(easy blogs at blogger.com)
Music Discussion ActivityTry this website: http://iteslj.org/questionsSample questions: low (activation for all levels)1. What is one of your favorite songs? Why do you like it?2. Do you like jazz? Why or why not?Sample questions: intermediate1. Do you think that animals can enjoy music? Why?2. If you could be a musician, who would you be? Why?Sample questions: high intermediate/high1. What instrument are you most like and why?2. If your life had a soundtrack, what kind of music wouldplay? Why?
Jazz ResourcesSmithsonian’s Jazz Page– http://www.smithsonianjazz.org/UNESCO International Jazz Day– http://www.unesco.org/new/en/jazz-dayNational Public Radio’s Jazz Page– http://www.nprjazz.org
ResourcesAmerican English webpage– americanenglish.state.govRELO Andes webpage– reloandes.com (link to this presentation foundhere!)
Music Links from WebinarJelly Roll Morton playing Scott Joplin’s Maple Leaf Rag (as a Stomp)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEfW4sggZCkOriginal Dixieland Jazz Band “Livery Stable Blues” 2008 recordinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ahodYxIN0cCharlie Parker “Groovin’ High”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukL3TDV6XRgDave Brubeck “Take Five”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmDDOFXSgAsMiles Davis “So What”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqNTltOGh5cNOW GO CHECK OUT SOME MORE!
Vocabulary - BeginnerMUSIC INSTRUMENTJAZZ SOUNDTRACKSING LATIN JAZZLISTEN THE JAZZ AGEVOICE HARMONYRHYTHM BEAT