Lack of Cultural Significance in Social Housing for Shiites in India


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Shiite Muslims, world over, is the second largest sect of Muslims which have different traditions than Sunni Muslims and so do their housing needs. In democratic country like India, Muslims are usually found settled in homogeneous groups, largely viewed as religious ghettos. This paper highlights the issues behind the formation of these ghettos where such settlements come up not due to the economic disparity, as a usual case, but it’s often the result of lack in provision for cultural or institutional needs. Through the case example of Lucknow city- a place of majority of Shiite habitation, this paper will discuss the needs of Shiite Muslims into the neighbourhood planning, so that they are no more being marginalised into the city planning/ urban design.

This paper focuses on the traditional Indian Shiite housing in the light of policy parameters of the Islamic housing, cultural parameters of the sect, and the transformation over time due to urbanisation. For analysing the sect’s urban habitation, this paper discusses about community’s requirements acting as determinant for shaping their neighbourhoods and dwelling units, making their housing different from any other social housing.

Based on the studies & observations, an attempt is made to reduce the gap between the information and the practice of neighbourhood design. It contributes towards the social sustainability by securing concept of ‘housing for all’ incorporating the community needs, and also secures from undue pressure on ecological resources by channelizing the required housing type

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Lack of Cultural Significance in Social Housing for Shiites in India

  1. 1. ISDRC2014/6c7 1 20 TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CONFERENCE NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, TRONDHEIM, NORWAY, JUNE 18-20, 2014 LACK OF CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE IN SOCIAL HOUSING FOR SHIITES IN INDIA Ms. IRAM AZIZ Consultant to Delhi Development Authority ABSTRACT Shiite Muslims, world over, is the second largest sect of Muslims which have different traditions than Sunni Muslims and so do their housing needs. This need is usually not fulfilled by the social housing provided in India as these are totally oriented towards economic affordability and not the religious & cultural requirements. To understand the core of these needs, development of their housing is studied at two levels. Firstly, housing development in the light of policy parameters derived from Holy Qur’an and Hadith, and secondly, the Shi’as cultural1 practices, as practised in India. From the said study levels, Shiite’s requirements have been analysed which act as determinant for shaping their urban habitation, making their housing different from any other social housing. Such specific requirements of Muslims, especially Shi’as, tend them to converge into one single neighbourhood as they lack in any other formal housing. Being the minority religion in India, these homogenous settlements are then largely being viewed as ghettos. Based on the studies & observations, this paper will discuss the requirements of Shiite Muslims into the neighbourhood planning, so that they are no more being marginalised into the city planning/ urban design. This paper will attempt to reduce the gap between the information and the practice of neighbourhood design in Indian context. Thus, it contributes towards the social sustainability by securing concept of ‘housing for all’ incorporating the community needs, and also secures from undue pressure on ecological resources by channelizing the required housing type. Keywords: Islam, Muslims, Shiite, Neighbourhood, Housing, Culture. 1 INTRODUCTION Around two decades ago, so many unauthorised and informal settlements were noticed in and around most of the metropolitan cities of India. It was then realised as a result of demand & supply gap of formal affordable housing for middle income groups, lower income groups and economically weaker sections. Provision of social housing was then made by the Public sector and/ or through PPP on the peri-urban areas as low cost housing or 'site & services' programme to be affordable to EWS or as ‘slum redevelopment’ programmes within/outside cities, but then even these are not successful to cater homes to the Indian Muslims, especially Shi'as. To understand the core base of this community's inaccessibility to social housing, it is required to observe the definition of social housing and understand the situation & practices of Indian Muslims, including Shi'as. 1.1 Understanding ‘Social Housing’ Housing has always been the bi-product of socio-economic conditions of households and so the targeted section of society. With this fact, any formal housing provision, including social housing, couldn’t be considered only on the economic profile of targeted group of society. As per the British definition, social housing can either be termed for provided for people having low incomes or/ and people with ‘particular needs’ by government agencies or non-profit organizations. These needs could then be identified as religious & cultural (social) too. Also, as per the Architects Council of Europe, ‘Social housing is understood as a space for living, planned and promoted by Public Administration. 1 Term ‘cultural’ is in reference to Shiites’ beliefs and practices as used by the author on self-observation. The word may not be true to the belief of some or all Shiites’ sects. Author has no intention of offence to the referred Muslim sect.
  2. 2. ISDRC2014/6c7 2 Housing has been created with the support of social policies that help those people who have economic problems to have access to housing. As Human Rights for housing establishes, housing is a basic need that all humans have and which must be promoted along with social, medical and educational attention. So it is to be acknowledged that social housing must always be developed based on economics as well as social requirements. In India, it has been observed that the religious minorities either doesn’t get access to social housing due to affordability reasons or they willingly do not want to move in these formally developed housing due to lack of social & cultural requirements. Figure 1. Housing is the bi-product of economic condition and social needs. 1.2 Socio-Economic status of Muslims in India As for the social status, Muslims are considered to be socially backward whereas in the OBC (Other Backward Class) criteria laid by Indian law doesn't account all Muslims as socially backwards but do acknowledge them as OBCs on the basis of household incomes and their castes. Being from the minority community (refer section 2), they live under fear and insecurity as is highlighted in the report of Prime Minister’s High Level Committee (Sachar Committee) in 2006. As from the perspective of city planner or city designer, integration of this community with the other communities is difficult as their social requirements (not demand) require extra space as part of social infrastructure for residential area. Taking an example from Sachar Committee report where it is highlighted that Muslims ensures that its future generations acquire knowledge of Islam through madarsas, and to have a symbol of Muslim identity in India. So madarsa is like an addition to provision of Islamic education institute in addition to the requirement of modern education institute. As for the economic status, report of Sachar Committee clear states that the Monthly per Capita Expenditure of Muslim groups much lower than the national average, and so it doesn’t allow them to own a formal house on their savings. Also, this community remain deprived of loans too due to iniquitous access to public and private banking institutions perpetuating disparities. This reason resorts Muslims (religious minority group) to remain living in their informal settlements without any or little infrastructure. Such concentrated pockets then turn out as easy targets for neglect by municipal and government authorities (refer example of Figure 2) Figure 2. Neglect in infrastructure investments in Muslim dominated neighbourhoods of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) Source: Sunday Times, April 20, 2014.
  3. 3. ISDRC2014/6c7 3 1.3 Provisions through Policies & Programmes for Social housing As per aim stated in National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007 (by MoUHPA) and under section 8.5.1 of Model State Affordable Housing Policy for Urban Areas, 2010 (by MoUHPA), it is observed that thrust has been put to social and cultural requirements of all target groups along with the affordability factor for providing social housing. But then this is limited to the policy vision and framework, and does not get realised on-ground due to lack of cultural knowledge (of targeted groups) by city professionals. In addition to policies, there are several programmes like Rajiv Gandhi Awas Yojna (RAY), Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojna (VAMBAY), National Slum Development Programme (NSDP), cooperative Housing Programme, etc. which failed to attract Muslims in majority. Though in some social housing, Muslims were housed, but nowhere Shi'as could be noticed as beneficiaries of these programmes. Such examples of Muslim settlements (formal and informal) could be seen in NCTD, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and others. The informal settlements are comprised of various sects of Muslims, whereas formal housing comprises usually Sunnis only. 1.3 Concluding the Issue base At the larger picture, Muslims' requirements for social housing are not limited to its economic conditions but they also possess their religious and cultural requirements. Inaccessibility of Muslims to social housing could be easily assumed to be because of their economic conditions, but then a lot of Muslim section who can afford these formal housing are not willing to move into them due to the insufficiency of the religious needs, especially when it comes to Shi'a Muslims. Even if few settlements get planned and designed specifically for Muslims, which are usually cooperative or private development, they leave out the cultural requirements of Shia Muslims compelling them to keep living in informal housing. Not only this, but planning and designing of such neighbourhoods is usually not done integrated with the adjacent neighbourhoods largely leaving them polarised and marginalised further. Here the topic of Muslims' inaccessibility to social housing is vast ranging from economic condition to social requirements, this paper will deal with the social (religious and cultural) incapacity of social housing. This paper will identify the religious and significant cultural requirements of Muslims, particular to Shiites, will be done in the light of religious scriptures and ground realities as exists today in India, for delivering feasibly housing and social harmony in the society. Figure 3. Housing requirement for Muslims (Sunni and Shia sects) 2 SHIA POPULATION As per PEW in 2009, it was estimated that 23% of the world’s population followed Islam, called as Muslims. Approximately 60% of the global Muslim population resides in Asia having one-fifth of world’s Muslim population residing in countries where Islam is not the major religion. Such ratio at
  4. 4. ISDRC2014/6c7 4 country level makes Muslims falling in the category of minorities, including India. Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% is Shia Muslims and 87-90% is Sunni Muslims. Here, more than 67% of the world’s Shias (among 10-13% of total Shia Muslims) live in four nations: India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. In India, Muslim population figures around 10% of world’s total Muslim population making it third largest Muslim populated country after Indonesia and Pakistan. Muslims in India are about 172 million as per Census of India, 2001, which is almost 13.4% of the country’s population making them India’s largest religious minority. Figure 4. Muslim Population strength in selected States as per Census of India, 2001 It is considered that Shia Muslims are about 4% of the total Muslim population in every state and union territory of India, making them around 6.88 million with the total housing stock of 1.4 million (formal & informal) distributed in the country. Shiite Muslims residing in India and reflecting the special character to the neighbourhood are majorly found in Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Bihar. Basic difference between Sunni Muslims and Shi’a Muslims is the belief of Khilafat and Wilayat. Sunni Muslims recognises Khilafat of the four apostles of Prophets – Haz. Abu Bakr (p.b.u.h.) Haz. Umar (p.b.u.h.), Hz. Uthman (p.b.u.h.) and Haz. Ali (p.b.u.h.) as caliphs, where the Shi’a Muslims doesn’t recognise Haz. Ali as caliph but Wali & Imam. This basic difference among the two Muslim communities, differ few ways of practicing the Islamic religion and life. Such difference is seen on the physical fabric of their settlements as well. Few case examples across India were studied which have high concentration of Shia population. Here the symbolic and social connotations of the existing traditional environment were examined, in the light of the teachings of Islamic religion. With the gathered information, comprehensive study was made regarding the functioning of urban settlement based upon the religious, social and cultural parameters of the neighbourhoods. The nature of the paper is solely based upon the information analysis of the particular community and place, and may not be completely same for all the urban Shiite settlements of complete India. Based on observations, issues are analysed related to residential neighbourhoods in context to Islamic principles and teachings, but then this paper does not intend to produce concrete recommendations for the provision or rejuvenation of the Shiite neighbourhoods but works towards the thinking process. 3 ISLAMIC FAITH AND BUILT MORPHOLOGY Islam is universal and strictly monotheistic religion. Holy Qur’an encourages believers to “Obey God and His Envoy” (Surah 8:1), put forth the prophet as “a fine example for whosoever hopeth on God and the last day and rememberth God much” (Surah 33:21). The Holy Qur’an asks Muslims to associate with each other strongly and be tied up with the sense of community as ‘Hold on firmly together to the rope of God, and be not divided among yourselves…..’(Surah 3:103), whereas simultaneously teaches to have ‘no distinction between an Arab and a non-Arab. There is no
  5. 5. ISDRC2014/6c7 5 preference for black over white, or white over black’. Thus the Al-Qur’an, the Sunna and the Hadith, together preaches its ummah the way of living. These practices contributed greatly to endowing Muslim dominated neighbourhoods with certain characteristics. Such practices realised the importance of social institutions based upon four said sources. Islam is essentially a religion of lawi but there are no precise urban planning and urban design norms. For setting up or developing a residential neighbourhood, this law is translated into four policy parameters to be most important for a Muslim housing or neighbourhood based from Al-Qur’an and Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), are as follows; 1. Dwelling population Almighty Allah tells the prophet that a population is to be viewed as a society, and to that population the prophet has to provide his prophetic talents. "We sent him to a hundred thousand or more" (37: 147) Al-Quran 2. Spatial Extent of housing Allah Almighty notes in Al-Quran, "Makkah" as "Harem". "Have we not set up a Harem for them" (2857) Al-Quran Also, Allah Almighty says that houses must be made homes as they constitute main component of any neighbourhood. If not, some people may end up homeless, even though they possess houses. “So therefore, people's houses, which are main components in neighbourhoods, must be planned and designed in such a way as to function as a safe heaven and places of rest and quiet” (Qur'an, 16:80) 3. Main focal point The Prophet came to Madina and ordered a masjid to be built and said "0 Bani Najjar, suggest me the price (of your land). (Bukhari Vo1.3, page 53 & 54, Hadith 92). 4. Environment perseverance/ upgradation This environment is to be respected and regarded accordingly. Environment perseverance or development will make you realise of your acts: good deeds reap good habitat, bad deed reap bad habitat. “The environment in its totality is an expression of God's oneness, mercy and omnipotence” (Qur'an, 3:190–191) ii Settlement in Islam, more importantly, stands for the ground for the people's interaction with Allah the Creator & Lord, space, the environment and, of course, with themselves at various levels, given that the settlement is a scene where they live, work, play, learn, worship, rise and fall. The outcome of these and other activities which the people engage themselves in settlements, especially urban ones, is what we call cultures and civilizations but which vary by reason of the principles and values on which they rest, as well as by reason of the objectives intended to be thereby achieved. Hence, it was very much suitable for the name of the prototype Islamic city, i.e. Madinah, to be derived from the word tamaddun, which denotes civilization. Muslim neighbourhoods are reflection of above parameters where the built environment is a result of Muslim societal behaviour and social structure. Dwelling population, masjids, houses, natural environment and graveyards make important components of the Muslim neighbourhoods. It shows that neighbourhoods’ extent of dwelling is not merely confined to people’s house walls, but their activities shape their neighbourhoods. Thus, the urban fabric could be considered as an accumulation of many successive activities that reflect the age and degree of maturity of the city to which it belongs. The activities could be subdivided into two categories: the first reflected the private sector and the second are related to the public sector, each of which had its own regulations. Private activity was based on Freedom, and thus led to architectural diversity and urban dynamism, while public activity was based on Public Interest and was mostly related to structuring components of the city. Planning of any Muslim settlement is in order to have some focal point, which is usually a masjid as an integral requirement and so approachable part of the group of clusters. Masjids are supposed to be placed in the direction of West face, making entrance on eastern side, and should be within the walking distance of Muslim houses to facilitate offering of Salah (prayer) five times a day. From here, planning benchmark is set to plan an area accordingly, with radial or parallel streets running towards the Masjid within walking distance (no benchmark for walking distance is defined in Islam).
  6. 6. ISDRC2014/6c7 6 The religious sensibility of the Muslim inhabitants have further important characteristic, as mentioned before, is the strong sense of community- of common ties, outlook and purpose. Such reasons characterises the homogeneity of Muslim settlements in any heterogeneous city. 4 SHIITES’ CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS In addition to the practice of 5 pillars of Islam- Shahadah (faith), Salah (prayer), Roza (fasting), Zakat (charity) and Hajj (pilgrimage), Shiites observe the entire month of Moharram as a period of mass mourning. During first 10 days of 1st month of Islamic year, Shi’as observes Moharram where there is no celebration or expression of joy of any kind. Moharram has a history of Karbala battle where the sons of Haz’rat Ali got martyred. People do hadith telling in gatherings enactment in remembrance of Karbala battle. Public enactments of grief, depicting scenes from the battle of Karbala, are carried out in Shiite Masjids on the first ten days of this month. People clad in black assemble and recite plaintive verses. The first nine days are spent in making tazia, where on the tenth day, decorated tazias are carried through the city streets. A horse is led in procession in memory of Imam Hussain’s horse. Destination place for tazia is Karbala. Thus, as per requirement of Shiite practices, spatial character of Shiite settlements is slightly differently from Sunni Muslims and is more intricate being dependent on the social set up and activity pattern. The change in attitude and activity reflects on the built fabric, where in turn, this change in built fabric affects the continuity of the acuity and social set up. Figure 5. Shias observing Moharram procession 5 BUILT ENVIRONMENT FOR SHIITES 5.1 Shiites’ Neighbourhoods Shiite neighbourhoods are no exceptions than any other Islamic neighbourhood, except in the terms of their culture and societal behaviour. Like other settlements, they reflect traits of fiqh, close community pattern of ummah (community) as physically manifested into cul-de-sac mohallahs (street), and few important social buildings and places. This close knitted fabric reflects the concept of tauhid (oneness). Their social spaces are usually observed as religious places or institutions which are of major significance determining the settlement pattern as a whole in addition to the Masjid and graveyard, are Imambara and place of Karbala. For example, old Lucknow (refer Figure 6) where Imambara and Karbala act as focal points. Existence of such institutions defines the expanse of Shiite habitation and the strength of ritual practice by the community.
  7. 7. ISDRC2014/6c7 7 In Shiites’ settlement, main masjid are important to guide and unite neighbourhood same as of any other Muslim neighbourhood, whereas they also have special requirement of Imambaras which are important to practice Shiite rituals caterings to cluster of neighbourhoods. Thus, as per social hierarchy, Imambaras and Jama Masjid are equally important elements of any Shiite settlement. Lucknow has Bara Imambara sharing its precincts with main Shiite Masjid, and Chota Imambara, and then masjids at mohallah level or cluster level (refer Figure 6). Figure 6. Locational map showing Shia institutes in Old Lucknow From case examples, it is very clear that there are three foci of Islamic religious life (apart from graveyard) in and around Shiite neighbourhoods- Masjid cum Madarsa, Imambara and Karbala. In masjids, prayers are performed and people are imparted education, wherein Imambaras, assemblies are held related to Moharram processions for hadith telling and expressing grief over Karbala battle. Imambaras remain open for all irrespective of religion, and tend to bring people together. No one can belittle this function in the present circumstances.
  8. 8. ISDRC2014/6c7 8 5.2 Shiites’ Houses As discussed in 3.2, cultural aspect of Indian Shi’as dominantly influences spatial organisation of the neighbourhood and its housing requirement. It is important to study the typology of their dwelling units referred to as Harem in Al-Qur’an (Surah 28:57). These are actually determined by the religious and social activity pattern. Like many traditional Indian Muslim houses, these too have separate males’ area known as mardana khana and females’ area as zenana khana, and a big central courtyard. Notable feature of a traditional Shiite house in India, is that they have a separate room for placing their tazia within homes (may not be case for all houses but is usual) (refer Figure 7). Figure 7. House plan showing the spatial organisation of traditional Shiite Harem Bigger houses which were used for majlisi and mourning sessions do no longer exist in their actual size and use. People have started moving out of their adaptation of urban house form. Even new neighbourhoods of Shiite community now lack the social integration and the required places within the settlement as well as within their own houses. People engaged in Moharram ceremonies of tazia processions and majlisi, have started avoiding participation in such religious and social processions due to overcrowding of streets during the on-going ceremonies. All these factors for transformation of typical settlement and the loss of ethnic essence are usually called as the process of urbanisation by the planning & city design professionals, ignoring the fact that such transformation is a result of formal housing without incorporation of social needs. With this so called urbanisation, the housing typology of Shiite neighbourhoods had been compelling the transformation of most of the harems and neighbourhoods from their social needs to modern day demands. The new generation is swaying away from their culture, though they practice few Shiite rituals but are getting away from their clergy and organisation. Here the housing transformation is notably dynamic in nature and the analysis is complex because of various factors involved. 5 CONCLUSION Identification of such religious and ethnic groups is important for the provision of housing into the metropolitan framework. Neglecting the special needs of the group compel them to set-up their own neighbourhoods largely putting pressure on land as a resource. Gradually, such settlements are viewed as ghettos and become the issue of politics in democratic societies without any solutions or facilitations. With such set-ups, these neighbourhoods start receiving more population of similar
  9. 9. ISDRC2014/6c7 9 nature pressurising the existing infrastructure further and further, in addition to the depletion of quality environment for living. Identified formal housing for Muslims is usually seen in traditional or old areas of cities where there had been spaces to fulfil all cultural and religious requirements. Notably, these areas tend to have mixed communities of various religions. Now even these areas are under transformation due to varied reasons leading deviation in landuse as well as building floor use. These reasons range from physical planning & designing norms of city & neighbourhoods, non-availability of religious institutes at other places, insufficient cultural spaces in the city, etc. In this process, importance of Shiites’ traditional housing is getting lost and at macro level it is causing transformation of urban space of Shiite settlement. Such pressures lead to depletion in natural as well as built environment. Even after the Islamic obligation for environment preservation and upgradation as discussed in 2 (4), these people are helpless to act against their physical and social environment. As already discussed, such requirements related to religion and faith, Muslims starts agglomerating or converge at one place/ vicinity of religious institutes satisfying their religious needs. Muslims, particularly Shi’as, automatically gets marginalised due to non-fulfilment of religious requirements from the facilitation of formal houses by the mass housing providers, be it public or private player. Notably, there is no independent authority to keep track of the developments, neighbourhood transformations and identification/ documentation of cultural & religious activities of the targeted group. Also there is no coordination among the existing urban regulatory and social agencies looking integratedly into the urban and social developments. Interestingly, in the democratic society of India, two school of thoughts are observed with one being against such homogenous development as it is viewed as threat to peace and society development, where the other school is in favour of such homogenous development as it satisfies the community needs at local level as well as generate belongingness to the place. With such difference in thoughts lies a question of integrating these homogenous groups with the heterogeneous society. 6 SUGGESTIONS It is important to identify the social needs of the targeted groups to be incorporated into the planning and design of housing for them. So when it comes to housing for Muslims, city planners and designers must also take into account that urban fabric of Shiite Settlements does differ from the usual Muslim settlement because of the cultural requirements of the sect. Moreover, with the pace of growing population and urbanisation, the already existing traditional settlements pertain to deterioration, and hence require simultaneous attention to keep the housing stock sustained. These could be done at three major levels; 1. At Policy level, it is necessary to identify the extended Shiite settlements or neighbourhoods distinctively and in contrast to the development zones and the new areas of growth. And thus develop an overall strategy for the future of traditional Shiite settlement as well as providing new formal housing within a metropolitan limit for the sect. Such strategy should encompass religious needs in order to be successful at implementation level and to avoid propping of homogenous settlements. As an observation, heterogeneous settlements are considered to be safer towards city’s law & order over having homogenous settlements. 2. At neighbourhood level, integration of physical infrastructure with social requirements needs to be sorted out. a. Additional provision of land requirement for religious purposes be introduced in planning norms, keeping a check on the extent of neighbourhood population they can serve. Such norms will help integrate various religions within one neighbourhood. This will help Indian societies to not to be polarised but to associate with each other reflecting true meaning of “Secular India”. b. Integration of various religious groups through urban design is important to pull out this special group (Shi’as) from the tag of ghetto. Example of Chandni Chowk (Old Delhi, also known as Shahjahanabad) could be referred here, where this main road stretch abuts Masjid (for Sunni and Shi’a both), Hindu Temple, Gurudwara (religious institute for Sikhs) and Church. For such neighbourhood design in today’s cities, current planning and city design norms may have to be modified upto the level that can incorporate mixing of religious groups.
  10. 10. ISDRC2014/6c7 10 c. Due to the Moharram processions, congestion on roads and streets is unavoidable. The only thing which can be done about it is the provision of separate pedestrian route to be demarcated especially for these ceremonial processions during the month of Moharram, as well as alternate routes for vehicular movement must be identified beforehand. 3. At harem level, overcrowding of bigger dwelling units tend to split up or partitioned into smaller dwellings including the spaces meant for keeping tazia and holding majlisi. In order to retain the ritual significance of such harem typology, need for housing should be taken care by the housing providers- public and private both. Simultaneously, these people must be involved or given the opportunity to set-up their own social housing or neighbourhood rather than being given no choice other than usual formal housing which lead these people to sub- divide their own properties. GLOSSARY OF TERMS; MoUHPA Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Muslims Followers of Islam Hadith Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) said and others compiled. Sunnah Prophet Muhammad’s (p.b.u.h) life activities Masjid Mosque/ Building structure for offering prayers by Muslims Madarsa Education Institute Tazia Replica of Death Bed of Imam Hassan (p.b.u.h) and Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h) Imambara Social Institute to house Tazia Karbala Cemetary for Tazia, an imitation/duplication of Karbala ground Fiqh Study of Islamic Law Harem Dwelling Unit REFERENCES [1] National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, Ministry of Urban Housing and Poverty Alleviation, 2007. [2] Model State Affordable Housing Policy for Urban Areas (Draft), Section 8.5.1, Ministry of Urban Housing and Poverty Alleviation, 2013. [3] Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India, Government of India, 2006. [4] i Coulson, N.J., A History of Islamic Law, Edinburgh University Press, 1964 [5] ii Spahic Omar, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 2007, Vol. 12, No. 2. [6] Abu Ghazzeh, Tawfiq M., Built Form and Religion:Underlying Structures of Jeddah Al- Qademah, TDSR Vol.V No. 11, p. 50, 1994 [7] Ben-Hamouche, Mustafa, Complexity of Urban Fabric in traditional Muslim cities: Importing old wisdoms to present cities, Urban Design International, Vol. 14, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. [8] Rizvi, Saiyid Athar Abbas, A Socio-Intellectual History of the Isna-Ashari Shi’is in India, Vol. I & II, Munshiram Manohar Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1986. [9] Semester- II, M.Planning (Housing), Housing in Lucknow-A Atudy, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, 2009. [10] Garg, Parul, Developing a Process of Conservation of an Historic Mixed Landuse Area, Deptt. of Conservation, School of Planning and Architecture, 2001-2002. [11] Sohail Ahmad, Article: Housing Inequality Amongst Disadvantaged Communities in India, United Nations University, 2012