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Group Dynamics on Malaysian Technical Cooperation Program 2009

Group Dynamics on Malaysian Technical Cooperation Program 2009

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  • 1. WELCOMEThe Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme (MTCP 2009) GROUP DYNAMICS By MS. PRABHA 26 MAY 2009
  • 2. TEAM DEFINED“A team is a small number of people with complementary skillswho are committed to a common purpose, performance goals,and approach for which they hold themselves mutuallyaccountable.”John Katzenbach and Douglas Smith. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 3. Group Dynamics (Kurt Lewin)• The term is first used to describe the powerful processes that takes place in groups.• It also refers to the scientific study of groups. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 4. IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORKIncreasing numbers of companies are realising that teamsoffers many advantages over the more traditional ways oforganising the workforce. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 5. TYPES OF TEAMS1. Functional Team A type of work team composed of a manager and his or her subordinates from a particular functional area. Within this functional area, issues such as authority, decision making, leadership and interactions are relatively simple and clear. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 6. 2. Self- Managed Team A type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment. The self- managed team is responsible for getting work done and for managing themselves.3. Cross - Functional Team A type of work team that is a hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who together on various tasks. Many organisations are using cross – functional teams. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 7. 4. Virtual Team A type of work team that uses computer to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Virtual team can do all the things that other team can – shares information, makes decision, and completes task. However, they miss the give - and- take of face-to-face discussions. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 8. TEAM PURPOSEA team’s purpose is guided by its mission. A team’s purpose isdefined as something that the team intends to do. It is the object forwhich the team exists as determined by the team leader and teammembers. It is a clearly stated purpose that serves to direct andmotivate the team in its pursuit of its goal. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 9. TEAM MISSIONEffective teams are driven by an inspiring mission that must supportthe organisation’s vision. The mission is best expressed in writtenformat stating the team’s intended direction. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 10. A clearly articulated mission provides the foundation for developinggoals and action plans that will assist the team in reaching its desiredoutcomes.The mission statement must contain three elements: • What does the team do ? • For whom does the team performs its function ? • How does the team go about doing its job ? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 11. TEAM MISSION: WHO? WHAT? AND HOW? Who?What? How? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 12. SAMPLE MISSION STATEMENT The ABC TeamWe are the ABC team formed to provide quality informationtechnology support to all customers, concentrating ourresources on regional branches, and our efforts on exceedingcustomer expectations. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 13. TEAM GOALSA team goal is an end that the team strives to reach.• It supports the mission• It supports the organization’s visionCommon Goals Provide Team Members With….Purpose What needs to be done.Clarity What the outcome looks like.Direction The path to be followed YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 14. To be effective, goals must have the following characteristics: S Specific M Measurable A Attainable/ Achievable R Relevant T Time BoundExample of a S.M.A.R.T goal:• Our team will meet or exceed RM 1.0 million in sales for product A in 2004. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 15. STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENTFour Stages of Team DevelopmentStage 1 : FormingStage 2 : StormingStage 3 : NormingStage 4 : Performing YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 16. Stage 1: FormingThe forming stage of team development is an exploration period.Team members are often cautious and guarded in their interactionsnot really knowing what to expect from other team members.• They explore the boundaries of acceptable behavior.• Behaviors expressed in this early stage are generally polite and non-committal. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 17. Some questions raised during this stage of development are:• What is going to happen ?• Who is who in the team ?• Do I want to be part of this team?• Will I be accepted as a member?• Where do I fit in the team ?• How will I be treated ?• Who is the leader?• Is the leader competent? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 18. Stage 2 : StormingThe storming stage of development is characterised by competitionand strained relationships among team members. There are variousdegrees of conflict that teams experience but basically the stormingstage deals with issues of power, leadership, and decision making.• Conflict cannot be avoided during this stage.• It is the most crucial stage the team must work through. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 19. Some questions raised during this stage of developmentare:• How will I seek my autonomy?• Who do I support?• Who supports me?• How much influence do I have? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 20. Stage 3 : NormingThe norming stage of team development is characterized bycohesiveness among team members. After working through thestorming stage, team members discover that they in fact do havecommon interests with each other.• They learn to appreciate their differences.• They work better together.• They solve problem together. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 21. Some questions raised during this stage of development are:• What kind of relationships can we develop?• Will we be successful as a team?• How do we measure up to other teams?• What is my relationship to the team leaders? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 22. Stage 4 : PerformingThe performing stage of team development is the result of workingthrough the first three stages. Team members have learned how towork together as a fully functioning team.• They can define tasks.• They can work out their relationships successfully.• They can manage their conflicts.• The can work together to accomplish their mission. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 23. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMEffective team demonstrates the following characteristics:1. The team members share a sense of purpose or common goals, and each team member is willing to work towards achieving these goals.2. The team is aware of and interested in its own processes and examining norms operating within the team.3. The team identifies its own resources and uses them depending on its needs. The team willingly accepts the influence and leadership of the members whose resources are relevant to the immediate task. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 24. 4. The team members continually try to listen to and clarify what is being said and show interest in what others say and feel.5. Differences of opinion are encouraged and freely expressed. The team does not demand narrow conformity or adherence to formats that inhibit freedom of movement and expression.6. The team is willing to surface conflict and focus on it until it is resolved or managed in a way that does not reduce the effectiveness of those involved.7. The team exerts energy toward problem solving rather than allowing it to be drained by interpersonal issues or competitive struggles. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 25. 8. Roles are balanced and shared to facilitate both the accomplishment of tasks and feelings of team cohesion and morale.9. To encourage risk taking and creativity, mistakes are treated as sources of learning rather than reasons for punishment.10. The team is responsive to the changing needs of its members and to the external environment to which it is related.11. Team members are committed to periodically evaluating the team’s performance. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 26. 12. The team is attractive to its members, who identify with it and consider it a source of both professional and personal growth.13. Developing a climate of trust is recognized as the crucial element for facilitating all of the above elements. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 27. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEAM LEADERSEffective team leaders:1. Communicate.2. Are open, honest, and fair.3. Make decisions with input from others.4. Act consistently.5. Give the team members the information they need to do their jobs. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 28. 6. Set goals and emphasize them.7. Keep focused through follow-up.8. Listen to feedback and ask questions.9. Show loyalty to the company and to the team members.10. Create an atmosphere of growth.11. Have wide visibility. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 29. 12. Give praise and recognition.13. Criticise constructively and address problems.14. Develop plans.15. Share their missions and goals.16. Display tolerance and flexibility.17. Demonstrate assertiveness.18. Exhibit a willingness to change.19. Treat team members with respect. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 30. 20. Make themselves available and accessible.21. Want to take charge.22. Accept ownership for team decisions.23. Set guidelines for how team members are to treat one another.24. Represent the team and fight a “good fight” when appropriate. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 31. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEAM MEMBERSEffective team members:1. Support the team leader.2. Help the team leader to succeed.3. Ensure that all viewpoints are explored.4. Express opinions, both for and against.5. Compliment the team leader on team efforts.6. Provide open, honest, and accurate information. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 32. 7. Support, protect, and defend both the team and the team leader.8. Act in a positive and constructive manner.9. Provide appropriate feedback.10. Understand personal and team roles.11. Bring problems to the team (upward feedback).12. Accepts ownership for team decisions.13. Recognize that they each serve as a team leader. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 33. 14. Balance appropriate levels of participation.15. Participate voluntarily.16. Maintain confidentiality.17. Show loyalty to the company, the team leader and the team.18. View criticism as an opportunity to learn.19. State problems along with alternative solutions/options.20. Give praise and recognition when warranted. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 34. 21. Operate within the parameters of team rules.22. Confront the team leader when his or her behavior is not helping the team.23. Share ideas freely and enthusiastically.24. Encourage others to express their ideas fully.25. Ask one another for opinions and listen to them.26. Criticise ideas, not people.27. Avoid disruptive behavior such as side conversations and inside jokes. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 35. 28. Avoid defensiveness when fellow team members disagree with their ideas.29. Attend meetings regularly and promptly. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 36. EXERCISE :Broken Squares YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 37. Broken Squares : Non-Verbal Problem-SolvingGoals1. To analyze some aspects of cooperation in solving a team problem.2. To sensitise participants to behaviors which may contribute toward or obstruct the solving of a team problem. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 38. Broken Squares Team Instruction SheetEach of you has an envelope which contains pieces of cardboardfor forming squares. When the facilitator gives the signal tobegin , the task of your group is to form five squares of equalsize. The task will not be completed until each individual hasbefore him a perfect square of the same size as those in front ofthe other group members. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 39. Specific limitations are imposed upon your group during this exercise.1. No member may speak.2. No member may ask another member for a piece or in any way signal that another person is to give him a piece. (Members may voluntarily give pieces to other members). YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 40. Broken Squares Observer / Judge Instruction SheetYour job is part observer and part judge. As a judge, you should make sure each participant observes the following rules:1. There is to be no talking, pointing, or any other kind of communicating.2. Participants may give pieces directly to other participants but may not take pieces from other members.3. Participants may not place their pieces into the center for others to take.4. It is permissible for a members to give away all the pieces to his puzzle, even if he has already formed a square. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 41. As an observer, look for the followings:1. Who is willing to give away pieces of the puzzle?2. Does anyone finish “his” puzzle and then withdraw from the team problem-solving?3. Is there anyone who continually struggles with his pieces, yet is unwilling to give any or all of them away?4. How many people are actively engaged in putting the pieces together? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 42. 5. What is the level of frustration and anxiety?6. Is there any turning point at which the team begins to cooperate?7. Does anyone try to violate the rules by talking or pointing as a means of helping fellow members solve the problem? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 43. EXERCISE :TOWER BUILDING YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 44. TOWER BUILDINGLeaders’ BriefYou are the leader of a construction company and you have a team of 4 - 5persons to assist you. You and your team will have to build a tower atmaximum profit using the three graphs provided. Study these graphscarefully.The tower can be of any design but it should be stable enough to stand uprightwithout external support and long enough for its heights to be measured.Each piece of lego counts as one brick whatever its shape, size or colour. Thetime will be measured in seconds and the heights in inches. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 45. Leaders’ Brief (continued)You may handle and assemble the bricks during planning but any structure youleave at the end of this phase will be dismantled by the observers and bricksreplaced randomly in the box.After you have completed the task, the profit achieved will be compared withplanned profit as a measure of your team’s effectiveness.The Planning StageYou will be given not more than forty minutes to experiment with the bricks,design the tower, allocate specific assignments to members of your team, andrehearse the construction as many times as you wish during the time allowed.Your success will depend on how well you lead your team. Your performancewill be appraised at the end of the exercise. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 46. Leaders’ Brief (continued)This exercise will test your skill in handling a small group of people; it will see howresourceful you are as a leader, your ability in delegating, directing, controllingand coordinating your team in achieving your goal, i.e. maximum profit. And ofcourse, how well you communicate. The exercise will also test your ability tomotivate the members of your team, how effective you are at solv ing problems,getting each member to contribute. Remember, you have very limited timeavailable and you and your team will be working under pressure.Construction StageThis is the culmination of your plan. The three profit factors will now be measuredand compared with your tender. The winning team will achieve the highest profitconsistent with the tender profit margins submitted above. All teams willcommence to build the tower at a given signal and the number of bricks, heightsand times measured. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 47. Leaders’ Brief (continued)Tender Document (Estimated Profit)Number of bricks:…………………………………….…... Profit:…………………………………….Height of tower:………………………………………….... Profit:…………………………………….Assembly time in seconds:…………………………….. Profit:……………………………………. Total Profit:…………………………….Actual ProfitNumber of bricks:………………………………….….,.. Profit:…………………………………….Height of tower:………………………………………….... Profit:…………………………………….Assembly time in seconds:……………………………… Profit:……………………………………. Total Profit:……………………………. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 48. A 20,000 15,000 10,000PROFIT 5,000 -5,000 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 -10,000 NO. OF BRICKS USED YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 49. B 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000PROFIT 5,000 -5,000 0 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 -10,000 -15,000 TIME IN SECONDS YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 50. C 50,000 40,000 30,000PROFIT 20,000 10,000 -10,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -20,000 -30,000 HEIGHT IN INCHES YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 51. OBSERVERS’ SHEETYou have been appointed as the observers for the Tower Building Exercise. Please readcarefully the instruction that will be given to the teams. Your function in this exercise is toobserve through the planning and construction stage.Observe Carefully1. How was the planning done - was it systematic?2. Did the leader do the planning alone and did he involve others?3. Was the leader in control of the situation?4. Was his leadership accepted?5. How was the work organised?6. Was there division of work?7. Was there division of who would be best for different types of work?8. How did the leader direct the group?9. What control elements were decided upon during the planning stage?10. What were the communication patterns in the group?11. What sort of motivation did the leader use?12. Was there sufficient team work? YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS
  • 52. YOUR PARTNER IN COMPETITIVENESS