Bioenergetics

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The study of energy in living systems (environments) and the organisms (plants and animals) that utilize them

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Bioenergetics

  1. 1. 1 BIOENERGETICSBIOENERGETICS Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology Email ID: mikhan1313@yahoo.com Contact # 0923135448175
  2. 2. 2 What is Bioenergetics? The study of energyenergy in livingliving systemssystems (environments) and the organismsorganisms (plants and animals) that utilize them Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  3. 3. 3 Energy  Required by all organisms  May be Kinetic or Potential energy Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  4. 4. 4 Kinetic Energy  Energy of Motion  Heat and light energy are examples Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  5. 5. 5 Potential Energy  EnergyEnergy ofof positionposition  IncludesIncludes energyenergy stored instored in chemicalchemical bondsbonds Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  6. 6. 6 Two Types of Energy Reactions Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  7. 7. 7 Endergonic Reactions  Chemical reactionChemical reaction that requires a net input of energyenergy.  PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 SUN photonsphotons Light Energy (glucose)(glucose) Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  8. 8. 8 Exergonic Reactions  Chemical reactionsChemical reactions that releases energyreleases energy  Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O+ ATP (glucose)(glucose) EnergyEnergy Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  9. 9. 9 Metabolic Reactions of Cells Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  10. 10. 10 What is Metabolism?  The sum totalsum total of the chemicalchemical activitiesactivities of all cellscells. Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  11. 11. 11 Two Types of Metabolism  AnabolicAnabolic PathwaysPathways  CatabolicCatabolic PathwaysPathways Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  12. 12. 12 Anabolic PathwayAnabolic Pathway  Metabolic reactions,Metabolic reactions, which consume energyconsume energy (endergonic),(endergonic), to buildbuild complicated molecules from simpler compounds.  PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 SUN lightlight energyenergy (glucose)(glucose) Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  13. 13. 13 Catabolic PathwayCatabolic Pathway  Metabolic reactionsMetabolic reactions which releaserelease energyenergy (exergonic)(exergonic) by breakingbreaking downdown complex molecules in simpler compounds  Cellular RespirationCellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (glucose)(glucose) energy Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  14. 14. 14 Cellular Energy -Cellular Energy - ATPATP Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  15. 15. 15 ATPATP  Components:Components: 1. adenine: nitrogenous base1. adenine: nitrogenous base 2. ribose:2. ribose: five carbon sugarfive carbon sugar 3.phosphate group: chain of 33.phosphate group: chain of 3 riboseribose adenineadenine P P P phosphate groupphosphate group Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  16. 16. 16 Adenosine TriphosphateAdenosine Triphosphate  ThreeThree phosphatephosphate groups-groups-(two(two with highwith high energy bondsenergy bonds  Last phosphateLast phosphate group (POgroup (PO44)) contains thecontains the MOST energyMOST energy Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  17. 17. 17 Breaking the Bonds of ATPBreaking the Bonds of ATP  Process is called phosphorylationphosphorylation  Occurs continually in cells  Enzyme ATP-aseATP-ase can weaken & break last POlast PO44 bondbond releasing energy & free PO4 Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  18. 18. 18 How does ATP work ?How does ATP work ?  Organisms use enzymesenzymes to break down energy-richenergy-rich glucoseglucose to release its potential energy  This energy is trapped and stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate(ATP)adenosine triphosphate(ATP) Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  19. 19. 19 How Much ATP Do Cells Use?How Much ATP Do Cells Use?  It is estimated that each celleach cell will generate and consume approximately 10,000,00010,000,000 molecules ofmolecules of ATPATP per secondper second Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  20. 20. 20 Coupled Reaction - ATPCoupled Reaction - ATP  The exergonicexergonic hydrolysishydrolysis of ATPATP is coupled with the endergonicendergonic dehydrationdehydration processprocess by transferringtransferring a phosphate groupphosphate group to another molecule. HH22OO HH22OO Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  21. 21. 21 Hydrolysis ofHydrolysis of ATPATP ATP + H2O → ADP + P (exergonic) HydrolysisHydrolysis (add water)(add water) P P P Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P P P++ Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  22. 22. 22 Hyrolysis is ExergonicHyrolysis is Exergonic EnergyEnergy UsedUsed byby CellsCells Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  23. 23. 23 Dehydration ofDehydration of ATPATP ADP +ADP + PP →→ ATPATP ++ HH22OO (endergonic(endergonic) P P P Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P P P++ Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) DehydrationDehydration (Remove H(Remove H22OO Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  24. 24. 24 Dehydration is EndergonicDehydration is Endergonic EnergyEnergy isis restoredrestored inin ChemicalChemical BondsBonds Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  25. 25. 25 ReviewReview Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  26. 26. 26 How many high energyHow many high energy phosphate bonds does ATPphosphate bonds does ATP have?have? Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  27. 27. 27 Which is true of photosyntheis?Which is true of photosyntheis? AnabolicAnabolic oror CatabolicCatabolic ExergonicExergonic OrOr EndergonicEndergonic Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  28. 28. 28 The breakdown of ATP isThe breakdown of ATP is due to:due to: DehydrationDehydration oror HydrolysisHydrolysis HH22O addedO added oror HH22O removedO removed Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  29. 29. 29 Which Reactions are oftenWhich Reactions are often Coupled in OrganismsCoupled in Organisms HydrolysisHydrolysis oror DehydrationDehydration AnabolismAnabolism or Catabolismor Catabolism EndergonicEndergonic oror ExergonicExergonic BOTHBOTH BOTHBOTH BOTHBOTH Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
  30. 30. 30 Ready for the test?Ready for the test? If not, review andIf not, review and try again!!!try again!!! Muhammad Iqbal Khan SS Biology
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