Islamic Architecture Lecture

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Slides from a lecture I presented to Muslim Community Association (MCA) in 2008.

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Islamic Architecture Lecture

  1. 1. Imran Mohammad Qamar imranqamar.us@gmail.com 925-890-9507 Sunday - April 25th, 2008MCA – Muslim Community Association, Santa Clara, California
  2. 2. OverviewWhat is Architecture?What is Islamic Architecture?What is the difference?StylesElementsInfluences of Islamic ArchitectureArchitectural Masterpieces
  3. 3. What is Architecture? Space, Shelter, Sanctuary • Rudimentary at first • More elaborate with time • To show power, money, importance DEFINITION: The art and science of designing and building structures
  4. 4. What is Islamic Architecture? Islamic Buildings? Buildings in Muslim countries? Architecture by Muslims? DEFINITION: Encompasses both secular & religious buildings from the beginning of Islam to present day, influencing the design & construction of structures within the sphere of Islamic Culture
  5. 5. Basic Principals Concept of Space Sacred vs. Profane Permanent vs. Temporal Concept of Man on Earth Life Cycle of a Grave Geometric Drivers Patterns in Nature Sufi Elements on Design Environmental Constraints Form addresses climate Forms follow Function or visa versa?
  6. 6. ElementsCourtyard – SehanGarden Water Char BaghTechnology Dome ArchBara DariAwanMashabiaChadarChina Kari
  7. 7. Ahead of Modern Influences Sustainable Development Green / Environmental Design Passive Environmental Control Accessible or ADA Design
  8. 8. Mushrain & MughribainWEST EAST Lord of the two easts and the two wests Al-Rahmaan 55: 17
  9. 9. Mushrain & Mughribain WEST EAST
  10. 10. StylesPersian MoorishTurkistan (Timurid)Ottoman TurkishFatimidMamlukIndo-Islamic (Mughal)Sino-IslamicAfro-Islamic
  11. 11. Persian - Isfahan Early Islamic architects borrowed and adopted the traditions and ways of the fallen Persian empire Islamic architecture borrows heavily from Persian architecture. Characteristics: Tapered brick pillars Large arcades
  12. 12. Moorish - Alhambra Great Mosque, Cordoba (785 AD) Peak of design: Alhambra, Granada (Palace/Fortress) Lasting impact on modern Spanish architecture. Characteristics: Foliage Motifs Arches Glazed Tile work Central Fountain
  13. 13. Turkistan - Samarkand Erected by Timur Samarkand, Herat, Meshed, Kazakhstan Derived from Persian influence Gave rise to Mughal design Characteristics: Axial Symmetry Double Domes Brilliant colors on the outside
  14. 14. Ottoman - Istanbul Byzantine, Persian and Syrian influence Vast inner spaces covered by seemingly weightless but massive domes Vaults, domes, semi-domes, columns Great architect – Sinan Note worthy architecture Suleiman Mosque
  15. 15. Fatimid & Mamluk- Cairo FATAMID High influence - Turkistan Al-Azhar Mosque - 1st example Famous buildings Al Azhar University Al Hakim Mosque Al Jame-al-Aqmer MAMLUK Patrons of arts Art & Architecture at peak
  16. 16. Indo – Islamic (Moghal) Fusion: Persian, Arabic, Hindu Use marble & precious/semi- precious stone Showed power & influence over region Famous buildings: Shalimar Gardens Delhi Fort Badshahi Masjid Taj Mahal
  17. 17. Sino - Islamic1st Mosque in China: Grand Mosque of Xi’anFollow traditional Chinese formBuildings highly symmetrical but gardens highly asymmetricalPredominantly wooden construction – but some use of red or gray blocks
  18. 18. Afro IslamicFamous Structures in Africa: Grand Mosque of Djenne’ Cairo Citadel Sankore Mosque in TimbutkuStyle highly influenced by Muslim traders to the region
  19. 19. MasterpiecesTaj Mahal Agra, IndiaIsfahan Bazaar Isfahan, IranAlhambra Cordoba, Spain
  20. 20. Taj Mahal - India Shah Jehan for Mumtaz Mahal Build in 1648 Architect: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri
  21. 21. Isfahan Bazaar - Iran 17th Century “World’s first shopping mall” Miles of streets covered for pedestrian friendly climate control
  22. 22. Alhambra - Spain Means - Red Fort Mixes natural & man-made elements
  23. 23. Modern Architecture Burj Al-Arab Dubai, UAE Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia The Burj Dubai, UAE
  24. 24. Burj Al-ArabTallest Hotel – 1,053’ (1994)
  25. 25. Petronas Towers 2 rotated squares
  26. 26. The BurjAbstracted desert flower pattern
  27. 27. Imran Mohammad Qamar imranqamar.us@gmail.com 925-890-9507 Sunday - April 25th, 2008MCA – Muslim Community Association, Santa Clara, California
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