Presented by:IQBAL HUSSAINELECTRONICS&COMMUNICATI0N Final year
WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM? Block Diagram of an Embedded System. WHAT’S A MICROCONTROLLER? INTERRUPTS ADDRESSING MODES. INTRODUCTION 8051 ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING INTERFACING OF STEPPER MOTOR BY USING 8051 APPLICATI0N OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM
“ An embedded system can be defined as thosecontrol systems which are designed either bymicroprocessor or microcontroller for a specific tasks.”OR“ An embedded system is some combination ofcomputer hardware & software, either fixed incapability or programmable, that is specificallydesigned for a particular kind of application device. ”
A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip,or, a single-chip computer. Micro suggestsThat the device is small, and controller tellsthat the device might be used to controlobjects, processes, or events. Another termto describe a microcontroller is embeddedcontroller, because the microcontroller andits support circuits are often built into, orembedded in, the devices they control.
• The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970‟s.• The 8051 architecture contains the following: o 4K Bytes ROM o 128 Bytes RAM o two timer/counters (16 bit) o A serial port o 32 input/output port o Interrupt controller o 16 bit program counter(PC) and data pointer(DPTR) o 2 external and 3 internal interrupt sources Oscillator and clock circuits o 8 bit program status word(PSW) o 8 bit CPU with registers A and B etc.
Definition of „Interrupt:-“Event that disrupts the normal execution of a program and causes the execution of special instructions”. types of interrupt hardware software(RST0,….RST7) (TRAP,RST7.5,6.5,5.5,INTR) VECTORED NONVECTORED
An "addressing mode" refers to how you areaddressing a given memory location. Insummary, the addressing modes are asfollows. . . . Immediate Addressing Register Addressing Direct Addressing Indirect Addressing
It was time that hardware-oriented to the core made compromise if they wanted to stay “in thegame”. Namely, unlike other circuits which only need to be connected to other components andpowered in order to be of any use, microcontrollers require to be programmed as well. Fortunately,they still didnt progress so far in their evolution, so that all microcontroller families “understand”only one language - machine language. Thats a good thing. The bad one is that, even primitive, thislanguage of zeros and ones can only be understood by microcontrollers and some of the expertsworking on its development. In order to bridge this gap between machine and humans, the firsthigh-level programming language called Assembly language was created.The main problem of remembering codes recognized as instructions by electronics was solvedtherefore, but another one, equally complicated to both us and “them”(microcontrollers) arose. Thisproblem was also easily solved by means of the program for a PC called assembler and a simpledevice called programmer.This program enables the PC to receive commands in the form of abbreviations and convert themunerringly into so called “executable file”. The moment of compiling a program into machinelanguage is crucial as this file, called HEX file, represents a series of binary numbers understandableto microcontrollers only. The program written in assembly language cannot be executed practicallyunless this file is loaded into the microcontroller memory. This is the moment when the last link inthe chain - the programmer - appears on the scene. It is a small device connected to a PC via some ofthe ports and has a socket for placing chip in.
EDITOR MS-DOS,NOTEPADA PROGRAM Myfile.asm ASSEMBLER PROGRAM Myfile.lst Other obj file Myfile.obj LINKER PROGRAM ABSOLUTE FILE OH PROGRAM Myfile.hex
A stepper motor is a widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement The stepper motor is used for position control in applications such as disk drivers, dot matrix printers, and robotics, etc. Every stepper motor has a permanent magnet rotor (also called the shaft) surrounded by a stator . The most common stepper motors have four stator windings that are paired with a center-tapped common. This type of stepper motor is commonly referred to as a four-phase stepper motor The center tap allows a change of current direction in each of two coils when a winding is grounded, thereby resulting in a polarity change of the stator. The stepper motor discussed here has a total of 6 leads, 4 leads representing the four stator windings ,2 commons for the center tapped leads. As the sequence of power is applied to each stator winding, the rotor will rotate.
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