Cs 371-lecture-02
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Cs 371-lecture-02






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Cs 371-lecture-02 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lecture 02 The Relational Data Model
  • 2. Advantages of Database
  • 3. Advantages of Database• Data Consistency• Better Data Security• Faster Application Development• Economy of Scale• Better Concurrency Control• Better Backup and Recovery Facility
  • 4. The Range of Database Applications• Personal Database – standalone desktop database• Workgroup Database – local area network (<25 users)• Department Database – local area network (25-100 users)• Enterprise Database – wide-area network (hundreds or thousands of users)
  • 5. Evolution of DB Systems• Flat files - 1960s - 1980s• Hierarchical – 1970s - 1990s• Network – 1970s - 1990s• Relational – 1980s - present• Object-oriented – 1990s - present• Object-relational – 1990s - present• Data warehousing – 1980s - present• Web-enabled – 1990s - present
  • 6. Models, Schemas and States• A data model defines the constructs available for defining a schema – defines possible schemas• A schema defines the constructs available for storing the data – defines database structure – limits the possible database states• A database state (or instance) is all the data at some point in time  the database content
  • 7. Models, Schemas and States• data model – fixed by the DBMS – Defined by DB designer• schema – defined by the DB designer – generally fixed once defined *• database state – changes over time due to user updates * schema modifications are possible once the database is populated, but this generally causes difficulties
  • 9. Relation Schemas• A relation is defined by a name and a set of attributes• Each attribute has a name and a domain – a domain is a set of possible values – all domains are sets of atomic values – RDM does not recommend complex data types – domains may contain a special null value
  • 10. Definition: Relation Schema• Relation Schema R(A1, A2, … , An) – R is the relation name – A1 … An are the attribute names• Domains are denoted by dom(Ai)• degree = the number of attributes
  • 11. Characteristics of Relations• A relation is a set – tuples are unordered – no duplicate tuples• Attribute values within tuples are ordered – values are matched to attributes by position
  • 12. Characteristics of Relations• Values in tuples are atomic• Each Column has distinct name• The values of the attribute come from the same domain• The order of the column is immaterial• Each row/tuple/record is distinct
  • 13. SQL: Relation States• A relation is viewed as a table• The attributes define the columns of the table• Each row in the table holds related values for each attribute – a row often represents a conceptual entity (object)• Values in each column must come from the domain of the attribute
  • 14. Example Schema