Global warming

158 views
92 views

Published on

Need of Emergency Understanding

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
158
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Global warming

  1. 1. GLOBAL WARMING © 2013 by iqbal1313
  2. 2. Sunlight energy in the atmosphere © Windows to the Universe
  3. 3. The layers of the atmosphere The troposphere is the part of the atmosphere in the biosphere The stratosphere contains the ozone layer The stratosphere is also a zone of warm air that keeps a lid on the troposphere. It does not mix with the upper atmosphere © Windows to the Universe© 2013 by iqbal1313
  4. 4. The Greenhouse Effect © Oceanworld 2005 Robert R Stewart
  5. 5. The Greenhouse Effect  The molecules of some gases in the atmosphere absorb heat energy and retain it  This can be a good thing  Without an atmosphere the Earth would have same temperature as the moon  Moon mean surface temperature -46°C  Moon temperature range: -233 to +123°C © 2013 by iqbal1313
  6. 6. The Greenhouse Gases  H2O vapour  CO2  CH4  NOx  CFC © Oceanworld 2005 Robert R Stewart © 2013 by iqbal1313
  7. 7. Infrared Absorption Spectra © Oceanworld 2005 Robert R Stewart
  8. 8. The Greenhouse Gases  Water vapour in the atmosphere is stable  The atmosphere is saturated  CO2 levels are currently rising  They have varied in the past  Methane levels are increasing: as more cattle are farmed, as more paddy fields are planted, as permafrost melts  NOx levels increase due to increased circulation of motor vehicles © 2013 by iqbal1313
  9. 9. Mauna Loa Observatory © Mauna Loa Observatory Site © Earth System Research Laboratory © Earth System Research Laboratory
  10. 10. Carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas © Mauna Loa Observatory Site
  11. 11. South Pole Data
  12. 12. Samoa data
  13. 13. © Australian Antarctic Division © New Scientist : Environment
  14. 14. Levels during the last ice age © Dennis Hartmann: Universoty of Washington: Department of Atmospheric Sciences
  15. 15. Out of the ice age
  16. 16. Since the Industrial Revolution Concentration of Carbon Dioxide from trapped air measurements for the DE08 ice core near the summit of Law Dome, Antarctica. (Data measured by CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research from ice cores supplied by Australian Antarctic Division)
  17. 17. The oceanic conveyor belt
  18. 18. The melting Arctic ice The length of the melt season inferred from surface temperature weekly data has been increasing by 9, 12, 12, and 17 days per decade in sea ice covered areas © NASA
  19. 19. Is it really getting warmer 1979 2003 © NASA
  20. 20. The consequences  Sea level rise Flooding coastal areas Reduced agricultural land Displacement of populations  Climate change Displacement of ecosystems Change in range of insect vectors of pathogens Reduced biodiversity © 2013 by iqbal1313
  21. 21. The consequences  Increased rates of photosynthesis  Increased agricultural production at high latitudes  BUT faster growth means: less protein in cereals trees taller and more exposed to storm damage © 2013 by iqbal1313
  22. 22. Knock-on effects  Increased temperature melts the permafrost  Frozen plant remains decompose  More methane released  Similarly soils will lose organic carbon (humus) more rapidly in a warmer climate  Ice caps melt more sea exposed  Snow reflects light (high albedo)  Water absorbs light, increases warming  More CO2 dissolving in water lowers pH  Currently this is buffered and remains stable  Eventually pH will drop sea life will die CO2 produced as organisms decompose © 2013 by iqbal1313
  23. 23. What can be done? Reduce carbon emissions  Improve mass transport systems (public transport)  Design more efficient motors  Design alternative power sources  Hydrogen powered motors BUT problems of fuel reservoir, delivery, fabrication  Renewable energy (wind, tidal, hydro, geothermal, biomass) BUT growing crops for biofuel reduces farmland available for food Hydroelectric dams disrupt river ecosystems  Nuclear power BUT problems of nuclear waste treatment/storage © 2013 by iqbal1313
  24. 24. What can be done? Increase natural CO2 sequestering  Reduce deforestation  Increase reforestation © 2013 by iqbal1313
  25. 25. What can be done? Artificial CO2 sequestering  Filter CO2 sources using hydroxide scrubbers  Injection of CO2 into deep ocean layers Forms CO2 reservoirs Impact on sea life unknown  Injecting CO2 into disused oil wells  Mineral deposition as carbonates © 2013 by iqbal1313
  26. 26. The bottom line Two factors will ultimately govern what happens: 1. Human population growth More people means greater demand for non- renewable resources 2. The ecological footprint of each individual human Higher standards of living usually means higher consumption of fossil fuels The planet will look after itself in the end There are plenty of examples where human communities have disappeared because they outstripped the environmental resources © 2013 by iqbal1313
  27. 27. The planet will look after itself in the end  Easter Island (Rapanui) in the Pacific  Settled between AD900 and 1200  Community in severe decline AD 1700  Cause: excessive deforestation © 2013 by iqbal1313 The Moai statues, Easter Island © Martin Gray, World Mysteries
  28. 28. The planet will look after itself in the end  Chaco Canyon, New Mexico  Anasazi culture  AD 850 – 1250  Cause: Deforestation combined with a decline in rainfall © New Mexico Tourism Department © 2013 by iqbal1313
  29. 29. The planet will look after itself in the end  Mesopotamia  Sumerian civilization  3100 – 1200 BC  Increased salt levels in soil due to irrigation systems & arid environment  Reduced food yield © 2013 by iqbal1313 © Asociación Cultural Nueva Acrópolis en Barcelona
  30. 30. The planet will look after itself in the end  Greenland  Viking colony  AD982 – 1350  Cause: Deforestation, soil degradation & cooling of the climate © Emporia State University © 2013 by iqbal1313
  31. 31. forumpolitics.com/pics/earth-photo.jpg Who’s next? © NASA

×