United Nations and Rio +20


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  • 1) The richer and developed countries have undoubtedly contributed to the levels and scale of GHG emissions. Not only directly but through the terms of trade. Both travel and global business contribute.
  • Traditionally the analysis of ODA has been based on quantity and meeting the minimum 0.7% of GDP and more recently Rome and Paris Declaration Quality has come into it. On SSC this is more generally defended or contextualized in a context of quality with generally more positive reception from recipients IDA (2007): IDA’s share in ODA for core development programs for IDA-eligible countries has been growing, even on a net disbursement basis. 􀂾 General budget and sector program support rose as a percentage of total ODA commitments from 8 percent in 2001 to 20 percent in 2004. 􀂾 The share of social sectors in sector allocable ODA to low-income countries rose from 29 percent in the early 1990s to 52 percent between 2001 and 2004. 􀂾 In parallel, the combined share of infrastructure and production dropped from 59 percent to 38 percent over the same period.
  • Whether markets in carbon and carbon finance form part of responses to the multiple challenges of climate change, energy poverty and energy security, will depend on how well they are governed University of East Anglia (UEA) (2010). I also add here by whom and for whom .
  • United Nations and Rio +20

    1. 1. United Nations & Rio +20 Environmental Stewardship: Rights, Responsibilities and Equity by Leisa Perch Coordinator – Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG Launch of Environmental Stewardship at EAB Saturday, November 19 th 9 a.m. Email: [email_address]
    2. 2. Introduction to IPC-IG <ul><li>IPC-IG is a partnership of the Government of Brazil and UNDP based in Brasilia, Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of our research is international; specifically focused on the South and on South-South Cooperation and Learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Themes for IPC’s applied policy research: Macro-Economic Policy, Rural and Sustainable Development, Social Protection, Development Innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>In Rural and Sustainable Development, the focus in on 3 key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive Green Growth including Adaptation to Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Environmental Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*See more on our webpage: www.ipc-undp.org </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. A Key Role for the UN: Keeping People at the Centre of Development
    4. 4. Understanding Us and the Environment Source: Global Footprint Network ( http://www.scribd.com/doc/47405935/The-Ecological-Footprint-Atlas-2010-Global-Footprint-Network )
    5. 5. Uneven Development + enhanced risk <ul><li>Where growth, gender, poverty and environment meet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The poor own a small share of global wealth and their progress in increasing their share of income is slow. The top 1 % (in wealth) own 44% of global assets (Global Wealth Report, 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food security depends on water and energy; water supply and distribution depend on energy and labour; and energy can be supplied by water . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of food-deficit countries were in Africa (as of 2010). African countries make up a significant number of the top 10 countries facing significant climate risk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 countries accounted for over 60% of Gross World Output in 2010 (CIA, 2011). The same countries also contribute to CO2 emissions . </li></ul></ul>Multiple sources: GWR, 2011; CIA, 2011; and Ortiz and Cummins, 2010 adapted from Sutcliffe (2005) and others
    6. 6. Why? <ul><ul><li>30 percent of the world is still without access to safe water and sanitation systems. Good health and nutrition are essential for countries to break out of the cycle of poverty. </li></ul></ul>Planaltina, Goiás. Source: http://www.segueocortejo.org/2011/08/moradores-11-dias-sem-agua-em.html
    7. 7. Why? <ul><ul><li>Three billion people, half of the world’s population, still suffers from diseases and injuries which can be easily prevented or treated . </li></ul></ul>Pakistan. Source: http://www.allvoices.com/news/6510769-disease-threatens-pakistani-flood-victims-anew
    8. 8. Why? <ul><ul><li>Women work two-thirds of total working hours in the world, but they receive only 10% of global income; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of people living on less than a dollar a day are women, women predominate in the global food production (50-80%), but own less than 10% of the land 75% of the world population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>876 million adults who can neither read nor write are women. </li></ul></ul>Uganda. Source: http://kampala2capetown.wordpress.com/tag/uganda/
    9. 9. Why? <ul><ul><li>Nearly 5 billion people-will live in the world’s cities and urban areas (UN Habitat, 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive urbanization will take a toll on the environment, local and global economies, and government’s abilities to provide even the most basic human services. </li></ul></ul>Rio de Janeiro. Source: http://amaju2010.blogspot.com/2010/09/simbolos-do-abandono-favelas-viram.html
    10. 10. Why? <ul><ul><li>Low levels of formal education have been linked to low-wage earning jobs. In turn, low wages have been linked to subsistence standards of living. This cycle can be seen in countries all around the world. </li></ul></ul>Amazonia, Brasil. Source: h ttp://olhares.uol.com.br/realidade_amazonica_criancas_indo_para_a_escola_foto3938448.html
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Food is a basic necessity. In 2009, some estimates suggested that 1 in 7 people were going hungry every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>925 million are undernourished (FAO, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every day, almost 16,000 children die from hunger-related causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans depend on just 20 plant species for more than 80 percent of their food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are so many people going hungry? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty. The poorest and most food-insecure people live in Africa, while the largest number of continually undernourished people live in the Asia-Pacific region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bread.org/hunger/global/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity </li></ul></ul>Why?
    12. 12. Global Inequalities and Ecological Footprints <ul><li>2010 noted as a record for CO2 emissions (IEA, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, we consume at the rate of 1.5 Earths </li></ul><ul><li>GFN estimates that we exceeded our ecological budget for 2011 on September 27 th </li></ul>Source: Ecological Footprint Atlas (2010) The Ecological Footprint is defined as &quot;the area of productive land and water ecosystems required to produce the resources that the population consumes and assimilate the wastes that the population produces, wherever on Earth the land and water is located.&quot; Region Average Ecological Footprint for consumption per capita/per resident Sub-Saharan Africa 1.4 gha Latin America   and the Caribbean 2.6 gha Europe 4.7 gha North America 7.9 gha Global 2.7 gha per person
    13. 13. Sustainable Development and Green Economy: Linking Inclusion and Sustainable Development
    14. 14. Anchoring Development in Inclusion <ul><li>.......Not just about morality. About effectiveness, rights and justice. </li></ul>“ Development cannot be achieved if half of the world’s population is left out” – Helen Clark “ Inequality hinders progress in development” (UNECLAC, 2010)
    15. 15. The Compatibility of Growth, Equality and Sustainability <ul><li>UNDP Multifunctional platforms Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Barefoot College Approach </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP Green Commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Grameen Shakti </li></ul>India. Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/18/business/global/18iht-rbog-barefoot-18.html?pagewanted=all
    16. 16. Agenda-Setting and Global Collective Action <ul><li>1972 – Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>1987 – Our Common Future </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – UNCED and Agenda 21 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – Beijing Platform of Action </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – SIDS Plan of Action </li></ul><ul><li>2000 – MDGs </li></ul><ul><li>2000 - Financing for Development Conference </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – WSSD </li></ul><ul><li>2010 – MDGs +10 </li></ul><ul><li>2012 – Rio +20 </li></ul><ul><li>2015 – MDGs +15 </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Quality and Quantity of Finance and Development <ul><li>Aid – traditional donor/recipient relationship </li></ul><ul><li>ODA </li></ul><ul><li>Budget support </li></ul><ul><li>Aid for Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral/Multilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Debt Relief </li></ul><ul><li>South-South Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ handshake’, built on partnership (Chhibber, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Finance (often untied) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>South-South learning </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular cooperation </li></ul>
    18. 18. …… Deliberative policy <ul><ul><li>Without such policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal empowerment of the poor becomes difficult; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis-driven responses do not always lead to sustained change; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We make progress on low-carbon but not on energy access for the poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We under-value gender-differentiated experiences and needs for natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul>Women assembling Solar Home Systems. (From Alliance for Rural Electrification webpage) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More information: http://ruralelec.org/351.0.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Valuing all Forms of Knowledge <ul><li>O’Brien and Wolf (2010: 233) ........... what is considered legitimate and successful adaptation depends on what people perceive to be worth preserving and achieving, including their culture and identity”. </li></ul>
    20. 20. RIO+20: WHAT IT NEEDS to ACHIEVE?
    21. 21. Consensus around <ul><li>Green Economy for Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decoupling growth from environmental degradation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Green Economies and the Global Green Economy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional Frameworks for sustainable development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective inclusion of marginalized groups and the poor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared and differentiated responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>A resident of Lusaka's Misisi township wades through waterlogged streets on February 1, 2008. REUTERS/Mackson Wasamunu. Accessed from AlertNet- http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/changing-rains-poor-urban-planning-expose-zambian-capital-to-repeat-of-2010-floods/
    22. 22. Reconciling Growth, Sustainability and Equity
    23. 23. Inputs to Long-term solutions <ul><li>i) focus on people-centred development; </li></ul><ul><li>ii) informed by a critical review of collective success and failures; </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) anchored in mediated inclusion and inclusiveness within states and between states; </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) matching solutions to problems; </li></ul><ul><li>v) promoting social innovation. </li></ul>
    24. 24. What you can do? <ul><li>Knowing More: </li></ul><ul><li>www.un.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.unfoundation.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/online/bigfoot/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/personal_footprint/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://freerice.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.kiva.org/ </li></ul>
    25. 25. Thank You!!!!! Contact information: Leisa Perch, IPC-IG Email: [email_address] or [email_address]