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Erickson’s Stages of Development Erik Erikson proposed that humans develop apersonality in 8 psychosocial stages During each stage, we experience a particularpsychosocial crisis it must be resolvedpositively or negatively Each outcome will have an effect on our ability todeal with the next crisis According to Erickson the crisis at each stage ofdevelopment must be resolved positively beforeone can successfully master subsequent stages
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development1. Trust vs.Mistrust(Infancy)When all an infants needs are met,trust develops.2. Autonomy vs.Shame(Toddlerhood)Parents who create supportiveenvironments allow toddlers to learnself-sufficiency and gain confidence.Overprotective or disapprovingparents can lead to children whosecond-guess themselves.
3. Initiative vs. Guilt(Preschooler)Children who receiveencouragement andconsistent discipline gainesteem while learning to takechances. If children receivenothing but scolding, theymay develop an overridingsense of guilt. Children at thisstage improve their motorskills and become moreinterested in socialinteraction.Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development4. Industry vs.Inferiority(Elementary)Doing well in school and making friendshelps children develop a sense ofcompetence or industry. Otherwise theyfeel a sense of inadequacy.5. Identity vs.Role Confusion(Adolescence)If teens successfully answer the question,"who am I?" they develop a strong senseof self. If, however, they remain confusedabout their identity, they will likely growup with an inability to make crucialdecisions.
6. Intimacy vs.Isolation(YoungAdulthood)Intimacy is possible with a more-or-lesssolid sense of identity gained in earlierstages. If young adults still harbor doubtsabout who they are, then they are likelyto become isolated, fear commitments,and root themselves in egocentrism.Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development7.Generativityvs. Stagnation(MiddleAdulthood)Adults in this stage may dedicate their livesto rearing children, to their work, or to somespecial cause, all in hope of leaving mark onthe world. People resolve the conflict ofgenerativity versus stagnation by givingsomething of themselves to futuregenerations. If adults fail to make acontribution to the world, they remaincaught up in egoism and a self-centeredlifestyle.
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development8. Integrity vs.Despair(Late Adulthood)At this time of life, adults look back on their lives andevaluate their effect on the world. If the previous stageshave been resolved positively, adults are able to approachtheir deaths from a healthy point of view. Otherwise, theymay fear death and regret their lives.
Summary No one moves through all 8 stages with onlysuccesses Successes need to outnumber the failures Can become stuck in a stage Struggle to create a healthy personality is whatmakes life satisfying