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Cell reproduction




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  • 1. Leading to Mitosis & Meiosis by Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology Email ID:mikhan1313@yahoo.com
  • 2. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/mitosis-diagram/diagram.gif
  • 3. Cell Cycle http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/cycle.jpg
  • 4. Mitosis • One type of cell division Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase)
  • 5. Mitosis allows for growth and replaces worn out or damaged cells.
  • 6. Interphase • Period of growth & development • Hereditary information (DNA) copied (replicated / duplicated) • Cells that do not divide (nerves) are always in interphase
  • 7. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/interphase/interphase.gif
  • 8. Prophase •DNA begins to shorten & thicken –Now called chromatids / chromosomes •Centromeres form •Nuclear membrane breaks apart •Spindle fibers form
  • 9. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/prophase/prophase.gif
  • 10. Metaphase •Chromatids / chromosomes line up •Centromere attaches to spindle fibers
  • 11. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/metaphase/metaphase.gif
  • 12. Anaphase •Centromeres divide •Spindle fibers shorten •Chromatid pairs separate – move to ends of cell •Chromatids are now called –Each ½ of the pair is now called a chromosome
  • 13. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/anaphase/anaphase.gif
  • 14. Telophase •Spindle fibers disappear •Chromosomes uncoil •Nuclear membrane forms •Cell divides (cytokinesis)
  • 15. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/phases/telophase/telophase.gif
  • 16. Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase http://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/benham/mitosis/
  • 17. Mitosis Animation http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html
  • 18. Results of Mitosis • Division of nucleus –Nuclei are identical to each other •Same number & type of chromosomes
  • 19. Asexual Reproduction A type of reproduction - fission, budding, and regeneration - in which a new organism is produced from one parent and has DNA identical to the parent organism.
  • 20. Asexual Reproduction •Offspring produced from one organism •Hereditary information is identical •Mitosis is one form of asexual reproduction
  • 21. Sexual Reproduction Meiosis
  • 22. Sexual Reproduction A type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
  • 23. Sexual reproduction results in a great variety, or diversity, of offspring.
  • 24. Meiosis • The nucleus divides twice – Meiosis I – Meiosis II
  • 25. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/diagram/
  • 26. Interphase • DNA is duplicated
  • 27. Prophase I • DNA shorten & thicken – Forms chromatids / chromosomes
  • 28. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/prophase/leptotene/leptotene.gif
  • 29. Metaphase I •Copied chromatids / chromosomes line up in middle of cell •Centromeres attach to spindle fibers
  • 30. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/metaphase-I/metaphase-I.gif
  • 31. Anaphase I •Chromatid pairs are pulled apart –They DO NOT separate •Move to ends of cell
  • 32. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/anaphase-I/anaphase-i.gif
  • 33. Telophase I •Cell divides •No further replication of hereditary material
  • 34. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/telophase-I/telophase-I.gif
  • 35. There are now two cells. Both cells have full sets of genetic material (chromosomes)
  • 36. Prophase II •Similar to mitosis –Starts with TWO cells instead of one •Spindle fibers appear
  • 37. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/prophase-II/prophase-II.gif
  • 38. Metaphase II •Duplicated chromatid / chromosomes line up in middle of cell •Spindle fibers attach to centromeres
  • 39. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/metaphase-II/metaphase-II.gif
  • 40. Anaphase II •Centromere divides –Chromatids separate & move to ends of cell •Chromatids are now individual chromosomes
  • 41. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/anaphase-II/anaphase-II.gif
  • 42. Telophase II •Spindle fibers disappear •Nuclear membranes form at each end of cell •Cells divide –Results in 4 cells •Each with ½ the original number of chromosomes
  • 43. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/meiosis/phases/telophase-II/telophase-II.gif
  • 44. Meiosis Animation http://www.johnkyrk.com/meiosis.html
  • 45. In summary: Meiosis • Two cells form during meiosis I • In meiosis II, both of these cells form two cells • The two divisions of the nucleus result in four sex cells (gametes) • Each has one-half the number of chromosomes in its nucleus that was in the original nucleus