Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment


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This new issue of the Poverty in Focus magazine presents 12 articles that discuss the main policy issues for a new inclusive and sustainable development paradigm. As a contribution to the dialogue around Rio+20 and to the ongoing discussions around a post-2015 MDG Agenda, this Poverty in Focus links future development to sustainability and particularly to social sustainability. Looking beyond the critical issues of ‘carbon footprints’, ‘low-carbon development’,’ green economy’ and the economics behind saving the planet, it draws attention back to the continuing challenge of ensuring that growth and development
deliver for the poor and vulnerable. In its many forms—energy poverty, lack of access to water and sanitation, malnutrition or insecure access to food, and lack of access to education and health—the scale and scope of global deprivation call current development policy and practice into question.

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Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment

  1. 1. Poverty Number 23 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Poverty Practice, Bureau for Development Policy, UNDPDimensions of Inclusive Development
  2. 2. 2 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Growth, Equity and Sustainability: A Declaration of Interdependence GUEST Over one billion of us live without many of the basics that the other six billion take as given. E D I TO R S Although 28 countries have moved from low-income status to middle-income status, with Ghana and Zambia among the newest Middle Income Countries, an estimated 800 million people still live in low-income countries. Of these, half live in just five countries, three of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. In these least-developed countries (LDCs), conflict, disaster and broader human insecurity impose structural limits on efforts to move from crisis to risk reduction and from growth to sustained development. So although many millions have beenPoverty in Focus is a regular publication of lifted out of poverty in the last ten years, it is also true that more people live in chronic hungerthe International Policy Centre for InclusiveGrowth (IPC-IG). Its purpose is to present the than ever before. Significant and sustained progress will require faster and better efforts.results of research on poverty and inequality The message of this Poverty in Focus is that, “For Growth to be inclusive, it must be sustainedin the developing world. and sustainable and that, for it to be sustained and sustainable, it must also be equitable.” As a contribution to the dialogue around Rio+20 and to the ongoing discussions aroundGuest Editors a post-2015 MDG Agenda, this Poverty in Focus links future development to sustainability and Leisa Perch and Gabriel Labbate particularly to social sustainability. Looking beyond the critical issues of ‘carbon footprints’, ‘low-carbon development’,’ green economy’ and the economics behind saving the planet,Desktop Publisher it draws attention back to the continuing challenge of ensuring that growth and development Roberto Astorino deliver for the poor and vulnerable. In its many forms—energy poverty, lack of accessCopy Editor to water and sanitation, malnutrition or insecure access to food, and lack of access to Lance W. Garmer education and health—the scale and scope of global deprivation call current development policy and practice into question.Front page: Multiple Dimensions ofDevelopment is the spirit behind this Poverty Growth, gender, poverty and the environment can no longer be treated as loosely connectedin Focus. The images represent the range components of development. Recognizing their interdependence is at the core of improvedof issues, the people and the regions we and sustained development for all.covered and also the message of dimensionswithin a broader context. They also reinforce For one thing, the continuing decline of the quantity and quality of natural resources andthe duality which lies behind developmentat all levels, including the need for social as of ecosystem functions is likely to exacerbate the likelihood of conflict over resources,well as technological innovation as part of particularly water. According to UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery,structural transformation. Images 1, 3, 5-7 35 countries had entered what could be designated a ‘post-conflict phase’ by 2008.are from the IPC-IG “Humanizing Development” The cost of conflict has been enormous, matching or surpassing, according to someGlobal Photography Campaign (photographers estimates, the value of ODA received in the last 20 to 30 years in the same countries.respectively: GB Mukherji, Soleyman Mahmoudi,Ramesh Pathania and Joyce Wambui).Image 2 (Adrian Jankowiak) and image 4 Addressing topics such as the evolving debate on environmental and social justice(Max Thabiso Edkins and ResourceAfricaUK). and improved accounting frameworks to ‘include’ environmental assets and services in considerations of growth, the enclosed articles can help us go beyond lip-service toEditors’ note: IPC-IG and the editors the notion of sustainability. They focus on the ‘software’ components of development,gratefully acknowledge the generous highlighting the need for equal attention to process and to results. Suggesting that inclusivecontributions, without any monetary ormaterial remuneration, by all the authors and sustainable development will need to leverage ‘social technologies’ such as politicaland photographers of this issue. innovations, true engagement and honest evaluation, they make a clear case for a strong, representative state and the complementary roles of civil society and the private sector in defining and achieving sustained and sustainable development. They underscore the role of formal and informal mechanisms in the negotiation and reconciliationIPC-IG is a joint project between the United of conflicting and competing interests.Nations Development Programme and Brazil topromote South-South Cooperation on applied In view of the high expectations placed on the next year’s Rio+20 meeting, let us remindpoverty research. It specialises in analysingpoverty and inequality and offering research- ourselves that ‘social sustainability’ will be built on the foundations of productive and socialbased policy recommendations on how to reduce inclusion. Too often, the focus has fallen largely on productive inclusion, with limited effortthem. IPC-IG is directly linked to the Poverty to address the structural factors that cause and sustain exclusion and marginalization, beGroup of the Bureau for Development Policy, they related to gender, political processes, property rights for the poor, and so on. Moreover,UNDP and the Government of Brazil. a focus on ‘sustained’ development as well as sustainable development acknowledges that, for many countries, existing development gains are fragile and easily reversed. The acuteIPC-IG Director Rathin Roy challenges faced by countries in the Horn of Africa due to persistent drought, displacement, conflict and poverty are a case in point. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), Poverty Practice, A socially sustainable approach, say these authors, is one in which policy efforts do not shy Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP away from the many interdependent multiple dynamics, processes and situations that affect vulnerability and predispose the poor and the vulnerable to harm from shocks and change. Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco O, 7º andar 70052-900 Brasilia, DF Brazil Growth, equity and sustainability are mutually compatible, if efforts have enough time ipc@ipc-undp.org and resources, are responsive to underlying structural causes and encourage the vigorous www.ipc-undp.org participation of the poor, allowing them to define their futures. What follows illuminates the complexity of inclusiveness as a development outcome and highlights bold action in and byThe views expressed in IPC-IG publications the South. We hope that these articles serve as a source of further innovation and inspireare the authors’ and not necessarily those of more cooperation and the spread of knowledge within the South. Ours is an age of politicalthe United Nations Development Programmeor the Government of Brazil. convulsions, global economic shifts, inexorable climatic change and stubborn poverty. Informed and catalytic strategies are needed now more than ever before.Rights and Permissions – All rights reserved. Thetext and data in this publication may be reproducedas long as written permission is obtained from IPC-IGand the source is cited. Reproductions for by Olav Kjorven, Assistant Administratorcommercial purposes are forbidden. and Director of the Bureau for Policy Development, UNDP
  3. 3. Poverty in Focus 3Overview:Where People, Poverty, by Leisa Perch, International Policy Centre for Inclusive GrowthEnvironment and Development MeetTwenty years after Rio, we are still recently, within ‘making growth morestruggling with many of the same issues inclusive including integrating both Often, the backdropand contradictions in the development environmental risk and co-benefits’. for the discourse onprocess that we faced earlier; in fact, sustainability has beenmany have become even more complex. Overall, the successful combining of characterised by tension, social and environmental co-benefits in rather than by reconciliation,The Rural Poverty Report 2011 (IFAD, 2010) policy and practice has remained more among the economic,notes that some 1.4 billion people elusive. The Government of China’s social and environmentalcontinue to live in extreme poverty, recent statements4 on the need to dimensions of developmentstruggling to survive on less than reconcile growth and social development (i.e., the three pillars).US$1.25 a day, and that more than two with environmental sustainability signalthirds reside in rural areas of developing potential shifts, but the extent of such Overall, the successfulcountries. Papers by Andrew Sumner reconciliation is not yet clear. Similarly, combining of social and(2010)1 and Ortiz and Cummins (2011)2 Indonesia and India have also taken environmental co-benefitsfurther emphasise that growth has not steps to address such concerns, with the in policy and practice hasbeen equitable, with the latter paper Government of India recently launching an remained elusive.highlighting that the rate of change incentive mechanism5 to promote greateron the trajectory from indigence energy efficiency in the private sector. The sustainability ofto poverty and from poverty to the supply of resourcesnon-poverty has been very slow for Given the predominant view of the role (environment), sustainedthe global poor as a constituency. of capital and labour (in the economic access to resources in system) as factors of production and securing livelihoodsAs the world turns its attention to COP 17 growth, competition and tensions are (society) and the qualityin Durban and the 20th anniversary of the manifest in policy and institutional of financial resourcesRio Convention (the UN Convention on frameworks. Natural capital is still seen (investments) are essentialEnvironment and Development), phrases as another, even abundant factor of to stabilizing environmentalsuch as the ‘green economy’ and ‘inclusive production, and the capacity of change cycles, reducing/and sustainable development’ are now institutional checks and balances— mitigating ecologicalshaping the discourse on development. environmental ministries—to drive scarcity, and enhancingIn view of the expectations placed on the agenda remains relatively weak. the renewal of thethe ‘green economy’, carbon credits, Social sectors remain peripheral to ecological system.and market-based mechanisms as many of the debates, national andpolicy responses for development ills, global alike, about how to arrestthis is a good time to remind ourselves catastrophic environmental change.about the need for ‘social sustainability’, acritical pillar of sustainable development The articles in this Poverty in Focus serve—in other words, to reaffirm that to highlight both the need for greater 1. See: <http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/ IPCOnePager120.pdf>.greening processes will not automatically focus on ‘software’ components to makedeliver for the poor or the vulnerable. development work and the capacity of 2. See: <http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/ Global_Inequality_Beyond_the_Bottom_Billion.pdf>. ‘social technologies’ to produceOften, the backdrop for the discourse on development and growth. Contributing 3. See Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962) and Limits to Growth by Donella Meadows (1972).sustainability has been characterised by to the debate about getting policy right,tension, rather than by reconciliation, Gabriel Labbate discusses the challenges 4. Thomas, L. (2011). ‘The Earth is Full’among the economic, social and and opportunities that policy makers in The New York Times. Available from <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/08/opinion/environmental dimensions of face in implementing policies with 08friedman.html?_r=1&src=me&ref=general>.development (i.e., the three pillars). probably environmental and social 5. See: <http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-At times, the discourse has been framed dividends, and, together with Kishan information/India%20Taking%20on%20within ‘limits to growth’,3 and, more Khoday, argues that the environment Climate%20Change.pdf>.
  4. 4. 4 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growthand society are organic systems While not a comprehensive list of policy mixes that combineconstantly in flux and change and that or accounting of the richness of social the macro and the micro to deliver.there may therefore be no ideal state of and political innovation available forsustainable development. Specifically, development, the examples highlighted On this point, Lucy Wanjiru’s article onKhoday’s article, supported by many underscore the need for global policy, accounting for gender and sustainabilityothers, including those of Lindiwe Sibanda including the global climate change raises the profile of equality as an(FANRPAN) and Dan Smith and Janani agenda, to focus on incremental and important condition for a greenVivekananda (International Alert), signals long-term gains as well as immediate economy and shows the potential ofthe need for more flexible policymaking, ‘wins’. From the perspective of social the Women’s Business Initiative to tackleone able to adjust as new information is innovations, the comparative analysis by growth and affordability in tandem withmade available. Nicolas Perrin’s article on Darana Souza and Danuta Chmielewska equity, access, opportunity and thethe ECA region argues for the importance highlights the benefits of ‘publicly- quality of development. Leonardoof taking note of the political economy assigned rights and rights-holders’, Hasenclever and Alex Shankland’sdimensions of various policies. particularly when policy and review of REDD+ makes the case for programmes then reinforce them. the indigenous community as an equalThe article by Helene Connor and Laura partner, not just a beneficiary. Thus, aWilliamson further reinforces this by The contributions by Leonardo picture of cautious optimism, balancedcalling for a “blinders off” approach Hasenclever, Alex Shankland and with the need to move beyondwhich move us beyond simplistic Nicolas Perrin highlight the continuing rhetoric, emerges.viewpoints of how power relationships lack of coherence and the need todefine the interactions of the three avoid complacency even when big Reviewing the development contextpillars of development and how battles are won. Leisa Perch’s article and challenges in the smallest countriesthose pillars interact with each other. on gender and employment also (SIDS) to one of the largest (India), the speaks to a number of subtle localized authors’ common clarion call is forIndividually and collectively, the and micro realities that continue to sustaining development and anchoringcontributions herein make a clear undermine socio-economic resilience. development in society.case for a strong, representative state While specific to SIDS, they highlightand the complementary role of civil the dynamic interplay between the The authors argue that the sustainabilitysociety and the private sector in economy at the household, group of the supply of resources (environment),defining and achieving sustained and macro level which often limits sustained access to resources in securingand sustainable development. sustained growth. livelihoods (society) and the quality ofThey also refer directly and indirectly financial resources (investments) areto the role of formal and informal Moreover, concerns expressed about the essential to stabilizing environmentalinstitutions necessary for the negotiation quality of employment and about the change cycles, reducing/mitigatingand reconciliation of conflicting and disconnect between needs and income ecological scarcity, and enhancingcompeting interests. The article by as well as the continuous exposure of the renewal of the ecological system.Denis Sonwa and Olufunso Somorin, SIDs to external shocks, resonate also Even so, they also note that populationfor example, makes a clear case for other countries and suggest the growth and other demands placeanchoring rights and responsibilities need to focus on adaptation and significant and potentially exponentialin law where they can be defended resilience-building, not just as marks pressures on assets, goods and servicesyet linked to fluid systems of on the development trajectory, but that are critical to future generations.institutional building that respect also as continuously evolving processes.local reality and culture. Perhaps most critical for a rapidly By probing some of the ‘uncomfortable’ globalizing and changing South isThis consensus suggests that the questions of politics and interests and our reconfirmation that transnational,planned discourse for the Rio+20 by highlighting the potential for regional and global concerns willmeeting on ‘institutional frameworks’ conflict, both overt and gradual, these increasingly influence ‘national’ policy.may need to ensure a broad scope articles suggest the need for greater There can be no green economythat can set standards and promote caution when addressing complex without an international enablinginnovation and adaptation at all development challenges where not all environment, particularly on trade,levels of society. interests, capacities and implications that allows countries to invest, support rest easily or clearly on the surface. and anchor today’s developmentThis accords with Hodgson’s definition decisions in tomorrow’s possibilities.of institutions as “systems of established They particularly outline the acute butand prevalent social rules that structure lesser known ‘social’ knock-on effectssocial interactions. Language, money, of public policy failures and warn thatlaw, systems of weights and measures, socially blind policies are unlikely 6. Hodgson, Geoffrey M. (2006). ‘What are Institutions?’ Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. XL No. 1. Pp 1-25.manners and firms (and other to be sustainable in the long term. March edition. Accessed from <http://checchi.organizations) are thus all institutions”.6 Critically, the articles show the capacity economia.unimi.it/corsi/whatareinstitutions.pdf>.
  5. 5. Poverty in Focus 5Integrating Poverty and by Gabriel Labbate, Ph.D, Senior Programme Officer, UN-REDD Programme/PovertyEnvironment Policies: and Environment InitiativeIssues, Challenges and OpportunitiesThe integration of environmental the poor, with a substantial share ofand development policies can be damage originating in commercial The integration oftraced as far back to the 1960s with the ventures attempting to satisfy the poverty and environmentpublication of Silent Spring (Carson, 1962), increasing demands of a growing policies has taken centreto the 1970s with the establishment population that has an increasing stage in the developmentof UNEP, and to the 1980s with the spending capacity and shifting debate for their potentialBrundtland Commission (WCED, 1987). consumption patterns for value-added to generate substantialThe concept took central stage in the good and services (MEA, 2005). social benefits.Rio 1992 conference on environment anddevelopment and continues today as a There is little challenge to the idea that Contrary to acceptedpivotal element in the ‘green economy’ the integration of development and beliefs, these policiesdiscussion (UNEP, 2011). environment can result in cost-effective do not produce systematic policy options. The benefits can be win-win situations forThe understanding of how poverty and non-trivial and encompass almost all sectors of societyenvironment interact with each other every policy area, from local to national/ and therefore theirhas also evolved. Initially, the idea regional, from urban to rural (DFID, EC, implementation facesof a poverty-environment nexus UNDP, WB, 2002; TEEB, 2010). However, political difficulties.as a synergistic spiral of environmental while integrating poverty anddegradation and poverty dominated environment policies can producethe discussion (WCED, 1987; World Bank, significantly positive and quantifiable1992). Short-term needs overran potential results, it remains more thelong-term benefits, with poverty inducing exception than the rule.environmental degradation, which,in turn, exacerbated poverty. In this Even development agencies findconceptual model, poor individuals the integration of their poverty andare both victims and agents of environment portfolios a challenge,environmental degradation. despite expanded efforts like the Poverty and Environment Initiative,This synergistic cycle, however, a partnership between UNEP and UNDP,provides limited insight into the and the global commitment to thetrue dynamics of resource use by poor MDGs as an overarching developmentgroups (Brocklesby and Hinshelwood, policy framework.2001; Dasgupta et al., 2005). Formal andinformal institutions are better at There are good reasons for this:explaining the short- and long-termincentives that influence patterns First, poverty and environmentalof resource use (North, 1990). policies can have significant synergies and be complementary,The generalisation of this synergistic but they still comprise largelyspiral also ignores issues of heterogeneity, different types of interventionor the notion that not all poor individuals packages. A healthy environmenthave the same capital endowments and can be a necessary, but not sufficient,that, therefore, equally poor groups can condition to lift people out ofmake different use of similar pools of poverty. Some of the deepest povertyresources (Chomitz, 1999; Barbier, 2000). readings take place in quite pristine environments, such as in tropical forestsOften, the drivers of environmental beyond the agricultural frontierdegradation are also moving away from (Chomitz, 2007).
  6. 6. 6 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth The relationship can go the other way, too. developing countries. In this context, The effect of very rapid Addressing social imbalances can be a integrating poverty and environment growth on ecosystems necessary, but not sufficient, condition would require policies that could be and their services has not to ensure sustainable resource use politically unpalatable. The notion (see also Gilbert, 2010). that sectors of society might have to been trivial. More than sacrifice some consumption to achieve half of all ecosystem Second, a healthy environment is a world free of poverty under conditions services are degraded or not a binary (0,1) variable. In most of sustainability is still anathema to some cases, the challenge is to find that citizens in developed and developing being used unsustainably. level of resource pressure which allows countries (Lind, 2010; Soley, 2010). for increased income among the poor, Some estimates put yet that stays within perceived safe Fourth, mainstreaming poverty- limits—for example, those required to environment policies in development global environmental preserve the resilience of ecosystems. plans is not cost-free. It demands damages in 2008 alone This can turn into a complex time and attention from qualified at 11 percent of global optimisation problem, one in which staff, a generally scarce resource. the target is not to maximise a single It can also entail re-accommodation GDP, several times the variable, but rather to find the of expenditures between sectors impact of the global best balance among several. because realizing the benefits of financial crisis in the same poverty-environment mainstreaming Third, improving the well-being of the can require increases in environmental year (UNEP, 2010). poorest implies increased consumption spending, a potentially difficult choice capacity (e.g., more food, better for a policy maker with limited resources The best chances of clothing, housing, etc.). Traditionally, (see also Bah, 2008). development has been coupled with an success will come from increased production and consumption As a result, some needed environmental sustained interventions of goods and services, resulting in a investments may not be carried out that are honest at rate and pattern of growth in the last because, as portfolio theory teaches us, 50 years in which the global economy the fact that an intervention has a recognizing challenges, has increased six-fold, food production positive payoff is not a sufficient focus on impact, do not has increased by two and a half times, reason to automatically expect divorce themselves from and water use has doubled. The effect its implementation. Proposed of this very rapid growth on ecosystems interventions must have a positive the underlying reasons and their services has not been trivial. payoff and a rate of return above of poverty, and invest More than half of all ecosystem that of other competing demands. in better governance services are degraded or being In the long run, environmental used unsustainably. The species policy can pay for itself, but, in and greater efficacy extinction rate is 1,000 times above the short run, the transition costs of public policy. the estimated normal level. Cultivated can often be significant. Development systems already cover one quarter agencies would do well to better of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, while understand these costs and their the amount of water impounded in influence on the decision-making process. dams is three to six times that of natural rivers (MEA, 2005). Finally, the mainstreaming of poverty-environment policies Some estimates put global environmental does not escape the law of diminishing damages in 2008 alone at 11 percent of returns. Projects that provide technical global GDP, several times the impact support to countries in order to integrate of the global financial crisis in the same poverty and environment policies year (UNEP, 2010). should prioritise those interventions in which payoffs are maximised, The unlimited production of preferably in the short run, and use consumer goods is not a feasible these as building blocks for more option. Consequently, the increased complex efforts. consumption of the poorest under conditions of sustainable resource use will Vaguely focused interventions need to be balanced by readjustments distract scarce public-service talent, in the consumption patterns of middle render poor services to the objective of and upper classes in developed and scaling up the mainstreaming of poverty-
  7. 7. Poverty in Focus 7environment policies, and generally exposure to toxics, the informal discussion notes prepared for the WDR Summer Workshop on Poverty andhave difficulties in demonstrating impact. waste collection sector, and recycling, Development, 6-8 July 1999, Washington DC. an area in which the PovertyNotwithstanding the above, the potential Environment Initiative is already Chomitz, K. (2007). At Loggerheads?: Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction,for integrating poverty-environment working in Uruguay. and Environment in the Tropical Forests,policies is immense. The following Washington DC, World Bank.examples outline the scale of potential The increased production ofpayoffs for rural and urban environments. waste has surpassed the capacities DFID, EC, UNDP and the World Bank (2002). Linking poverty reduction and of most urban centres in developing environmental management: For the rural sector, small-scale countries and has provided grounds Policy Challenges and Opportunities. agriculture and improved for the establishment of an informal Gilbert, N. (2010). ‘Can Conservation water and soil management hold waste collection sector that is Cut Poverty?’ Nature 467, 264–265. , great potential for integrated poverty responsible for most recycling. Available at: <http://www.nature.com/news/ and environment policies. In many The conditions under which this 2010/100913/full/467264a.html>. settings, it can reverse ongoing activity takes place are extremely Holt, E. (2001). ‘Measuring Farmers’ processes of land degradation, harsh and often reinforce Agroecological Resistance to Hurricane improve food security, and diminish structural poverty. Mitch in Central America’, Gatekeeper Series No.Sa102, International Institute the vulnerability of poor populations for Environment & Development. (Barbier, 1987; Holt, 2001). It is true In summary, the integration of poverty that, in many rural settings, realising and environment policies can have Lind, M. (2010). From Shrillness to S obriety: Pragmatism in Climate Politics. the benefits of poverty-environment significant social rewards. Sustained Available at: <http://www.policy-network.net/ policies can require addressing land interventions that keep structural publications_detail.aspx?ID=3758>. tenure issues, land concentration, and realities in view, focus on impact, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). power asymmetries, underscoring the do not divorce themselves from Ecosystems and Human Well-being: observation that environmental the underlying causes of poverty, Synthesis, Washington DC, Island Press. investments are insufficient, in of and invest in better governance North, D. (1990). Institutions, Institutional themselves, to lift people in and greater efficacy of public Change and Economic Performance, out of poverty. policy are more likely to deliver Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. the transformations necessary Soley, C. (2010). ‘Needs Must: Should the Current efforts at reducing to anchor sustainable development. Environment Trump Prosperity?’ deforestation and forest Available at: <www.policy-network.net/ degradation (REDD+) provide publications_download.aspx?ID=3662>. Bah, El-hadj M. (2008). ‘Structural another avenue with tremendous TEEB (2010). The Economics of Transformation in Developed and potential for ‘win-win’ poverty Developing Countries’ MPRA Paper 10655. , Ecosystems and Biodiversity. and environment policies. Available at: <http://mpra.ub.uni- Available at: <http://www.teebweb.org/ muenchen.de/10655/1/ TEEBSynthesisReport/tabid/29410/ A mosaic of improved land Default.aspx>. MPRA_paper_10655.pdf>. use practices and forested areas supported by economic incentives Barbier, E. (1987). ‘Cash Crops, Food Crops UNDP (2005). Millennium Project. and Agricultural Sustainability’ Gatekeeper , Report of Task Force 7 on Water and technical support is probably and Sanitation. Available at: <http:// Series 2, International Institute for the best option currently available Environment & Development. www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/ to stabilise frontiers in large sectors WaterComplete-lowres.pdf>. Barbier, E. (2000). ‘The Economic Linkages of developing countries and to UNEP (2010). Why environmental between Rural Poverty and Land reduce rural poverty. Such efforts Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa’, externalities matter to institutional alone will not reverse deforestation Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, investors. Available at: <http:// Vol. 82, pp. 355-370. www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/ trends; they should be accompanied universal_ownership.pdf>. by efforts to tackle large-scale Brocklesby, M. and Hinshelwood, E. (2001), agriculture, real estate speculation, ‘Poverty and the Environment: What the UNEP (2011). Towards a Green Economy: Poor Say: An Assessment of Poverty- Pathways to Sustainable Development and other forces that promote and Poverty Eradication. Environment Linkages in Participatory forest cutting. Poverty Assessments’, DFID. Available at: <http://www.unep.org/ greeneconomy/GreenEconomyReport/tabid/ Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. 29846/Default.aspx>. At the urban level, the traditional New York, Houghton Mifflin. sectors of water and sanitation World Bank (1992). World Development remain the most promising Dasgupta, S., Deichmann, U., Meisner, C., Report 1992 – Development and the and Wheeler, D. (2005). ‘Where is the Environment, New York, Oxford areas for a twin-track approach. Poverty Environment Nexus? Evidence University Press. The poverty-environment linkages from Cambodia and Lao PDR and Vietnam’, here have been well researched World Development, Vol. 33, No. 4, World Commission on Environment pp. 617–638. and Development (1987). Our Common and the payoffs are substantial Future, Report of the World Commission (UNDP, 2005). Linked to these Chomitz, K., (1999). Environment-Poverty on Environment and Development, Oxford, is the interface between health, Connections in Tropical Deforestation, Oxford University Press.
  8. 8. 8 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Lucy Wanjiru, Programme Specialist, Gender and Environment, Accounting for Green UNDP/BDP Gender Team Growth From the Lens of Gender Equality: Why It Matters! The world is shifting away from While a green economy has the potentialWhile a green economy economic growth models based on fossil to contribute to global economichas the potential to fuels and toward a new ‘green’ economy recovery and to create both high- andcontribute to global based on low-carbon development. low-skill jobs, it also supports qualityeconomic recovery and to The financial and economic crises have investments at the community level tocreate both high- and prompted increased investments in provide clean, affordable energy andlow-skill jobs, it also environmental infrastructure through to reduce threats from food, water,supports quality economic stimulus packages, while ecosystem and climate crises. A greeninvestments at the countries continue to make commitments economy that functions in this way iscommunity level to provide and substantial monetary pledges to more likely to deliver on its promise toclean, affordable energy support emerging financing mechanisms eradicate poverty and to promote equity,and to reduce threats from to mitigate and adapt to climate change. especially among women.food, water, ecosystemand climate crises. A green economy can help to achieve In many developing countries, women sustainable development by alleviating are living on the frontlines of climateA green economy that environmental threats, contribute to the change. As primary producers of staplefunctions in this way is creation of dynamic new industries and foods—a sector that is highly exposedmore likely to deliver on its income growth, and create quality jobs to the risks of drought and uncertainpromise to eradicate poverty that can improve workers’ economic rainfall—women are disproportionatelyand to promote equity, standing and thus their ability to impacted by climate change and areespecially among women. better support their families. often excluded from political and household decisions that affect their These new industries and jobs can help lives. During natural disasters such as protect and restore ecosystems and floods and hurricanes, for example, biodiversity, reduce energy consumption, women suffer disproportionately and decarbonize the economy, and often count higher among the dead.1 contribute to climate change mitigation and adaption. In addition, women tend to possess fewer assets and have insecure forest The sustainability of the new green and land tenure rights. Even where1. Oxfam International (2005). economy depends, however, not only legislation to secure women’s land rights2. Gender Justice: Key to Achieving the Millennium on that economy’s ability to yield exists, the process of implementing theDevelopment Goals. Available at <http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/MDGBrief-English.pdf>. environmental benefits, but also on laws remains a challenge. In Madagascar, its effectiveness in helping to eradicate for example, only 15 percent of women3. Policy Paper: Intellectual Property, Agro poverty and to increase gender equality own small landholdings, although thebiodiversity and Gender. and women’s empowerment. constitution guarantees women’s land4. Evidence for Action Gender Equality and Economic rights and 83 percent of employeesGrowth. Available at: <http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/15/45568595.pdf>. Green economy initiatives that aim at in the agricultural sector are women. creating more environmentally-sound Furthermore, agricultural financing5. UNDP and Energy Access for the Poor: Energizing theMillennium Development Goals. Available at: <http:// economies are not automatically processes do not often include genderwww.undp.org/energy/>. inclusive of fundamental social considerations. “OECD statistics show requirements such as income equity, that of the US$18.4 billion spent on6. “A Gender Perspective on the “Green Economy”Equitable, healthy and decent jobs and livelihoods“, job quality and gender equality. In failing agricultural aid between 2002 and 2008,Women’s major group position paper in preparation to account for social factors, they could donors reported that just 5.6 percentof the “Rio+20" United Nations Conference onSustainable Development 2012. maintain or even aggravate the negative included a focus on gender”.2Available at: <http://www.unep.org/civil-society/ social and distributive trends of thePortals/59/Documents/12_GMGSF/docs_and_presentations/Additional_messages/ traditional economy, such as existing Although women generally lack decision-gender_perspective_on_the_green_economy.pdf>. inequalities and gender gaps. making power in social and political
  9. 9. Poverty in Focus 9institutions and are excluded are essential for climate change mini-grids, water pumping and biofuel)from leadership positions or given only mitigation, can have significant and are also being introduced rapidly.secondary roles, they are not only victims rapid economic benefits for women Scaling up energy access in off-gridof adverse climate impacts. Indeed, they in developing countries. It can improve areas across Africa will be instrumentalare also active agents of change, leaders, productivity and efficiency and open up in empowering women and acceleratingand champions of economic growth and new income-generating opportunities progress on multiple MDGs.5sustainable development. for women, especially in currently underserved rural areas. Still, despite recent gains in genderDespite suffering from socio-economic equality and women’s empowerment,disadvantages, women are already Supporting women in designing, a significant wage gap and extremelyresponding to climate changes while producing and marketing new energy- low numbers of women in high-growththey work to maintain their families related equipment could trigger a employment fields remain. Womenand communities. They are at the positive chain reaction. Research shows still face significant challenges infrontlines of everyday adjustment and that women are most likely to invest in entrepreneurship, including limitedadaptation to changing conditions the wellbeing of their families; their access to start-up capital, financing,and environments. increased control over resources likely networks, and technical expertise, leads to increased spending on children, as well as a lack of opportunity toAs primary caretakers of families, a greater accumulation of human capital bid on competitive federal contracts.6communities and natural resources, in the next generation, and the creationwomen are energetically supporting of sustainable livelihoods for A truly sustainable ‘green economy’rural food security and maintaining whole communities.4 must promote gender-friendly, green-agricultural biodiversity.3 collar employment and entrepreneurship The green economy will need to support opportunities and social equity andThey have accumulated specific innovative approaches and business must create green pathways out ofknowledge and skills about local models to facilitate women’s poverty for both genders.conditions and ecological resources entrepreneurship opportunities andand have the power to contribute to support the scaling-up of field-proven The Case of UNDP’s Women’s Greeneconomic transformation and sustainable solutions and approaches that facilitate Business Initiativedevelopment. But to reach their full growth for female-owned business The United Nations Developmentpotential, they need support in scaling up ventures beyond social assistance and Programme’s (UNDP’s) strategic approachand upgrading their activities related to micro-credit schemes. In Mali, Burkina to addressing climate change is guidedsustainable agriculture, renewable energy, Faso and Senegal, for example, access by the principles of inclusion andand the conservation of water supplies, to mechanical power (multifunctional sustainable development, recognizingforests and other natural resources so that platforms), some of which is run from that climate change is a developmentthey can generate greater economic clean biofuel, is generating income for issue and must be addressed hand-in-benefits from their labour. 2 million rural women, increasing school hand with efforts to reduce poverty. completion rates, and equalising the To this end, UNDP has launched theIncreased access to cleaner fuels, energy girl-to-boy ratio in primary schools. Women’s Green Business Initiative,sources and technologies, all of which New options (e.g., off-grid decentralised a global programme aimed at promoting women’s employment and entrepreneurship opportunities through Women and the Environment: climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Forests contribute to the livelihoods of many of the 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty, and the large majority of these poor (over 70 percent) are women Working in close collaboration with (Gurung and Quesada, 2009). governments, civil society organizations, 70 percent of the 1.3 billion people living in conditions of poverty and the private sector, the Initiative is are women. In urban areas, 40 percent of the poorest households are establishing “service delivery platforms” headed by women (UNDP, 2009 from UNFPA, 2008). that offer policy advice, capacity building, financing options, information, Women predominate in the world’s food production (50-80 percent), but they and increased access to new own less than 10 percent of the land (UNDP, 2009 from UNFPA, 2008). technologies for developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, women comprise 60 percent of the informal economy, This initiative will further the UN System- provide about 70 percent of all the agricultural labour and produce about wide Policy on Gender Equality and the 90 percent of the food (FAO, 2008). Empowerment of Women7 and the UNDP By training women, including grandmothers, to be solar engineers, the Barefoot Gender Equality Strategy (2008-2013).8 College has helped them and communities to access renewable energy and reduce reliance on biomass as an energy source (Castonguay, 2009). The Women’s Green Business Initiative will contribute to poverty reduction
  10. 10. 10 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth The green economy The Types of Enterprises that can be Supported by the Women’s Green Business Initiative Include: will need to support innovative approaches Producing and marketing low-emission, more efficient stoves and equipment. and business models Producing, marketing, and installing renewable energy technologies. to facilitate women’s Producing biofuels and biogas for lamps, cookers and motorised equipment. entrepreneurship Expanding existing businesses using new energy efficient and renewable opportunities and energy sources. support the scaling-up Preserving forest and biodiversity through tree planting, ecosystem conservation of field-proven solutions and sustainable use of indigenous resources. and approaches. Providing financial, business and environmental management and consulting services. Integrating gender considerations in theand the achievement of the Millennium access to existing climate change green economy is criticalDevelopment Goals (MDGs), especially of funds and pursues the establishment to the creation of a moreMDG 3 on gender equality and women’s of new targeted financing options for equal and sustainableempowerment. This is particularly women’s green business initiatives.important for gender-responsive society for all.and green public investment. The Women’s Green Business Initiative aims to directly empower women inThe Initiative equips women to engage developing countries to engage in thevigorously in new economic activities design, production and delivery of green UNDP (2009) Resource guide on Gender and Climate Change.that address climate change threats while technologies, products, services, and Available from: <http://content.undp.org/building stronger, more resilient and self- information to adapt to and mitigate the go/cms-service/download/publication/reliant communities by implementing effects of climate change. It also provides ?version=live&id=2087989>.three strategic elements: support services to remove legal, policy FAO (2008). Gender Equality: Ensuring rural and regulatory biases that hinder women’s and men’s equalparticipation in Creating a policy environment that women’s entrepreneurship and development. Food and Agriculture Organization. <ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/ enhances equal economic opportunities employment in the new green industries 011/i0765e/i0765e10.pdf>. for women: The Initiative provides and activities of the future. Evidence advice and technical support to shows that investing in gender equality Castonguay, Sylvie (2009). Barefoot Colleague Teaching Grandmothers governments on policy and planning can accelerate economic growth and to be Solar Engineers. WIPO Magazine, frameworks to remove legal, reduce poverty.9 3/2009. June 2009. WIPO, Communications administrative and financial constraints Division. Available from: <http:// www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2009/03/ affecting women’s economic Therefore, integrating gender article_0002.html>. advancement and provides incentives considerations in the green economy and resources for the expansion of is critical to the creation of a more women’s green enterprises. equal and sustainable society for all. 7. UN System Doc. CEB/2006/2. Doing any less means not involving 8. The UNDP Gender Equality Strategy calls Building capacity for women’s and capitalising on the capacity, for tailored initiatives to support broad-based, organizations and women entrepreneurs: innovation and learning of 50 percent equitable development that is inclusive of women’s needs and contributions—especially those of poor The Initiative provides training and of the world’s population. women. Section 6.1 of the Gender Equality Strategy support services to assist women’s deals broadly with “Poverty Reduction and the Achievement of the MDGs” and includes initiatives organizations and entrepreneurs in for “Promoting inclusive growth, gender equality starting, incubating and scaling up The following references are related and MDG achievement.” Paragraph 51 states that viable business enterprises that to the box on page 9: UNDP will be pro-active in working with national entities to incorporate a gender perspective, contribute to climate mitigation, with special attention to four areas: Gurung, Jeannette and Andrea Quesada adaptation and resilience. 1) macro-planning instruments that incorporate (2009). Gender-Differentiated Impacts gender analysis and specify gender equality results; of REDD to be addressed in REDD Social 2) women’s unpaid work; 3) gender-responsive public Standards. A report prepared for an Increasing women’s access to climate investment; and 4) gender-sensitive analysis of data. initiative to develop voluntary Social change finance mechanisms: and Environmental standards 9. Klasen, S. “Does Gender Inequality Reduce The Initiative promotes gender- for REDD. Available from: Growth and Development? Evidence from <http://www.wocan.org/files/all/ Cross-Country Regressions“. responsive public and private gender_differentiated_impacts_of_redd_final_ Available at: <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ investments. It facilitates increased report1.pdf>. INTGENDER/Resources/wp7.pdf>.
  11. 11. Poverty in Focus 11Sustainable Development by Kishan Khoday, Deputy Representative, UNDP Saudi Arabia1as Freedom: Energy, Environmentand the Arab TransformationControl over energy and the people’s long-term choices and freedoms.environment has been central to state Unless trends of resource scarcity and As countries across the Arablegitimacy and power in the Arab region, ecological change are addressed, basic region move forward withshaping the nature of governance freedoms, human security and human new social compacts, theand influencing how sovereignty and development stand in jeopardy. equitable and sustainablestatecraft function in the region. use of natural resourcesAs the systemic transition across the Arab In particular, the vulnerability of food, will emerge as an issueregion proceeds and countries craft new water and energy resources and the of contention.social compacts for development, the exacerbation of climate change togetherequitable and sustainable use of natural bring serious risks to sustaining human Transformational changeresources will likely emerge as a central development. As noted by former UN in the Arab region is anissue of contention. Secretary General Kofi Annan, “when opportunity to rethink resources are scarce—whether energy, the role of natural resourcesThe social compact in past decades has water or arable land—our fragile in creating more inclusivebeen defined by a balance between state ecosystems become strained, as do and sustainable growth andcontrol over natural capital, on the the coping mechanisms of groups and as a means of expandingone hand, and the provision of social individuals. This can lead to a breakdown people’s long-term choiceswelfare benefits, on the other. However, of established codes of conduct, and and freedoms.sustainable development is about more even outright conflict.” Underlying shiftsthan charity—it is also about justice and in global resource demand and fragility Sustainable development isaccountability, with a key challenge of supply combined to create record about more than charity—itbeing to expand the benefits of the prices for basic food and energy is also about justice andregion’s natural wealth for the average commodities in recent years, accountability.citizen and the poor in particular. exacerbating social and political instability in many countries.Higher expectations have emergedfor more transparent, accountable The transformation in the Arab regionand participatory use of energy and now provides space to rethink the rolethe environment as a public good, of natural resources in the economy, withcombating corruption, preventing new green economy concepts potentiallythe squandering of natural wealth, providing a channel to increase socialand preserving natural capital equity and the efficiency of resource usefor future generations. and generating new knowledge-based approaches to economic innovation andThe spirit of transformational change competitiveness. Such rethinking wouldin the region stands as an opportunity do well to consider the role of the green 1. Kishan Khoday has served with UNDP since 1997,to address entrenched systems of economy, defined as an economy “that as UNDP Sustainable Development Advisor and Deputy Coordinator for Natural Resourcescontrol, broaden access and benefit- results in improved human well-being and the Environment in Indonesia (1997-2005), UNDPsharing related to natural wealth, and social equity, while significantly Assistant Representative and Team Leader for Energy & Environment in China (2005-2009) and UNDPexpand the role of local governance, and reducing environmental risks and Deputy Representative in Saudi Arabia (since 2009).strengthen resilience of the natural asset ecological scarcities”. 2 The concept has emerged as a way to stimulate economic 2. UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways tobase on which the poor depend. Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication –While analyses of the links between activity, while responding to food, water, A Synthesis for Policy Makers, UNEP, Nairobi (2011), 2.environment and human development energy and climate crises and reorienting 3. Jose Antonio Ocampo, The Transition to a Greenoften focus on consumption the global economy from a “system that Economy: Benefits, Challenges and Risks from asustainability, a broader perspective is allowed, and at times generated, these Sustainable Development Perspective, Report of Experts to Second Preparatory Committee for the UNneeded to address the important role of crises to a system that proactively Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio2012),natural resources as a means to expand addresses and prevents them.”3 UNDESA, UNEP and UNCTAD, New York (2010), 2.
  12. 12. 12 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Food Security at the Crossroads Energy and Inclusive Growth The 2012 Rio Earth Food security accelerated the emergence As noted by the 2010 IMF World Economic Summit is an opportunity of some civil society movements, with Outlook, “the persistent increase in oil to engage in new south- 2011 seeing record prices because of prices over the past decade suggests surging global demand and historic that global oil markets have entered a south cooperation for droughts and flooding in key exporting period of increased scarcity. Given sustainable development, countries in 2010. the rapid growth in oil demand in to engage the new role of emerging market economies and a The Arab region already stands as the downshift in the trend growth of oil the South in emerging world’s largest net food importer and supply, a return to abundance is risks and solutions. many fear we are witnessing a shift away unlikely in the near term.”5 from cyclical price fluctuations towards longer-term structural change driven The convergence of declining energy A south-south solutions by a shift in supply and demand reserves, the dramatic rise in emerging exchange can support fundamentals—a convergence of surging economy demand, and a gradual global sharing of models for emerging economy demand alongside shift to climate-friendly growth have bottlenecks to expansion of agricultural created a break from the type of cyclical sustainable development land and productivity that include climate factors that shaped the past, with oil and green economy change, rising energy costs, reduced prices likely to remain high for some policy, and the transfer groundwater irrigation capacities, time to come. This holds risks for desertification and reduced soil fertility. Arab countries, most of which and development of clean are net energy importers. technologies within the Enhanced social safety nets and new south. It could also approaches to agricultural productivity There is now recognition that rising gains are needed for Arab countries to prices could constrain future human facilitate the integration adapt to these challenges. New attention development trends unless energy of green economy is needed to review economic and fiscal alternatives are engaged. As a result, approaches into rapidly policies related to agricultural production countries across the region are now and land use, subsidy and social security intensifying efforts to expand renewable growing ODA and foreign systems, ecologically sound farming, crop energy and energy efficiency measures investment flows from diversification, expansion of sustainable to reduce import dependence and emerging economies to irrigation and water use efficiency, use of thus to save public resources for social energy efficiency and renewable energy development goals while also creating least developed countries. measures, and soil replenishment. the foundations for new growth and a green economy. Furthermore, food insecurity is driving some Arab countries to explore overseas Energy plays an equally important role land acquisition and leasing. Globally, in defining the nature of the state and the acquisition of land for food security human development in oil-exporting has topped 140 million acres, bringing countries in the Arab region. The energy with it an investment potential of US$50 sector remains central to the region’s billion to host countries.4 economy, making up approximately 40 percent of GDP, but, as reserves decline, Saudi Arabia, for example, is now active oil-exporting countries are also in land acquisitions and leasing in intensifying efforts to expand local Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sudan driven by renewable energy and energy efficiency high population growth in the Arab Gulf, measures. This is meant to conserve with populations expected to double increasingly scarce oil reserves for future from 2000 levels by 2030 in an export revenues, on the one hand, and to environment of scarce arable land and diversify economies beyond oil to ensure groundwater resources. However, this a sustainable base for economic growth new global trend brings concerns and youth employment, on the other. about the impact on local communities in terms of land and water rights and In Saudi Arabia, for example, which is their own food security, with a need largely dependent on oil-burning power for South-South cooperation and facilities and the expansion of non-oil integration of sustainability, inclusion industrial sectors, recent years have seen4. Lester Brown, The New Geopolitics of Food, May/ and equity into growth and a dramatic increase in local direct oil use.June 2011, Earth Policy Institute, Washington DC, 7-8. investment policies. The new King Abdullah City for Atomic
  13. 13. Poverty in Focus 13and Renewable Energy forecasts that, ifcurrent trends prevail, local oil demandcould increase from about 2.5 millionbarrels per day (mbpd) out of the 10mbpd produced today, to as manyas 8 million barrels per day by 2028.6Thus, in addressing energy risks andopportunities in the Arab region, twocomplimentary goals are taking shapein the region, both in line with the visionof the UN Secretary General’s AdvisoryGroup on Energy and Climate Change:1) to reduce the energy intensity ofgrowth and 2) to expand access tosustainable forms of energy for thepoor, the latter of which is in particularfocus in 2012 as the InternationalYear of Sustainable Energy for All.7As a result of the global shift in Source: Cleantech Group (2011).resource supply and demand andemerging green economy opportunities, social development and must be Opportunities exist to build new strategicclean technology reached a record high overcome if the MDGs are to be achieved.” partnerships to combine experiences andmarket capitalization of US$386 billion expertise and to establish policies andin 2010, of which US$200 billion was in South-South Solutions institutions as the foundations for newclean energy (see Figure).8 This is driven Coming 20 years after the landmark 1992 green growth and benefits to the poor.by emerging economies like Brazil, Rio Earth Summit, the upcoming 2012 Rio Scope also exists for cooperationChina, and India.9 Potential also exists Earth Summit will place a major focus on among natural resource exporting andfor the Arab region to join this trend institutions for sustainable development importing countries in the South to findby building on its world-leading energy and on the green economy. new solutions to surging prices, marketsector capacities and solar radiation volatility, and vulnerability of the poor.levels. Initial steps include renewable Two underlying issues are important:energy and energy efficiency targets the role of emerging economies in global A South-South solutions exchangein Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, sustainability challenges and solutions on issues of natural resources andMorocco, Tunisia and UAE, and plans and the emerging risks from resource the environment can add value to thisfor a pan-Arab solar power network. scarcity for social equity and inclusive process, connecting achievements and growth. Unlike in previous eras of best practices among partners andHowever, while clean energy holds economic transformation, current helping shape evolving green economybenefits for the sustainability of responses to food, water and energy strategies in follow-up to the upcomingdevelopment, it will not necessarily security are emerging through 2012 Rio Earth Summit.benefit the poor without policies leadership of the South.for inclusive growth in the sector.10 5. IMF, World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Thus, South-South cooperation can play Fund (IMF), Washington (2011), 89.The 2008 Riyadh Declaration on a key role in harnessing the comparativeEnergy for Sustainable Development, advantages of partners in the South to 6. KACARE (2011), Statement by the President of the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewablefor example, advocated to make clean bring about transformational change in Energy to the Global Competitiveness Forum,energy accessible for Least Developed the global economy and to support 14 January 14 2011, Riyadh.Countries and was supported by sustainability of their own economic 7. UN, Report of the UN Secretary-General’s Advisorythe OPEC Fund for International and social development. Group on Energy and Climate Change, United Nations Publications, New York (2010), 7-9.Development and other partners. Just as the agricultural green revolution 8. Nicholas Parker, The Emerging Global Clean Economy:This is important for the Arab region, of the past reduced poverty across the The Race for Sustainability Prosperity Goes Mainstream, Cleantech Group, Presentation to the Globalwhere 40 percent of the poor lack energy world, so, too, could the next wave of Competitiveness Forum, 24 January 2011, Riyadh.access, with electrification rates in Sudan clean technologies emerge as a critical 9. UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways toand Yemen as low as 25 percent. As noted tool for achieving inclusive growth and Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication:at the global MDG+10 Summit in 2010, sustainable development. South-South Policy Synthesis, UNEP, Nairobi (2011), 23.“lack of access to modern energy services cooperation can be a transformative 10. IEA and UN, Energy Poverty: How to Make Modernis a serious hindrance to economic and force in this regard. Energy Access Universal, OECD/IEA (2010), Paris.