Future fuels

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Future fuels

  1. 1. OUTLINE QUEST FOR FUTURE FUELS TYPES OF FUTURE FUELS FUELS HOW THEY ARE PREPARED USES CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
  2. 2. QUEST FOR FUTURE FUELS Fuel resources that our planet hold is exhaustible and will end in the coming future Rapid industrialization and massive growth in population has increased the dependence and use of natural fuels Approximately 90% of our energy requirement are met by fossil fuels This increase in energy consumption particularly in the past several decades has raised fears of exhausting vital natural resources So this has placed a need for us to engage ourselves in search of fuels which would support us in the future when no fossil fuels are present
  3. 3. TYPES OF FUTURE FUELS BIODIESEL Derived from Soy bean, sunflowers, corn, olive, peanut, palm, coconut and animal fats Has same vehicular performance as Diesel Economical fuel source It is sulfur free Completely renewable fuel source
  4. 4. HOW IS IT PRODUCED chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat )with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters which is biodieselUSES Mixed with diesel to reduce pollution Can be directly used in vehicles
  5. 5.  HYDROGEN It is an emission less fuel By-product of hydrogen burning is water Stores up to 3x as much energy as conventional natural gas If used in a car, it would take comparatively less to fill it up than a car running on standard fuel due to the hydrogen fuel cell efficiency
  6. 6. WAYS TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of methane or natural gas CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 + 191.7 kJ/mol Partial oxidation of sub stoichiometric fuel-air mixture in a reformer, creating a hydrogen-rich syngas C12H24 + 6 O2 → 12 CO + 12 H2 H2 is also produced by Coal Gasification yielding syngas
  7. 7. USES H2 is widely used in fuel cells for electricity generation and vehicle propulsion Widely used for Rocket Engines
  8. 8.  ALCOHOL FUELS They are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy Is a renewable energy source Can be produced from a variety of feedstock such as sugar cane, potatoes, sweet potatoes, molasses, corn, etc. Is a particulate-free burning fuel source
  9. 9. HOW IS IT PRODUCED Methanol is produced from natural gas, although it can be produced from biomass using very similar chemical processes Ethanol is commonly produced from biological material through fermentation processes C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2USES Most commonly used to power automobiles Additive for gasoline
  10. 10.  NUCLEAR REACTORS Nuclear power is a nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions Nuclear power is usually used by using a nuclear reactor to heat a working fluid such as water, which is then used to create steam pressure, which is converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion in water It is completely a pollution free source, however spent nuclear fuel poses a threat
  11. 11. HOW IS NUCLEAR FUEL PRODUCED To prepare uranium for use in a nuclear reactor, it undergoes the steps of mining and milling, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication
  12. 12. USES It is most widely used for electricity generation TOPAZ nuclear reactor are built to minimize moving parts and use methods that convert nuclear energy to electricity directly making them useful for space missions Naval vessels making use nuclear powered engines have come into existence Nuclear powered crafts are under development
  13. 13.  RADIOTHERMAL GENERATORS Radio Thermal Generators produce electricity from the decay of a radioisotope Radioisotopes have been used as alternative fuels, on both land and in space The decay of radioisotopes generates both heat and electricity in many space probes, particularly probes to outer planets where sunlight is weak, and low temperatures is a problem
  14. 14. CONCLUSIONS The future fuel sources are environment-friendly as opposed to fossil fuels Throughout the year these sources are available without affecting the Environment Using these fuels helps diminish Global Warming Helps conserve natural resources
  15. 15. REFERENCES “Alternate Fuels”. 20 september 2012. http://www.gvepinternational.org/en/business/biofuels “Hydrogen”. 20 september 2012. http://www.alternatefuels.com/hydrogen.htm “Ethanol Fuel”. 20 september 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol_fuel “Future Fuels”. 21 september 2012. http://www.rac.co.uk/advice/car-knowledge/top-ten/top-10-future-fuels/

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