nd                                    istmas a                          M erry Chr                                        ...
Christmas in Italy (Old traditions)                    Christmas season     prior to Christmas, many starting     giving i...
Christmas in Bulgaria (Old traditions)           In Bulgaria, Christ-       ering of all the family members.    c ar r y l...
Christmas in Poland (Old traditions)24th December was in a pa-                    One of the earliest deco-               ...
Christmas in Spain (Old traditions)    DECORATIONS:                                ered in Mediterranean cultures a sym-  ...
Christmas in Greece (Old Customs)                 They got a real  In the old days, they                              An o...
Publish:Publish: Editor: Teodora ValovaEditor: Teodora Valova Editorial board: Mariana                                    ...
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Ipilia issue 5

  1. 1. nd istmas a M erry Chr Year! Ha ppy New Issue 5 24 December 2009 I.P.I.L.I.A.net Inside this issue: Christmas 1 Decorations Christmas 2 in Italy (Old traditions) Christmas Decorations Christmas in 2 Bulgaria (Old 3All excited to indulge your- To get the best result out it shall surely be appreci- traditions)self in the festive spirit of of Christmas decorations, ated and pleasing to every-Christmas? 25th December – try to remain simple in one’s eyes. As previously Christmas in 3the day marked as Christmas whatever you choose as stated, try to remain soft Poland (Oldall over the globe, is a day of and subtle with the colors traditions)utmost fun and frolic, and elements that are used 4 Christmas instrengthening the bondage for the decoration of Spain (Oldwith closed ones, exchanging Christmas. The basic aim traditions)gifts and decorating the for this celebration aroundhouse with the varied Christ- this time of the year are Christmas in 5mas décor items. One can joy and prosperity. Thus, Greece (Oldreally get creative with conveying the same feeling traditions)Christmas decorations, fol- to the near and dear oneslowing the age-old tradition and also to the guests isas well. Everybody wants to absolutely important. Make Christmas in 6feel the warmth of the cele- Christmas décor items. Sim- sure that Christmas cele- Romania (Oldbration and the indulgence ple homemade Christmas brations do turn out to be traditions)reaches its peak a week be- decorations are still consid- the best this year by fol-fore the actual celebration ered to be the best of the lowing the few usefulstarts. It gives you immense lot. A personalized touch Christmas decoration tips.pleasure when you involve all can always be given to the Remember to stick to origi-your near and dear ones in decorating items that are nal Christmas decorationthe process of decorating brought from the market. ideas and not imitate oth-the house during Christmas. Put in your best efforts and ers.The traditionalChristmasdecorations colors Special points of interest: est time of the year so across the walls, stair- Typical decorationsThe traditional Christ- you can use all the case and windows. Put in Interesting oldmas decorations colors bright colors from the a special festive feeling Christmas tradi-are red and green. But color palette. Be crea- in every corner of the tionsit doesn’t imply that you tive enough to make house. Make sure that Beautiful drawingshave to stick on to bows from ribbons of every corner of the and decorationsthese two colors. various bright colors house is painted with from partnersChristmas is the bright- and place them all Christmas Colors. schools
  2. 2. Christmas in Italy (Old traditions) Christmas season prior to Christmas, many starting giving is Epiphany, the 12th day in Italy is tradi- on December 8, the Feast Day of of Christmas when the three tionally cele- the Immaculate Conception. Wise Men gave Baby Jesus their brated December Italian Christmas Traditions gifts. In Italy, presents are 24 - January 6, brought by La Befana, who ar- or Christmas Eve through Epiph- rives in the night to fill chil- any. This follows the pagan sea- drens stockings. son of celebrations that started Although with Saturnalia, a winter solstice Babbo Natale festival, and ended with the Ro- ( F a t h e r man New Year, the Calends. How- Christmas) and giving presents on ever there are lots of Christmas Christmas are becoming more things to see during December common, the main day for gift Popular Christmas Dish Research about Christmas Decorations in DIREZIONE DIDATTICA STATALE-1° CIRCOLO-“MIMMO BENEVENTANO” We asked our grandparents how preparing the manger scenes rivers, angels, they decorated the house during with figurines, in clay or plaster, shepherds, Christmas time and they an- of the infant Jesus, Mary and animals and swered that in the past in our Joseph. An ox and ass are people doing area there wasn’t decorations nearby because legend says that old jobs. but the “Presepe”. All the family they warmed the child with their The Magi may also appear, and participated to build the pre- breath. All around you can cre- are sometimes not place in the sepe: children looked for the ate intricate landscapes. There scene until the week following moss and bark of trees, parents may be Christmas to account for their made houses and rivers with wa- c a v e s , travel time to the event. The ter and using brown paper they houses, small most beautiful Cribs are set up made mountains. It is an artisti- trees, lakes, in churches, especially in Naples. cand elaborate crib: you start Christmas Decorations in DIREZIONE DIDATTICA STATALE-1° CIRCOLO-“MIMMO BENEVENTANO” Christmas Ball Cut with the cutter a Italy Christmas When the Christmas lot of stars or flowers. Ornament— tree comes from the Put them on a radiator Glass Ball North Europe decorated and left them dry. The Christmas with oranges and Then put the pins in the centre season is filled pine cones. and enter them in with much singing and music. The Materials: 3-4 big the balls of poly- streets, shops and homes are oranges, a cutter, styrene. decorated. Fruit shaped decora- pins, a ribbon, thin cord, styro- Decorate the ball tions are seen everywhere. Once foam balls. with ribbon and the glass is hand -blown, it is intricately decorated with Working process: Cut the skin of hang the ball on the paint and glitter. Italian children the oranges and take tree with the thin believe they get a visit from La off the white part . cord. Befana, a kind but ugly witch.Page 2 I.P.I.L.I.A.net
  3. 3. Christmas in Bulgaria (Old traditions) In Bulgaria, Christ- ering of all the family members. c ar r y lo ng s tic k s c alled mas Eve is equivalent During the dinner, everybody Rkoledaris, on which round to Christmas itself. eats on straw and it is necessary bread with holes known as On this day, tradi- that all members get off the ta- kravai were stuck. There were tionally a special fes- ble at the same time. In the family gatherings and people tive dinners is pre- past, there were tradition of used to eat seven or twelvepare, which consists of at least boys and unmarried young men course meatless meal, sitting on12 dishes to represent twelve visiting all the houses of the ground or straw. Christmas foodmonths of the year. These dishes neighborhood. They used to sing included wine and dishes such asdo not have any meat content. Christmas songs that Rakia and Sarmy. TheThe ingredients consist of beans, wish good wealth and main dish was a hugedifferent kinds of nuts, dried health for hosts and round bread on whichplums, cakes and a traditional received treats in re- things that indicatedcake called Banitza. This is the turn such as money or wealth like house andtime when there is family gath- food. They used to cattle were carved.Christmas Decorations in Bulgaria (Old traditions)The decoration of the house Garlands made from strung pop- are placed in luck - steam-being,creates a large part of the corn. An important element of the health cornel bud. Typical Bul-festive mood. Initially, the Bulgarian Christmas traditions is garian custom and production oftree was dry fruit decora- the Christmas tree which is deco- survachkite - from cornel twigtion and handmade toys. rated on Christmas Eve, but a gift decorated with strings of pop-These are entirely natural to open on Christmas morning. An- corn, dried fruit,Christmas decoration - other important ele- garlic, colored yarnChristmas tree toys are ment is the ornamen- to congratulatein natural wood or fruit - tation of cakes and their children fornuts, small apples, onions. round loaves, which adult health.Christmas Decorations in Foreign Language School, Pleven Following the theme of cre- Using the spatula smear cone ating eco toys for Christmas. by filling all empty spaces. This is an easy project to do Cone and rolled in a pre- with your children, and cre- prepared shallow vessel with ate a nice gift for your a small bird nuts or nuts that neighbors - birds, such as you like sunflower seeds, toys hang from trees in the wheat, millet, lentils, sesame Еco toys for yard. Necessary materials: After you repeat this proce- Dozen cones, Peanut butter, Christmas dure with other cones and Spatula, Small kernel, Ribbon let them spend the night in If your cones are not much order to tightening a little "bloom" you can put them peanut butter. Put these briefly in the oven at 250°. toys rich seed of a tree with Already finished cones you strong branches, tie them can tie a ribbon, cord or yarn with ribbons. Page 3Issue 5
  4. 4. Christmas in Poland (Old traditions)24th December was in a pa- One of the earliest deco- Another very oldgan slavic calendar All Souls’ r a t i o n s w a s tradition is to putDay and 25th December, the ‘podlazniczka’. It was a a sheaf of wheat,day of solstice, was the be- pice of wire formed into a or more often a sheaf of rye, bar-ginning of a New Year. A lot hoop and decorated with ley or millet in the corners of theof mystery and tradition pine, spruce or fir twigs room. We also put some hay undersurrounding Christmas is con- or a top of such tree hanging up- the tablecloth prepared fornected with these old beliefs and side down from the ceiling above Christmas supper called ‘wigilia’ oncelebrations. Apples and nuts, a table. It was decorated with 24th December. Decorating aconsidered souls’ food, are on our everything that symbolised life: Christmas tree is not a very oldChristmas trees. We still put one apples, sweets, ginger tradition in our country. Amore plate on the Christmas Eve cakes, biscuits, nuts, small Christmas tree appeared intable – for a beggar who may ‘worlds’ made of non con- our houses in the 19th centuryknock at the door? Or for a lost secrated wafer and one and it was brought from Ger-soul that needs consolation? big in the centre. many and now it is presentChristmas activities and dishes in Polandeverywhere. Decorations change– also a night of magic: grievances. At thethere are little candles and spar- Animals are said to talk Christmas Eve sup-klers but we have blinking lights. in a human voice and per, each dish hadWe get presents from Santa people have the power to be sampled, andClaus in the evening. In some re- to tell the future. The belief was a traditional meal would consist ofgions in Poland children get pre- born with our ancestors who 12 dishes. The more you ate, thesents from Gwiazdor – a Star- claimed that Dec. 24 was a day to more pleasure would await you inman. We also make nativity mark the beginning of a new era. the future. The more daring dinersscenes and the most famous and It was bolstered by sayings such would pull out blades of strawunique tradition developed in as, "As goes Christmas Eve, goes from underneath the table cloth. ACracow where there are the year." Hoping green one foretoldcompetitions and exhibitions for a good 12 marriage; a witheredin the market square every months, everyone one-waiting; a yellowyear. For Poles, Christmas was polite and gen- one-spinsterhood; aEve is a time of family gath- erous to one another very short one-anering and reconciliation. It’s and forgave past early grave.Christmas Decorations in SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA NR 171 im. STANISŁAWA STASZICA, POLAND Nativity Play, there are some and sing carols. There are many competitions connected with different characters in these Christmas decorations (last groups and it depends on regions. year ‘Christmas Tree’ or this The most characteristic are year ‘Angel’ ) and we have meetings ‘turon” – a kind of bull with a yap- In our school we have some similar to ‘wigilia’ with students, ping jaw, death, angel, devil, annual celebrations con- parents and students and teachers three Magis. There is always a nected with Christmas. We and school staff. In our town there star which can turn decorate our classrooms are big carol singing competitions. round. The group and school corridors, we After Christmas there are groups uses rattles and prepare a performance called ‘kolednicy’ that visit houses other instruments.Page 4 I.P.I.L.I.A.net
  5. 5. Christmas in Spain (Old traditions) DECORATIONS: ered in Mediterranean cultures a sym- “aguinaldos”. From a religious point of view, the bol of luck and protection. - HOLY INNOCENTS: Celebrated on Christmas tree reminds the paradise OTHER TRADITIONS: December 28th. It is a custom to make tree whose fruit Adam and Eve ate. jokes to people, knock on the door and - AGUINALDO: It is a gift to cele- go running, paste paper dolls on their The balls, stars, horseshoes hanging brate Christmas. It is the custom of today in the Christmas trees represent backs. - 12 GRAPES: The tradition of giving a Christmas bonus. Traditionally eating 12 grapes dates back to early the ancient stones, apples and other it is given to public and private serv- things that adorned before the oak. twentieth century. The implementation ers: scavengers, carriers, guards, ser- of this custom, which incidentally, is Each of these objects has a meaning: vants,… ... unique to our country not because of Apples or Christmas balls represent - BASKET OF CHRISTMAS: The religion or culture, but rather to eco- the abundance. Christmas shopping, extra payment, nomic interests. New Years Eve in Light bulbs that have replaced candles lotteries and raffles are more modern 1909, the grape pickers had a great representation of traditional Christ- production of this fruit and to get rid symbolize the Light of the World. mas “aguinaldo”. Christmas shopping of such an amount of grapes they in- The bells are holiday cheer. has its roots in the baskets the coun- vented the ritual of taking the grapes The horseshoe has always been consid- try people used to deliver the of luck on the last night of the year. A CHRISTMAS INSTRUMENT: THE “ZAMBOMBA” The “zambomba” is a percussion instru- provide a container with water, a damp size, shape and materials. ment, a friction drum. In Spain, the cloth or, more traditional form, spit- MATERIALS.- container (tin, pot, clay “zambomba” is usually played during ting in your hand. pot), papery skin, reed, string lists, the Christmas holidays, often accompa- How to make: rod, bolts or pins and paper to deco- nied by singing carols and popular rate the can. TOOLS.- Cutter, files. songs. The way of playing the It consists of a bottomless receptacle “zambomba” is placing it under the left elongated in whose mouth tightens skin arm with the rod forward or sideways membrane with a and rub the rod rod at its centre. up and down As with other rhythmically with folk instruments, wet hands, so it there is tremen- is necessary to dous variety in Workshop 1. The container may be clay pot or an 3. The skin about 25 cm diameter with a few pins. old vase or other material as a tin can. (bigger than the mouth of the con- 5.Stretch the still From about 15 to 20 cm. mouth. We tainer). We can get from buying a wet skin over the stave carefully, especially if its clay, Christmas tambourines patch of skin mouth of the con- but enough with some holes. It is bet- and dismounting. Some musical instru- tainer and fastened with a strong rub- ter to have more space for sound out- ments stores also sell them but are ber (someone can help us as we tie two put. In the case of the can it is not usually more expensive. or three turns of rope around his necessary, just place inside a circle of 4. We introduce the skin in cold water mouth) and pull the skin on its ends to cardboard. for two hours when it is soft, place the achieve the greatest tension to remove 2. Cane (dried, peeled and sanded bottom end of the rod in the centre wrinkles as possible (no matter if there joints) of about 0.8 cm wide by 20 - and tie tightly with a thin rope through is any). There are several more rounds 30cm long, and just cut a knot, leaving the bottom skin thickening around the of rope until it is tightly bound. the bottom closed down hubs, these knot so that it is well fixed but without 6. We remove the rubber and cut the rods are found piercing the skin with the cane. After remains of two or three cm skin. below abundantly that it is necessary to cross it with a the bond and let it dry. The next day along rivers and pin (in this case must be made in ad- we can play the zambomba rubbing the streams. vance a very fine hole with a drill) or rod with wet hands.Page 5 I.P.I.L.I.A.net
  6. 6. Christmas in Greece (Old Customs) They got a real In the old days, they An old horse- tree and they didn’t decorate the shoe and a decorated it houses with lots of new horse- with whatever lights like now. The shoe. A tradition that is they could find. people were poor then. still continued nowadays.For ornaments they used cotton They cut a Christmas tree from Vasilopita is a lucky custom foras snow. They also used balloons. the mountain and they put a whoever finds the coin. It is aThey wrapped with alu- pomegranate near sweet, like a kind of cake, whichminium cypress cones the door to bring is made by the ladies of theand sometimes they them happiness, house. They make it on Newused small flowers that prosperity and many Year’s Eve and put a coin in itsmelled nice. They used goods. They also wrapped in alumin-thick threads as hung a horseshoe to ium foil which isstreamers, too. bring them good called flouri. Καλά Χριστούγεννα luck and health.The Christmas Tree in GreeceThe Christmas Tree is a custom On Kefalonia every house isthat was brought to Greece from decorated with a tree withabroad. It started in Alsatia 500 streamers, lights, colourful ballsyears ago and was established as and a golden star on the top ofthe symbol of Christmas in Ger- the tree. The cultural associationmany. The first Christmas trees of the village places a Christmasstarted being decorated after tree in the middle of the villagethe first world war. The people square, too. On many islands,were influenced after the second people decorate ships with a lotworld war. of lights.New Year’s Eve and Carols in Kefallonia New Year’s Eve under the Christmas tree. It is Jesus Christ is born today A man is dressed said that Santa Claus comes from In the city of Bethleem like Santa Claus. He Finland on a sleigh pulled by fly- The sky rejoices wears a red cos- ing deer. Christmas Carols The whole nature is joyful.tume, a white beard and a whitewig. He also wears a red cap with From Kefallonia He is born in a cavea white pompon. All children look Good afternoon my lords In a manger for the horsesforward to New Year’s Eve so If you want The king of heaventhey can have their presents. I will sing for you aboutSanta Claus comes through the The birth of Jesus Christ. And creator of everything.chimney and we find the presents Page 6Issue 5
  7. 7. Publish:Publish: Editor: Teodora ValovaEditor: Teodora Valova Editorial board: Mariana This project is financed by The Euro Kuleva, Gergana DanovaEditorial board: Mariana pean Commission and is fulfilled by FOREIGN LANGUAKuleva, Gergana Danova GE SCHOOL, PLEVEN, BULGARIA with SZKOŁA POD- STAWOWA NR 171 im. STANISŁAWPhotos: Teodora Valova, A STASZICA, POLAND; ΔΗΜΟΤΙΚΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ ΒΛΑΧΑΤΩΝ,Grazyna Tuholska, Anna- GREECE, DIREZIONE DIDATTICASTATALE-1ー CIRCOLO-“MIMMaria Caldarelli, Esperanza M O BENEVENTANO”, ITALY; C.E.I .P. Castillo Qadrit CadreteMesquida Sesma , Eirini (Zaragoza) SPAIN, Scoala cu clasele I-VIII Gadinti ROMANIAFoka, Lucian Todorica Decision Nー1720/2006/EC of the Euro pean Parliament and of the Council of 15/11/2006 establishing an action programme in Adress: 5 800 Bulgaria, the field of lifelong learning, publishe d in the Official Journal Pleven, Alexander of the EU NーL327/45 on 24/11/20 06 Stamboliiski str., 22, tmas E-mail: englishk3@el- Merry Chris soft.com; and Year! Copyright © 2009 ГПЧЕ Happy NewChristmas in Romania (Old traditions) Carols form an evergreen Heaven and to eye- "Do you receive the pretty star, important part touch God at least for an instant Pretty and so very bright? of the Roma- , in order to give us the power to It Haseko we did in the sky nian folklore. surpass the lifes obstacles. Car- Just like God thought it would be Romanian carols ols put people in the mood for a right, are not simple perfect communion with the sim- Stand it could be seen on high,songs (a sort of invocation in ple and healing greatness of Je- Just like we did in the sky"verse sung by children and lads, sus Birth. The carol singers walkon the evening of Winters Holi- in the streets of the villagesdays) with religions origin, but and towns holding in theirwide windows through which we hands a star made of board andare allowed once in a year to go paper with biblical scenesby the immaculate snow-towards painted in water colors and Christmas Decorations in Scoala cu clasele I-VIII Gadinti ROMANIA