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Islamic Architecture Lecture


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Slides from a lecture I presented to Muslim Community Association (MCA) in 2008.

Slides from a lecture I presented to Muslim Community Association (MCA) in 2008.

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  • 1. Imran Mohammad Qamar 925-890-9507 Sunday - April 25th, 2008MCA – Muslim Community Association, Santa Clara, California
  • 2. OverviewWhat is Architecture?What is Islamic Architecture?What is the difference?StylesElementsInfluences of Islamic ArchitectureArchitectural Masterpieces
  • 3. What is Architecture? Space, Shelter, Sanctuary • Rudimentary at first • More elaborate with time • To show power, money, importance DEFINITION: The art and science of designing and building structures
  • 4. What is Islamic Architecture? Islamic Buildings? Buildings in Muslim countries? Architecture by Muslims? DEFINITION: Encompasses both secular & religious buildings from the beginning of Islam to present day, influencing the design & construction of structures within the sphere of Islamic Culture
  • 5. Basic Principals Concept of Space Sacred vs. Profane Permanent vs. Temporal Concept of Man on Earth Life Cycle of a Grave Geometric Drivers Patterns in Nature Sufi Elements on Design Environmental Constraints Form addresses climate Forms follow Function or visa versa?
  • 6. ElementsCourtyard – SehanGarden Water Char BaghTechnology Dome ArchBara DariAwanMashabiaChadarChina Kari
  • 7. Ahead of Modern Influences Sustainable Development Green / Environmental Design Passive Environmental Control Accessible or ADA Design
  • 8. Mushrain & MughribainWEST EAST Lord of the two easts and the two wests Al-Rahmaan 55: 17
  • 9. Mushrain & Mughribain WEST EAST
  • 10. StylesPersian MoorishTurkistan (Timurid)Ottoman TurkishFatimidMamlukIndo-Islamic (Mughal)Sino-IslamicAfro-Islamic
  • 11. Persian - Isfahan Early Islamic architects borrowed and adopted the traditions and ways of the fallen Persian empire Islamic architecture borrows heavily from Persian architecture. Characteristics: Tapered brick pillars Large arcades
  • 12. Moorish - Alhambra Great Mosque, Cordoba (785 AD) Peak of design: Alhambra, Granada (Palace/Fortress) Lasting impact on modern Spanish architecture. Characteristics: Foliage Motifs Arches Glazed Tile work Central Fountain
  • 13. Turkistan - Samarkand Erected by Timur Samarkand, Herat, Meshed, Kazakhstan Derived from Persian influence Gave rise to Mughal design Characteristics: Axial Symmetry Double Domes Brilliant colors on the outside
  • 14. Ottoman - Istanbul Byzantine, Persian and Syrian influence Vast inner spaces covered by seemingly weightless but massive domes Vaults, domes, semi-domes, columns Great architect – Sinan Note worthy architecture Suleiman Mosque
  • 15. Fatimid & Mamluk- Cairo FATAMID High influence - Turkistan Al-Azhar Mosque - 1st example Famous buildings Al Azhar University Al Hakim Mosque Al Jame-al-Aqmer MAMLUK Patrons of arts Art & Architecture at peak
  • 16. Indo – Islamic (Moghal) Fusion: Persian, Arabic, Hindu Use marble & precious/semi- precious stone Showed power & influence over region Famous buildings: Shalimar Gardens Delhi Fort Badshahi Masjid Taj Mahal
  • 17. Sino - Islamic1st Mosque in China: Grand Mosque of Xi’anFollow traditional Chinese formBuildings highly symmetrical but gardens highly asymmetricalPredominantly wooden construction – but some use of red or gray blocks
  • 18. Afro IslamicFamous Structures in Africa: Grand Mosque of Djenne’ Cairo Citadel Sankore Mosque in TimbutkuStyle highly influenced by Muslim traders to the region
  • 19. MasterpiecesTaj Mahal Agra, IndiaIsfahan Bazaar Isfahan, IranAlhambra Cordoba, Spain
  • 20. Taj Mahal - India Shah Jehan for Mumtaz Mahal Build in 1648 Architect: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri
  • 21. Isfahan Bazaar - Iran 17th Century “World’s first shopping mall” Miles of streets covered for pedestrian friendly climate control
  • 22. Alhambra - Spain Means - Red Fort Mixes natural & man-made elements
  • 23. Modern Architecture Burj Al-Arab Dubai, UAE Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia The Burj Dubai, UAE
  • 24. Burj Al-ArabTallest Hotel – 1,053’ (1994)
  • 25. Petronas Towers 2 rotated squares
  • 26. The BurjAbstracted desert flower pattern
  • 27. Imran Mohammad Qamar 925-890-9507 Sunday - April 25th, 2008MCA – Muslim Community Association, Santa Clara, California