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South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
South Korea's Experience in Social Protection
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South Korea's Experience in Social Protection

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Seminar with Miss Yoonkyung Kwak on Korean social protection at IPC-IG. The presentation covered the evolution of Korean social policy as well as its development through the financial crisis of 1997 …

Seminar with Miss Yoonkyung Kwak on Korean social protection at IPC-IG. The presentation covered the evolution of Korean social policy as well as its development through the financial crisis of 1997 and the 2008 recession.

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  • Now, we could outline ideal customers for Malta in this circumstance that I mentioned before. We categorized major three factors for creating Malta’s perfect customer group. At first, their geo-demographic factors that Malta is included in warm countries is critical for targeting. Second, cultural factors that the people of Malta enjoy beach and perform certain activities in their climates. Lastly, their sociological atmosphere that they show high concern about the healthy life. From the unique characteristic of Malta, though Nestle’s confectioneries target every person, regardless of their age, we could see that their main target consumers are energetic and passionate young people.
  • Confectionary 의 경우 특정계층과 상관없이 소비되고 있는 제품이지만 , 그 중에서도 대표적인 제품 스마티즈는 어린아이를 겨냥한 마케팅 전략 구사 , 키켓과 같은 제품은 have a break 라는 슬로건 하에 학생 직장인을 겨냥한 상품으로 세분화 .
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    • 1. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth YoonKyung Kwak 28 th of September 2011 South Korea’s Experience in Social Protection
    • 2. Contents <ul><li>Overview of Korea </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolution of the welfare state in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Korean social security at a glance </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying two main ideas in social policy </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare reform after the financial crisis in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>The social policy through the 2008 recession </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of the impact of the two crises on social welfare system </li></ul>IPC-IG UNDP BRAZIL
    • 3. Overview of Korea 1 <ul><li>Location: Southern part of the Korean peninsula in North-East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Four distinctive seasons; a humid continental climate </li></ul><ul><li>Population : </li></ul><ul><li>48,875,000 (2010 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP (nominal) : </li></ul><ul><li>$ 22,961 billion (2011 est.) </li></ul>Source: IMF (2011)
    • 4. 2 Economic Crisis and Social Policy Developmental Welfare State Democratization and Social Policy The Evolution of the Welfare State in Korea Rescaling the development Welfare State
    • 5. Korean Social Security at a glance 3 - National Pension Programme (1960) - National Health Insurance (1963) - Employment Insurance (1995) - Industrial Accident Insurance (1963) - Long-term Care Insurance (2007) - Welfare for the elderly, the disabled, children, women - Medical or Psychiatric Social Work -National Basic Livelihood Security Act - Medical Aid
    • 6. Economic Development in Korea 4 Source: www.2Mminutes.com <ul><li>Export-oriented industrialization with the state-directed government-big conglomerate-bank nexus </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of the world economy with relatively protected domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap workforce with a high level of education </li></ul>
    • 7. Economic Development in Korea The Sharp Decline of the Poverty Reduction 4 Source: Suh (1979) &amp; Suh and Yeon (1986) A: The absolute poverty line is defined as 121,000 won per month in 1981 for a five-member family. B: The relative poverty line is defined as one-third of the average household income in a given year.
    • 8. Economic Development in Korea Human Development Index (HDI) 4 <ul><li>Increasing Standard of Living – positive changes in the literacy rate, school enrollment, the infant mortality rate, life expectancy, and other human development indicators as well </li></ul>
    • 9. The Underlying Two Main Ideas in Social Policy Welfare Developmentalism 5
    • 10. Two Underlying Main Ideas in Social Policy Welfare Developmentalism – Land Reform 5
    • 11. Two Underlying Main Ideas in Social Policy Confucian Familism 5
    • 12. Welfare Reform after the Financial Crisis in 1997 6 <ul><li>Impact on even conglomerates, resulting in bankruptcy for half of the major 30 giant companies, including financial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic rise in absolute poverty and unemployment </li></ul>
    • 13. Welfare Reform after the Financial Crisis in 1997 6
    • 14. Welfare Reform after the Financial Crisis in 1997 6
    • 15. Welfare Reform after the Financial Crisis in 1997 The Problems of the National Basic Livelihood Security Act 6 <ul><li>Arbitrariness </li></ul><ul><li>- A major problem of the market basket approach </li></ul><ul><li>- Korea : 370 items are selected and calculated to determine the composition </li></ul><ul><li>of the baskets, which means that there is a high possibility of the </li></ul><ul><li>expert researchers making value judgments concerning the items to </li></ul><ul><li>include their volume, price and durability etc </li></ul><ul><li>- A single institution, the Central Living Security Commission, decide the level </li></ul><ul><li>of the minimum cost of living in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>The realistic level of benefits needs </li></ul><ul><li>- Underestimation of the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>- One notable NGO, People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy, has </li></ul><ul><li>launched a campaign, so called ‘Living a month with the minimum cost of </li></ul><ul><li>living’, to raise awareness of the seriousness of the current system. </li></ul>
    • 16. Welfare Reform after the Financial Crisis in 1997 The Poverty Rate using the Absolute and Relative Measures 6 Source: Kim et al. (2008) a: except for one-member household and farm and fishing household b: include one-member household and except for farm and fishing household Year The Minimum Cost of Living 40% of Median Income 50% of Median Income 60% of Median Income 2003 a 10.0 9.9 14.7 20.1 2004 a 9.6 10.3 15.0 21.0 2005 a 10.5 10.8 15.3 21.4 2006 a 10.0 10.8 15.4 21.3 2007 a 9.7 10.5 15.3 21.1 2008 a 10.0 10.4 15.0 20.6 2006 b 11.1 11.8 16.5 22.1 2007 b 10.8 12.0 16.5 22.2 2008 b 11.4 12.2 16.9 22.2
    • 17. The Social Policy through the 2008 recession 7 <ul><li>The impact from the 2008 crisis was relatively smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Because… the economic crisis in 1997 allowed the government to take proactive </li></ul><ul><li>action to deal with the financial crisis in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Current Social Policy Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality and Redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>- a marked rise in income inequality due to a growing segmentation between regular </li></ul><ul><li>and non-regular workers </li></ul><ul><li>- income redistribution becomes on the government’s policy agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over a rising social spending </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic transition - low fertility and aging population </li></ul><ul><li>Heated debate on free lunches for elementary school students in Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>- welfare has become a real issue for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>- this issue has brought Korean, not just Seoul citizen, into discussion on a </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>=&gt; A welfare policy debate goes to big controversial political issue </li></ul>
    • 18. Comparison of the Impact of the Two Crises on social welfare system 8 <ul><li>The financial crisis in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>- A negative impact on Korean economy was a driver to draw a structural reform of </li></ul><ul><li>social welfare policy </li></ul><ul><li>- selective welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>The recession in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>- New social risks such as demographic change, growing income inequality and </li></ul><ul><li>shifted labour market has led a change of the welfare state in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>- A strong voice from the bottom of society has contributed to expand the welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>- Towards a comprehensive welfare state </li></ul>
    • 19. Bibliography * Asian Development Bank Institute (2011) Available at: http://www.adbi.org/ * Goodman, R. and Peng, I (1996) ‘The East Asian Welfare States: Peripatetic Learning, adaptive change, and nation-building’, in G. Esping Andersen (ed.), Welfare state in transition: National adaption in global economies. London: SAGE. * Kim, T.W., Choi, H.S., Yang, S.H. and Woo, S.H. (2008) 2008 Poverty Statistics Yearbook . Seoul: KIHASA * OECD (2011) A framework for growth and social cohesion in Korea, [Online]. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/2/48225033.pdf * Suh, S.M. (1979) ‘The Patterns of Poverty in Korea’, Working Paper , 7903, [Online]. Available at: http://www1.kdi.re.kr/kdi/report/report_read05.jsp?1=1&amp;pub_no=699 (Accessed: 27 June 2011). * Suh, S.M. and Yeon, H.C. (1986) ‘Social Welfare during the Structural Adjustment Period in Korea’, Working Paper , 8604, pp. 1-40, [Online]. Available at: http://www1.kdi.re.kr/kdi/report/report_read05.jsp?1=1&amp;pub_no=760 (Accessed: 26 May 2011). * UNDP (2010) International Human Development Indicators http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KOR.html * Yang, J-J. (2011) ‘Another Exceptionalism?: Comparative analysis of the small welfare state in Korea’, 61 st Political Association Annual Conference Transforming Politics: New Synergies. Novotel London West, UK, 19-21 April, [Online]. Available at: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2011/1283_694.pdf (Accessed: 26 September 2011)
    • 20. Thank You

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