Human development policy and local opportunities:
evidence from Brazilian municipalities
Ursula Mattioli Mello
This paper ...
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Anti-poverty policy
– Brazilian scenario
– Local social policy
• Descriptive analysis
–...
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Anti-poverty policy
– Brazilian scenario
– Local social policy
• Descriptive analysis
–...
• Deep social transformation in Brazil
• “Poverty reduction without economic growth”(Ferreira,
Leite & Ravallion, 2007)
• ...
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Anti-poverty policy
– Brazilian scenario
– Local social policy
• Descriptive analysis
–...
POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY
LITERATURE REVIEW
MACROECONOMIC MESOECONOMIC MICROECONOMIC
PROMOTING GROWTH MAKING IT INCLU...
POLICY AND POVERTY
LITERATURE REVIEW
POLICY CLUSTERS
Source: World Bank (WDR-1980) Source: UNDP (HDR-2003)
HUMAN DEVELOPME...
POVERTY AND POLICY IN BRAZIL
Plano Brasil
sem Miséria
Programa Bolsa
Família
Plano Real
- Hyperinflation
- Fiscal debts
- ...
LOCAL POLICY
LITERATURE REVIEW
NATIONAL
PERSPECTIVE
LOCAL PERSPECTIVE
Anti-poverty policy focused on
income
Programa Bolsa...
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Anti-poverty policy
– Brazilian scenario
– Local social policy
• Descriptive analysis
–...
OVERVIEW
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
• Analysis of human development policy in the local
dimension
• Municipal expenditure in soc...
OPPORTUNITY INDEX
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
EDUCA-
TION
WORK &
INCOME
HEALTH
YOUTH EDUCATION (IFDM)
(i) Pre-school attendance
(...
EDUCATION
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
Table 1 – Rate of adults (25+) that completed basic
education by...
HEALTH
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
Table 3- Index of health for Brazilian municipalities
2000 2010
Mea...
WORK & INCOME
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
Table 5 – Unemployment & Informality Rate by
quintile of per...
OPPORTUNITY INDEX
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Anti-poverty policy
– Brazilian scenario
– Local social policy
• Descriptive analysis
–...
• Motivation
• Literature review
– Human development
– Poverty
– Policy
– Brazilian scenario
• Descriptive analysis
– Oppo...
CONCLUDING REMARKS
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Higher level of expenditure in health and
education is associated with a higher
leve...
Thank you!
Human development policy and local opportunities evidence from brazilian municipalities ursula mattioli mello
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Human development policy and local opportunities evidence from brazilian municipalities ursula mattioli mello

585 views
420 views

Published on

Human development policy and local opportunities: evidence from Brazilian municipalities by IPC-IG research assistant Ursula Mattioli Mello

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
585
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Human development policy and local opportunities evidence from brazilian municipalities ursula mattioli mello

  1. 1. Human development policy and local opportunities: evidence from Brazilian municipalities Ursula Mattioli Mello This paper is part of my bachelor thesis developed under the supervision of Professor Ana Maria Hermeto (CEDEPLAR/UFMG) Brasília July 2013
  2. 2. • Motivation • Literature review – Anti-poverty policy – Brazilian scenario – Local social policy • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  3. 3. • Motivation • Literature review – Anti-poverty policy – Brazilian scenario – Local social policy • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  4. 4. • Deep social transformation in Brazil • “Poverty reduction without economic growth”(Ferreira, Leite & Ravallion, 2007) • The role of social policy • New clusters for policy • Human development policy MOTIVATION MOTIVATION
  5. 5. • Motivation • Literature review – Anti-poverty policy – Brazilian scenario – Local social policy • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  6. 6. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY LITERATURE REVIEW MACROECONOMIC MESOECONOMIC MICROECONOMIC PROMOTING GROWTH MAKING IT INCLUSIVE Poverty Reduction Inequality reduction Schooling Different economic sectors Multiple variables Different elasticity of poverty to growth Type of occupation Gender Household Source: Ferreira (2010) Economic Growth
  7. 7. POLICY AND POVERTY LITERATURE REVIEW POLICY CLUSTERS Source: World Bank (WDR-1980) Source: UNDP (HDR-2003) HUMAN DEVELOPMENT RURAL PRODUCTIVITY INFRASTRUCTURE NON-TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECTORS HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  8. 8. POVERTY AND POLICY IN BRAZIL Plano Brasil sem Miséria Programa Bolsa Família Plano Real - Hyperinflation - Fiscal debts - Economic stagnation - AAGR 85-92: -0.54% 1994 2003 2011 - Control of inflation - Economic stabilization - Commercial opening - Cash transfers - Raise of minimum wage - Raise of per capita expenditure in social areas (health, education) - 16.2 million of extremely poor - Three pillars for policy: public services, guarantee of income, inclusive production Slow and not inclusive growth Inequality reduction Moderate growth Slow reduction of poverty Poverty reduction Source: Ferreira, Leite e Ravallion (2007) ; IPEA(2011); Governo Federal (2011) LITERATURE REVIEW
  9. 9. LOCAL POLICY LITERATURE REVIEW NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Anti-poverty policy focused on income Programa Bolsa Família Minimum wage Human Development Policy Expenditures in health and education Capture regional inequalities Very different levels of expenditures and of social indicators
  10. 10. • Motivation • Literature review – Anti-poverty policy – Brazilian scenario – Local social policy • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  11. 11. OVERVIEW DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS • Analysis of human development policy in the local dimension • Municipal expenditure in social areas is considered a proxy for local policy in the municipalities • To investigate the relationship between the level of municipal expenditure and the “opportunity index” • Limitations: – Other expenditure and investments – Inefficiency – Corruption • Model:
  12. 12. OPPORTUNITY INDEX DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS EDUCA- TION WORK & INCOME HEALTH YOUTH EDUCATION (IFDM) (i) Pre-school attendance (ii) Age-grade distortion (iii) % of teachers with superior education (iv) Average daily hourly classes (v) School drop out rates (vi) IDEB ADULT EDUCATION % individuals of 25 years and older that completed 8 years of schooling BASIC HEALTH (IFDM) (i) Number of pre-natal consultations (ii) Mortality for non- defined reasons (iii) Infant mortality for avoidable causes Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE WORK (i) Unemployment rate (ii) Formal employment (iii) Generation of formal employment (IFDM) INCOME (i) Average/growth of wage of formal labor market (IFDM) (ii) Average per capita income (iii) Gini Index
  13. 13. EDUCATION DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE Table 1 – Rate of adults (25+) that completed basic education by quintile of per capita income (percent) Quintile 2000 2010 1 10.6 26.9 2 16.1 35.4 3 24.1 45.8 4 40.3 50.7 5 69.8 78.3 Total 36.1 50.8 Source: CENSO/IBGE Table 2 – Index of education for Brazilian municipalities 2000 2010 Mean 0.5186 0.7066 Median 0.3852 0.5769 Max 0.8557 0.9567 Min 0.1008 0.2714 Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
  14. 14. HEALTH DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE Table 3- Index of health for Brazilian municipalities 2000 2010 Mean 0.7120 0.8091 Median 0.6573 0.8104 Max 0.9887 1.0000 Min 0.0331 0.4421 Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE Table 4 – Percentage of municipalities per category of Index of Health 2000 Norte Nordeste Sudeste Sul Centro-Oeste Brazil Low 4.9 5.2 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.6 Regular 57.5 70.5 17.1 5.5 6.7 34.5 Moderate 37.0 23.8 55.6 58.9 68.5 45.5 High 0.7 0.4 25.5 35.6 24.7 17.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010 Norte Nordeste Sudeste Sul Centro-Oeste Brazil Low 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Regular 17.1 4.9 0.9 0.1 1.1 3.3 Moderate 74.6 73.4 29.0 11.0 29.7 43.2 High 8.2 21.7 70.1 88.9 69.2 53.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: FIRJAN
  15. 15. WORK & INCOME DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE Table 5 – Unemployment & Informality Rate by quintile of per capita income (percent) Quintile Unemployment Informality 2000 2010 2000 2010 1 31.1 22.2 53.7 53.4 2 20.6 12.3 54.7 46.0 3 15.4 7.1 46.4 36.8 4 11.3 3.9 36.8 28.6 5 6.8 2.6 24.8 21.2 Total Brasil 15.3 7.7 40.1 33.3 Source: Censo/IBGE Table 6 – Per capita income and Gini Index by region Region Per capita income* Gini Index 2000 2010 2000 2010 Norte 478.2 618.0 0.6542 0.6335 Nordeste 389.0 550.2 0.6665 0.6315 Sudeste 928.8 1086.8 0.6090 0.5873 Sul 823.9 1060.5 0.5892 0.5345 Centro-Oeste 844.8 1103.1 0.6414 0.6034 Brasil 727.4 901.0 0.6452 0.6106 *in R$ of 2010 (transformed using INPC) Source: Censo/IBGE Table 7 – Work&Income Index 2000 2010 Mean 0.5987 0.7363 Median 0.4985 0.5466 Max 0.7857 0.8688 Min 0.2194 0.3398 Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
  16. 16. OPPORTUNITY INDEX DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Source: FIRJAN; Censo/IBGE
  17. 17. MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  18. 18. MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  19. 19. MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
  20. 20. • Motivation • Literature review – Anti-poverty policy – Brazilian scenario – Local social policy • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  21. 21. • Motivation • Literature review – Human development – Poverty – Policy – Brazilian scenario • Descriptive analysis – Opportunity index – Municipal expenditure • Regression model • Concluding remarks AGENDA AGENDA
  22. 22. CONCLUDING REMARKS CONCLUDING REMARKS Higher level of expenditure in health and education is associated with a higher level of opportunities. Expenditure in health is more productive in 2010 than 2000. No difference for education. Higher urbanization level and municipality size are associated with higher level of opportunities Higher dependency rate is associated with a lower level of opportunities The municipalities that invest more on human development policies in health and education are the ones with a better index Demand for policy to raise productivity of rural activities and to make services accessible in rural areas Specific policy should consider demographic characteristics Elderly  Health Children  Education
  23. 23. Thank you!

×