Supplementary Slides for             Software Engineering:         A Practitioners Approach, 5/                        e  ...
Chapter 4     Software Process and Project                MetricsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction ...
Measurement &                       Metrics        ... collecting metrics is too hard ...      its too time-consuming ... ...
Why do we                                    Measure?                                  t To characterize                  ...
A Good Manager     process    Measures                                                                process metrics     ...
Process Metrics    t majority focus on quality achieved as a      consequence of a repeatable or      managed process    t...
Project Metrics            t Effort/time per SE task            t Errors uncovered per review hour            t Scheduled ...
Product Metrics          t focus on the quality of deliverables          t measures of analysis model          t complexit...
Metrics                 Guidelinest Use common sense and organizational sensitivity when    interpreting metrics data.t   ...
Normalization for                              MetricsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Softwa...
Typical Size-Oriented                         Metrics         t errors per KLOC (thousand lines of           code)        ...
Typical Function-Oriented                   Metrics         t errors per FP (thousand lines of code)         t defects per...
Why Opt for FP                              Measures?These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Softwar...
Computing Function                         PointsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software En...
Analyzing the Information Domain These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Pra...
Taking Complexity into                      AccountThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software ...
Measuring                                      Qualityt Correctness — the degree to which a  program operates according to...
Defect Removal                               Efficiency               DRE = (errors) / (errors + defects)               wh...
Managing                                      Variation             The mR Control Chart                          6       ...
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Chapter04

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Chapter04

  1. 1. Supplementary Slides for Software Engineering: A Practitioners Approach, 5/ e copyright © 1996, 2001 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc. For University Use Only May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university levelwhen used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioners Approach. Any other reproduction or use is expressly prohibited. This presentation, slides, or hardcopy may NOT be used for short courses, industry seminars, or consulting purposes. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 1
  2. 2. Chapter 4 Software Process and Project MetricsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 2
  3. 3. Measurement & Metrics ... collecting metrics is too hard ... its too time-consuming ... its too political ... it wont prove anything ... Anything that you need to quantify can be measured in some way that is superior to not measuring it at all .. Tom GilbThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 3
  4. 4. Why do we Measure? t To characterize t To evaluate t To predict t To improveThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 4
  5. 5. A Good Manager process Measures process metrics project metrics measurement product metrics product What do we use as a basis? • size? • function?These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 5
  6. 6. Process Metrics t majority focus on quality achieved as a consequence of a repeatable or managed process t statistical SQA data ¶ error categorization & analysis t defect removal efficiency ¶ propagation from phase to phase t reuse dataThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 6
  7. 7. Project Metrics t Effort/time per SE task t Errors uncovered per review hour t Scheduled vs. actual milestone dates t Changes (number) and their characteristics t Distribution of effort on SE tasksThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 7
  8. 8. Product Metrics t focus on the quality of deliverables t measures of analysis model t complexity of the design ¶ internal algorithmic complexity ¶ architectural complexity ¶ data flow complexity t code measures (e.g., Halstead) t measures of process effectiveness ¶ e.g., defect removal efficiencyThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 8
  9. 9. Metrics Guidelinest Use common sense and organizational sensitivity when interpreting metrics data.t Provide regular feedback to the individuals and teams who have worked to collect measures and metrics.t Don’t use metrics to appraise individuals.t Work with practitioners and teams to set clear goals and metrics that will be used to achieve them.t Never use metrics to threaten individuals or teams.t Metrics data that indicate a problem area should not be considered “negative.” These data are merely an indicator for process improvement.t Don’t obsess on a single metric to the exclusion of other important metrics.These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 9
  10. 10. Normalization for MetricsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 10
  11. 11. Typical Size-Oriented Metrics t errors per KLOC (thousand lines of code) t defects per KLOC t $ per LOC t page of documentation per KLOC t errors / person-month t LOC per person-month t $ / page of documentationThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 11
  12. 12. Typical Function-Oriented Metrics t errors per FP (thousand lines of code) t defects per FP t $ per FP t pages of documentation per FP t FP per person-monthThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 12
  13. 13. Why Opt for FP Measures?These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 13
  14. 14. Computing Function PointsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 14
  15. 15. Analyzing the Information Domain These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 15
  16. 16. Taking Complexity into AccountThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 16
  17. 17. Measuring Qualityt Correctness — the degree to which a program operates according to specificationt Maintainability—the degree to which a program is amenable to changet Integrity—the degree to which a program is impervious to outside attackt Usability—the degree to which a program is easy to useThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 17
  18. 18. Defect Removal Efficiency DRE = (errors) / (errors + defects) where errors = problems found before release defects = problems found after releaseThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 18
  19. 19. Managing Variation The mR Control Chart 6 r u o h 5 w e i v 4 e r / d 3 n u o f s 2 r o r r 1 E , r E 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 ProjectsThese courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach,5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 19
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