Babok2 chapter9 daxko


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  • Primitive Data Elements:The following information must be recorded about every data element in a data dictionaryGlossary:Documents terms unique to the domain. Created in order to ensure all stakeholders understand what is meant when certain words are used. It consists of a term relevant to the domain and a unique definition for each, as well as cross-referencing aliases.DataDictionary:Include standard definitions of data elements, their meanings, and allowable values. Contains definitions of primitive data elements and how those elements combine into composite data elementsName:Unique name for data element to be referenced by composite data elementAliases:Alternate names for data elements used by various stakeholdersValues/Meanings:List of acceptable values for data elements. May be expressed as enumerated list or as a description of allowable formats for the data, including the number of characters, etc. If values are abbreviated, the explanation of the meaning is included here.Description:Definition of the data element in the context of the solutionComposite Data Elements:Assembled from primitive data elements and include the following:Sequences:Order of primitive data elements which must always occur in the specified orderRepetitions:One or more primitive data elements occur multiple times in the composite elementOptionalElements:May or may not occur in a particular instance of the data element
  • External EntitiesSource or destination of data.Labeled RectangleData StoreLocation where data is not moving or transforming, but being stored passively for future useLabel between two parallel lines or a labeled rectangle with a squareData ProcessProcess that transforms data in some way, either combining the data, reordering the data, converting the data, filtering the data etc.Data processes with further decomposition models is identified with an asteriskLabeled circle or rectangle with curved cornersVerb-object structure labelingData FlowIdentifies where data is being moved between a data process and an external entity, a data store or another data process. Should be noun phrase identifying data being movedCan be specified into Result Flows, Control Flows and Update FlowsRepresented by Single or Forked line with an ArrowLines must be labeled with Descriptor of data being moved
  • Concept:Something of significance to the domain being described about which data is neededShould have unique identifier to differentiate between actual instances of the concept.Referred to as entities in ERDs Referred to as Classes in Class DiagramsAttributes:Defines particular piece of info associated with a conceptRelationship:Significant business associations between conceptsDefine how information is used in operation of businessIndicate important linkages to be managed or maintained in the solutionMay indicate cardinality or multiplicity of the relationshipMetadata:Data about dataDescribes context, use, and validity of business info Used to determine when and why info stored in a system was changed
  • Notation Elements:Activities:Individual steps that must be completed in order to execute the business processDecisions:Forks where there may be two or more flowsEvents:May create, interrupt, or terminate processesMay result from actions taken, messages received, passage of timeFlow:Direction of step-by-step sequence of workflowRoles:Type of person, groupSwimlanes/Pools:Show activities performed by a particular roleVertical or HorizontalPassing of responsibility from one actor to anotherTerminal Points:Process Improvement:Identify and remove activities not adding value to stakeholderReduce time required to complete a processImprove interfaces or handoffs between roles to remove errorsReduce/Eliminate bottlenecks and backlogs
  • Context Diagram:Top Level data flow diagramUses single data process to describe scope and shows external entities and data stores providing data to and receiving data from the systemEvents:External – happens in external entitiesTemporal – driven by time, usually time related business rulesProcesses are identified after identifying events. The question to ask is “What processes are required to provide a complete response to this event?”Features:Service that solution provides to fulfill one or more stakeholder needsHigh level abstractions of solution that will be expanded into fully described functional and supplemental requirementsUse Case Diagrams:Visual depiction of use cases supported by system, actors who trigger them, and relationships between themBusiness Processes:High Level model used as scope model
  • Babok2 chapter9 daxko

    1. 1. BABOK® v2.0 Chapter 9: Techniques Outline: High-level overview of the Techniques referenced in the Knowledge Areas of the Techniques BABOK Guide. Techniques alter the way a business analysis task is performed or describes a specific form the output of a task may take. 1
    2. 2. Thank you and Contact Info  Special thanks to DAXKO for sponsoring this meeting  Presenter: Tammy S Bishop, CBAP Business Systems Analyst, Senior Drummond Company, Inc. 2
    3. 3. Techniques  Techniques listed here are a subset of those used by practitioners of business analysis.  Business analysts who specialize in a particular methodology or business domain may use only a few of the techniques mentioned or may use other techniques not described herein.  Techniques listed here are applicable to different situations and business domains. 3
    4. 4. 9.5 Data Dictionary and Glossary  Purpose  Defining key terms and data relevant to business domain  Description  Formally identify and define all terminology used by the organization or organizational unit 4
    5. 5. 9.5 Data Dictionary and Glossary  Elements  Glossary  Data Dictionary  Primitive Data Elements     Name Aliases Values/Meanings Description  Composite Data Elements  Sequences  Repetitions  Optional Elements 5
    6. 6. 9.5 Data Dictionary and Glossary  Usage Considerations  Useful for ensuring all stakeholders are in agreement on the format and content of relevant information  Capturing in a single model ensures terms will be used consistently. 6
    7. 7. 9.6 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) - Purpose  Purpose  Shows how information is Input, Processed, Stored, and Output from a system  Description  Visual representation of how info is moved through a system  External Entities that provide data to or receive it from a system  Processes of system that transform data  Data stores in which data is collected for a period of time  Data Flows by which data moves between entities, processes, and data stores 7
    8. 8. 9.6 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) - Elements  Elements     External Entities Data Store Data Process Data Flow 8
    9. 9. 9.6 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) - Usage  Strengths     Discover technique for processes or data Verification of Functional Decomposition or Data Model Easily understood Useful analysis deliverable for developers in Structured Programming Environment  Weaknesses  No responsibility shown  No alternative paths 9
    10. 10. 9.6 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) - Example 10
    11. 11. 9.7 Data Modeling - Purpose  Purpose  Describe concepts relevant to a domain, relationships between those concepts, and info associated with them  Description  Diagram supported by Textual description  Represents People, Places, Things, and Concepts important to the business  Entity Relationship Diagram and Class Diagrams are most common 11
    12. 12. 9.7 Data Modeling - Elements  Elements  Concept  Attributes  Name  Values/Meanings  Description  Relationship  Metadata 12
    13. 13. 9.7 Data Modeling - Usage  Advantages  Flexibility of different levels of description  Consistent modeling approach that supports transition through Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation  Disadvantages  Complex  Concepts may be unfamiliar to people without background in IS  Difficult to understand if not properly presented  Terms/Definitions vary in use 13
    14. 14. 9.7 Data Modeling - Example 14
    15. 15. 9.12 Functional Decomposition - Purpose  Purpose  To decompose processes, functional areas, or deliverables into component parts and allow each part to be analyzed independently  Description  Ensure problem is separated into sub-problems that are as independent as possible so work can be assigned to different groups.  Provides ability to scale and manage large projects 15
    16. 16. 9.12 Functional Decomposition - Elements  Elements  Identifies high-level functions and then breaks those functions down into smaller pieces  Represent processes carried out by the organization  Continues until sub-function cannot break down further  Similar to a WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)  Use Hierarchical Diagrams, Tree Diagrams, or numbering each sub-function 16
    17. 17. 9.12 Functional Decomposition - Usage  Advantages  Provides consistent view of scope of effort  Estimates can be made easier  Conceptual model of work needed to deliver solution  Disadvantages  No guarantee all components are captured  Decomposing a problem without understanding the relationship between the pieces may create an inappropriate structure that impedes analysis 17
    18. 18. 9.12 Functional Decomposition - Example 18
    19. 19. 9.21 Process Modeling - Purpose  Purpose  Gain understanding of how work involving multiple roles and departments is performed  Description      Process linked by sequence Shows events by people, rules, or passage of time May include manual or automated activities or both Complete when objective or goal is completed Used for Current and Future state processes 19
    20. 20. 9.21 Process Modeling - Elements  Elements  Notation Elements  Process Improvement  Six Sigma  Lean  BPM approaches 20
    21. 21. 9.21 Process Modeling - Usage  Advantages  Users are comfortable with elements / concepts  Effectively show how to handle large number of scenarios  Used for eliciting, verifying requirements and training  Disadvantages  May be complex and hard to understand when contain too much activity  Problems are not always readily identifiable by looking at model 21
    22. 22. 9.21 Process Modeling - Example 22
    23. 23. 9.27 Scope Modeling - Purpose  Purpose  Used to describe scope of analysis or solution  Description  Basis for defining and delimiting scope of business analysis  Shows boundaries of scope and business domain 23
    24. 24. 9.27 – Scope Modeling - Elements  Elements      Context Diagram Events Features Use Case Diagram Business Process 24
    25. 25. 9.27 Scope Modeling - Usage  Advantages  Makes it easier to determine what should be in scope and out of scope for solution  Disadvantages  Usually leave much detailed scope still needing to be investigated and detailed 25
    26. 26. 9.27 Scope Modeling - Example 26