India: Demography and Society

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India: Demography and Society

  1. 1. DemographySocietyof IndiaAss. ProfessorIrina PetrosyanMSUFFLAS
  2. 2. Demographics: introductionhttp://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/7-billionhttp://www.economist.com/blogs/multimedia/2010/11/world_population• lakh = 100,000• crore = 10m
  3. 3. PopulationgrowthHistorical population of IndiaCensus Pop. %±1951 361,088,000 —1961 439,235,000 21.6%1971 548,160,000 24.8%1981 683,329,000 24.7%1991 846,387,888 23.9%2001 1,028,737,436 21.5%2011 1,210,193,422 17.6%Age structure0-14 years: 29.7% (male187,450,635/female 165,415,758)15-64 years: 64.9% (male398,757,331/female 372,719,379)65 years and over: 5.5% (male30,831,190/female 33,998,613)Median agetotal: 26.5 yearsmale: 25.9 yearsfemale: 27.2 years
  4. 4. Fertility rate• 2.58 childrenborn/woman• Goa –the lowest• Uttar Pradesh –the highestCrude birth rate trends in India(per 1000 people, national average
  5. 5. PopulationdensityRank City name State/UT Pop.1 Mumbai Maharashtra 12,478,4472 Delhi Delhi 11,007,8353 Bangalore Karnataka 8,425,9704 Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh 6,809,9705 Ahmedabad Gujarat 5,570,5856 Chennai Tamil Nadu 4,681,0877 Kolkata West Bengal 4,486,6798 Surat Gujarat 4,462,0029 Pune Maharashtra 3,115,43110 Jaipur Rajasthan 3,073,350urban population: 30% of total populationrate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change
  6. 6. Literacy rateState/UT Code India/State/UT Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.3332 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98INDIA 74.04 82.14 65.46Infant mortality ratetotal: 46.07 deaths/1,000 live birthsLife expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.14 yearsmale: 66.08 yearsfemale: 68.33 years
  7. 7. Ethnic groups• Indo-Aryan 72%,• Dravidian 25%,• Mongoloid and Negrito 3%
  8. 8. Genetics• fewer females since prehistoric times• tribes and castes – highly differentiated• Austroasiatic tribals – the earliest settlers inIndia (?)• most population migrated from the northeast• the Tibeto-Burman tribals – the Austroasiatictribals – south China (?)• the Dravidian tribals – used to be morewidespread but moved to the south• the upper castes – closer to Central Asianpopulations, but not that much in southern India• “melting pot”
  9. 9. 7 billion• The 7thbillion personborn in Uttar Pradesh,India, in 2011• Malthusian theory of the English economistThomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) statedthat increases in population tend to exceedincreases in the means of subsistence andthat therefore sexual restraint should beexercised
  10. 10. Population growth implications• unbalanced population (north – south,urban – rural)• strategic asset for India: innovation, army,etc.• growing demand injobs,schools,opportunities,resources.
  11. 11. Population growth implications• gender discrimination – ‘gendercide’, ‘foeticide’• child marriages (for protection, debt cancellation,capture, etc.)• girl = somebody else’s wealth• migration, ‘trafficking’, of women• Sex ratio:at birth: 1.12 male(s)/femaleunder 15 years: 1.13 m/f15-64 years: 1.07 m/f65 years and over: 0.9 m/ftotal population: 1.08 m/f
  12. 12. Next classLecture: EconomyPresentation:The economic prospects of IndiaDiscussion:What’s the recipe for economic success?

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