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Factors for City Transformation
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Factors for City Transformation

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Factors for City Transformation Factors for City Transformation Presentation Transcript

  • FACTORS FOR TRANSFORMATION OF CITIES
  • Development Patterns (Meijers and Burger 2009) Source: Report on ‘Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts’, y Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
  • • Factors causing Transformations: – Population growth – Migration – Upgradation of infrastructure – Political and Management issues
  • POPULATION GROWTH & MIGRATION
  • Migration vs. Population Growth • In 1975 there were 11 cities across the world with more than 8 millions citizens. Most of them were in developed countries. • In the year 2000 there already were 24. Of them only 6 were in developed countries. • UN population broadcast estimates that by 2015 24 of the 30 largest cities in the world will be in developing countries. Rio de Janeiro
  • Source; Dinesh Mehta, Emerging Challenges of Urban Planning in India, Indian Urban Congress (2011)
  • An Uneven Growth • • • • • • • Number of cities increase faster in developing countries that have more difficulties to provide the basic needs (jobs, housing, drinking water, etc.) to their population. Therefore, the chaotic urban sprawl that takes place in many developing countries comes to be another world inequality. Moreover in developed countries the urban growth rate tends to decrease, whereas, in developing countries this rate is increasing constantly. Indeed, nowadays developed countries only hold 35% of the world urban population while the other 65% is in developing countries. Hence, urban population is increasing around the world growth twice as fast as in developed countries. Therefore, its in developing countries where we can really talk of a population explosion since 1970s. For example, the African urban population which was only of 22 millions in 1950, has grown up to 350 millions by 2005. Conclusion: developing countries have taken over from developed countries in urban growth. However, this growth have brought poor conditions and low standards of living to the cities.
  • RESULT OF POPULATION EXPLOSION Source; Dinesh Mehta, Emerging Challenges of Urban Planning in India, Indian Urban Congress (2011)
  • MAIN PROBLEMS IN SHANTY TOWNS • Overcrowding - the settlement has a high population density. • Fires - fires can spread quickly. • Overpopulation - the area does not have enough resources to support the growing population. • Competition for jobs - jobs are in short supply. • Disease - poor sanitation and limited health care can lead to the spread of disease. • Lack of space - the newest and poorest arrivals may be forced to live on the worst quality land. • Insecurity - Social & physical insecurity related to being and rights. • Infrastructure - services are poor, public transport is limited and connections to the electricity supply can be limited and sometimes dangerous.
  • DHARAVI, MUMBAI
  • DHARAVI, MUMBAI
  • HONK KONG
  • HONK KONG
  • UPGRADATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Credible Infrastructure for transforming spaces/ area/ cities • Institutional supply – Education – Religious • Medical facilities • Transport connectivity • Water supply • Sewage & drainage • Solid waste management • Public parks & Playgrounds
  • TRANSPORT NETWORK related Transformation
  • Intra Urban Transport Eras and Urban Growth. Source: Adams (1970)
  • Strong Centre Archetype Urban Transport Archetypes. Central Place Hierarchy with Hexagonal Market Areas. Source: Thomson (1977). Source: Christaller (1933).
  • The Central Place (left) and Network (right) Models of Urban Structure. Source: Meijers (2007).
  • Full Motorisation Archetype Urban Transport Archetypes. Source: Thomson (1977).
  • Full Motorisation Archetype Urban Transport Archetypes. Source: Thomson (1977).
  • Full Motorisation Archetype Urban Transport Archetypes. Source: Thomson (1977).
  • Housing Cost impacts; Reduce Affordability • Urban growth boundaries reduce developable land supply, increasing unit land costs. • Increases some building costs (structure parking, curbs, sidewalks, sound barriers, etc.). • • Increase Affordability • Increased density, reduced parking requirements and setbacks, reduces land requirements per housing unit. • More diverse, affordable housing options (secondary suites, apartments over shops, loft apartments). • Smart growth market reforms provide financial savings for reduces parking demand and more compact development. Public infrastructure costs are far higher for lower density and dispersed development than compact development. Many smart growth strategies can increase housing affordability.
  • POLITICAL & MANAGEMENT ISSUE + UPGRADATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf HAUSSMANISATION
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf Paris (1751)
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf Street life in 1840s
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf Plan for Modernisation, 1853-70
  • Railroad spread
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf Demolition….. 1850s
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf 1862-75
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf
  • Source: http://www.arch.wsu.edu/classes/arch324/class_material/Haussmann's%20Paris/viewer.swf Shanty towns….
  • • Realty market effected • Social imbalance- Revolutions • Economic polarisation • Legal amendments; Effects; – Declaration of Human Rights – Act for Property Acquisition – Legal jurisdictions • Morphological change – Transport network – Building typology – Sprawl on outskirts- encroachments
  • Plan for Modernisation, 1853-70
  • Instead of development in isolation and then carving out axes & avenues, a site can be treated as more connected with the surroundings INFILL DEVELOPMENT
  • The “Three Pillars” of Sustainable Development.