Urinary System
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Urinary System

on

  • 982 views

Urinary System

Urinary System
By:
Muhammad Iqbal Khan
SS Biology
Email ID:mikhan1313@yahoo.com
0923135448175

Statistics

Views

Total Views
982
Views on SlideShare
982
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
31
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Urinary System Urinary System Presentation Transcript

  • Urinary system Lab Work Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology Email ID:mikhan1313@yahoo.com 0923135448175
  • Announcements • Urinary system • Lab Practical Week after Spring Break • Practical Review this Sunday 23rd at 3-5 pm
  • Functions of Urinary System • Kidneys carry out four functions – Filter nitrogenous wastes, toxins, ions, etc. from blood to be excreted as urine. – Regulate volume and chemical composition of blood (water, salts, acids, bases). – Produce regulatory enzymes. • Renin – regulates BP/ kidney function • Erthropoeitin – stimulates RBC production from marrow. – Metabolism of Vitamin D to active form.
  • Urinary System • Two Kidneys – Perform all functions except actual excretion. • Two Ureters – Convey urine from Kidneys to Urinary Bladder • Urinary Bladder – Holds Urine until excretion • Urethra – Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body
  • Complete System
  • Kidney general info • Lie against posterior abdominal wall at level of T12-L3. • Right kidney is lower than left kidney due to the shape of the liver. • Lateral surface of kidney is convex while medial is concave. – Concave side has a cleft – Renal Hilus – Inside hilus is Renal sinus • Where kidneys receive renal vessels and nerves.
  • Kidney External Anatomy • Average size – 12cm x 6cm x 3 cm • Weights 150 grams or 5 oz • Surrounded by three membranes (deep to superficial) – Renal capsule – fibrous barrier for kidneys. – Adipose capsule – fatty tissue designed for protection / stability. – Renal fascia – dense fibrous CTP anchors kidneys/ adrenals/ membrane 1 and 2 to surroundings.
  • Kidney Anatomy • Renal arteries and veins • Renal cortex • Renal medulla • Nephron • Renal pyramids (6-10) • Renal papilla • Calyx (ces) • Renal pelvis • Ureter
  • Kidney- External Anatomy • Lateral surface- convex • Medial is concave- – Renal Hilum • Opening to Kidney – Renal Sinus • Space within hilus • Kidneys receive blood vessels and nerves.
  • Kidney Internal Anatomy I • Renal arteries and veins – Bring blood in and out of kidney • Renal cortex – Outer layer of Kidney • Renal medulla – Inner layer of Kidney • Nephron
  • Kidney Internal Anatomy II • Renal Pyramids • Renal Columns – Space between pyramids within the medula • Renal Papilla – Narrow end of pyramid • Calyx (ces) – Collecting tubes • Renal Pelvis – Collecting vessel prior to ureter
  • Human Kidney
  • Nephron • Blood processing unit which serves to produce urine • 1 million per kidney • Consists of a glomerulus and tubules
  • Nephron: Vascular System • Afferent arteriole • Glomerulus • Efferent arteriole • Peritubular capillaries – Capillary beds reabsorb in cortex • Vasa recta – Capillary beds reabsorb in medulla
  • Nephron • Tubular system – Glomerular Capsule – Proximal convoluted tubule – Loop of Henle (nephron loop) • Descending limb • Ascending limb – Distal convoluted tubule – Collecting duct
  • Nephron
  • Dynamic Human Gross Anatomy Urinary system Kidney Nephron
  • Urine Formation I • Glomerular filtration • Water, ions, amino acids, and glucose get into capsular space from blood • Proteins stay in blood – too big to leave capillaries.
  • Urine Formation II • Proximal convoluted tubule and Peritubular capillary • Na+ goes down gradient and brings glucose, amino acids, etc. back into blood stream (cotransport). • Reabsorbs about 65% of filtrate.
  • Urine Formation III • Descending limb • Goes into medulla - increasing salt gradient • Water leaves • Fluid concentrates • Ascending limb • Goes up toward cortex - decreasing salt gradient • Na+ pumped out • Fluid relatively diluted Countercurrent Multiplication in the Nephron Loop
  • Nephron Loop
  • Urine Formation IV • Collecting duct • Travels down into medulla • Water leaves tubule and enters blood • Urine becomes concentrated and enters renal papilla • ADH controls water channel • ADH – Antidiuretic hormone
  • Collecting duct
  • Dynamic Human Urine Formation
  • Micturition • Ureters – 25 cm long – Enters on the floor of bladder • Urinary Bladder – Muscular sac on floor of pelvic cavity – Muscle layer formed by detrusor muscle – Average bladder volume is 500 ml – Max capacity is 700-800 ml
  • Micturition • Urethra – Conveys urine out of body – Female urethra – 3 - 4 cm – Opens into external urethral oriface – Lies between vaginal oriface and clitoris – Male urethra – 18 cm – 3 regions • Prostatic urethra – 2.5 cm • Membranous urethra – 0.5 cm • Penile urethra – 15 cm
  • Micturition Reflex Bladder with >= 200 ml of urine Sensory input to parasympathetic system Contraction of detrusor muscle and relaxation of internal urethral sphincter Relaxation of external urethral sphincter
  • Micturition
  • Kidney stones • A hard granule of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and protein. • Form in renal pelvis and get lodged in pelvis or ureter. • Caused by urinary tract infections, dehydration, pH imbalances, or an enlarged prostate gland. • Treated with stone dissolving drugs, surgical removal, or lithotripsy (ultrasonic vibrations)
  • Dynamic Human Visualizing the Urinary System Intravenous pyelography Ultrasound
  • Dissection • Be able to identify layers of the kidney on human material • Be able to locate kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra on cat.
  • Next Week – Spring Break Week After - Practical II • Material over lymphatic, respiratory, and urinary systems • Review Sunday (end of break) at 3-5pm • Remember – some questions will be based on identifying structures on the cats.