Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment
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Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment



This new issue of the Poverty in Focus magazine presents 12 articles that discuss the main policy issues for a new inclusive and sustainable development paradigm. As a contribution to the dialogue ...

This new issue of the Poverty in Focus magazine presents 12 articles that discuss the main policy issues for a new inclusive and sustainable development paradigm. As a contribution to the dialogue around Rio+20 and to the ongoing discussions around a post-2015 MDG Agenda, this Poverty in Focus links future development to sustainability and particularly to social sustainability. Looking beyond the critical issues of ‘carbon footprints’, ‘low-carbon development’,’ green economy’ and the economics behind saving the planet, it draws attention back to the continuing challenge of ensuring that growth and development
deliver for the poor and vulnerable. In its many forms—energy poverty, lack of access to water and sanitation, malnutrition or insecure access to food, and lack of access to education and health—the scale and scope of global deprivation call current development policy and practice into question.



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Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment Dimensions of Inclusive Development: Growth, Gender, Poverty and the Environment Document Transcript

  • Poverty Number 23 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Poverty Practice, Bureau for Development Policy, UNDPDimensions of Inclusive Development
  • 2 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Growth, Equity and Sustainability: A Declaration of Interdependence GUEST Over one billion of us live without many of the basics that the other six billion take as given. E D I TO R S Although 28 countries have moved from low-income status to middle-income status, with Ghana and Zambia among the newest Middle Income Countries, an estimated 800 million people still live in low-income countries. Of these, half live in just five countries, three of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. In these least-developed countries (LDCs), conflict, disaster and broader human insecurity impose structural limits on efforts to move from crisis to risk reduction and from growth to sustained development. So although many millions have beenPoverty in Focus is a regular publication of lifted out of poverty in the last ten years, it is also true that more people live in chronic hungerthe International Policy Centre for InclusiveGrowth (IPC-IG). Its purpose is to present the than ever before. Significant and sustained progress will require faster and better efforts.results of research on poverty and inequality The message of this Poverty in Focus is that, “For Growth to be inclusive, it must be sustainedin the developing world. and sustainable and that, for it to be sustained and sustainable, it must also be equitable.” As a contribution to the dialogue around Rio+20 and to the ongoing discussions aroundGuest Editors a post-2015 MDG Agenda, this Poverty in Focus links future development to sustainability and Leisa Perch and Gabriel Labbate particularly to social sustainability. Looking beyond the critical issues of ‘carbon footprints’, ‘low-carbon development’,’ green economy’ and the economics behind saving the planet,Desktop Publisher it draws attention back to the continuing challenge of ensuring that growth and development Roberto Astorino deliver for the poor and vulnerable. In its many forms—energy poverty, lack of accessCopy Editor to water and sanitation, malnutrition or insecure access to food, and lack of access to Lance W. Garmer education and health—the scale and scope of global deprivation call current development policy and practice into question.Front page: Multiple Dimensions ofDevelopment is the spirit behind this Poverty Growth, gender, poverty and the environment can no longer be treated as loosely connectedin Focus. The images represent the range components of development. Recognizing their interdependence is at the core of improvedof issues, the people and the regions we and sustained development for all.covered and also the message of dimensionswithin a broader context. They also reinforce For one thing, the continuing decline of the quantity and quality of natural resources andthe duality which lies behind developmentat all levels, including the need for social as of ecosystem functions is likely to exacerbate the likelihood of conflict over resources,well as technological innovation as part of particularly water. According to UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery,structural transformation. Images 1, 3, 5-7 35 countries had entered what could be designated a ‘post-conflict phase’ by 2008.are from the IPC-IG “Humanizing Development” The cost of conflict has been enormous, matching or surpassing, according to someGlobal Photography Campaign (photographers estimates, the value of ODA received in the last 20 to 30 years in the same countries.respectively: GB Mukherji, Soleyman Mahmoudi,Ramesh Pathania and Joyce Wambui).Image 2 (Adrian Jankowiak) and image 4 Addressing topics such as the evolving debate on environmental and social justice(Max Thabiso Edkins and ResourceAfricaUK). and improved accounting frameworks to ‘include’ environmental assets and services in considerations of growth, the enclosed articles can help us go beyond lip-service toEditors’ note: IPC-IG and the editors the notion of sustainability. They focus on the ‘software’ components of development,gratefully acknowledge the generous highlighting the need for equal attention to process and to results. Suggesting that inclusivecontributions, without any monetary ormaterial remuneration, by all the authors and sustainable development will need to leverage ‘social technologies’ such as politicaland photographers of this issue. innovations, true engagement and honest evaluation, they make a clear case for a strong, representative state and the complementary roles of civil society and the private sector in defining and achieving sustained and sustainable development. They underscore the role of formal and informal mechanisms in the negotiation and reconciliationIPC-IG is a joint project between the United of conflicting and competing interests.Nations Development Programme and Brazil topromote South-South Cooperation on applied In view of the high expectations placed on the next year’s Rio+20 meeting, let us remindpoverty research. It specialises in analysingpoverty and inequality and offering research- ourselves that ‘social sustainability’ will be built on the foundations of productive and socialbased policy recommendations on how to reduce inclusion. Too often, the focus has fallen largely on productive inclusion, with limited effortthem. IPC-IG is directly linked to the Poverty to address the structural factors that cause and sustain exclusion and marginalization, beGroup of the Bureau for Development Policy, they related to gender, political processes, property rights for the poor, and so on. Moreover,UNDP and the Government of Brazil. a focus on ‘sustained’ development as well as sustainable development acknowledges that, for many countries, existing development gains are fragile and easily reversed. The acuteIPC-IG Director Rathin Roy challenges faced by countries in the Horn of Africa due to persistent drought, displacement, conflict and poverty are a case in point. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), Poverty Practice, A socially sustainable approach, say these authors, is one in which policy efforts do not shy Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP away from the many interdependent multiple dynamics, processes and situations that affect vulnerability and predispose the poor and the vulnerable to harm from shocks and change. Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco O, 7º andar 70052-900 Brasilia, DF Brazil Growth, equity and sustainability are mutually compatible, if efforts have enough time ipc@ipc-undp.org and resources, are responsive to underlying structural causes and encourage the vigorous www.ipc-undp.org participation of the poor, allowing them to define their futures. What follows illuminates the complexity of inclusiveness as a development outcome and highlights bold action in and byThe views expressed in IPC-IG publications the South. We hope that these articles serve as a source of further innovation and inspireare the authors’ and not necessarily those of more cooperation and the spread of knowledge within the South. Ours is an age of politicalthe United Nations Development Programmeor the Government of Brazil. convulsions, global economic shifts, inexorable climatic change and stubborn poverty. Informed and catalytic strategies are needed now more than ever before.Rights and Permissions – All rights reserved. Thetext and data in this publication may be reproducedas long as written permission is obtained from IPC-IGand the source is cited. Reproductions for by Olav Kjorven, Assistant Administratorcommercial purposes are forbidden. and Director of the Bureau for Policy Development, UNDP
  • Poverty in Focus 3Overview:Where People, Poverty, by Leisa Perch, International Policy Centre for Inclusive GrowthEnvironment and Development MeetTwenty years after Rio, we are still recently, within ‘making growth morestruggling with many of the same issues inclusive including integrating both Often, the backdropand contradictions in the development environmental risk and co-benefits’. for the discourse onprocess that we faced earlier; in fact, sustainability has beenmany have become even more complex. Overall, the successful combining of characterised by tension, social and environmental co-benefits in rather than by reconciliation,The Rural Poverty Report 2011 (IFAD, 2010) policy and practice has remained more among the economic,notes that some 1.4 billion people elusive. The Government of China’s social and environmentalcontinue to live in extreme poverty, recent statements4 on the need to dimensions of developmentstruggling to survive on less than reconcile growth and social development (i.e., the three pillars).US$1.25 a day, and that more than two with environmental sustainability signalthirds reside in rural areas of developing potential shifts, but the extent of such Overall, the successfulcountries. Papers by Andrew Sumner reconciliation is not yet clear. Similarly, combining of social and(2010)1 and Ortiz and Cummins (2011)2 Indonesia and India have also taken environmental co-benefitsfurther emphasise that growth has not steps to address such concerns, with the in policy and practice hasbeen equitable, with the latter paper Government of India recently launching an remained elusive.highlighting that the rate of change incentive mechanism5 to promote greateron the trajectory from indigence energy efficiency in the private sector. The sustainability ofto poverty and from poverty to the supply of resourcesnon-poverty has been very slow for Given the predominant view of the role (environment), sustainedthe global poor as a constituency. of capital and labour (in the economic access to resources in system) as factors of production and securing livelihoodsAs the world turns its attention to COP 17 growth, competition and tensions are (society) and the qualityin Durban and the 20th anniversary of the manifest in policy and institutional of financial resourcesRio Convention (the UN Convention on frameworks. Natural capital is still seen (investments) are essentialEnvironment and Development), phrases as another, even abundant factor of to stabilizing environmentalsuch as the ‘green economy’ and ‘inclusive production, and the capacity of change cycles, reducing/and sustainable development’ are now institutional checks and balances— mitigating ecologicalshaping the discourse on development. environmental ministries—to drive scarcity, and enhancingIn view of the expectations placed on the agenda remains relatively weak. the renewal of thethe ‘green economy’, carbon credits, Social sectors remain peripheral to ecological system.and market-based mechanisms as many of the debates, national andpolicy responses for development ills, global alike, about how to arrestthis is a good time to remind ourselves catastrophic environmental change.about the need for ‘social sustainability’, acritical pillar of sustainable development The articles in this Poverty in Focus serve—in other words, to reaffirm that to highlight both the need for greater 1. See: <http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/ IPCOnePager120.pdf>.greening processes will not automatically focus on ‘software’ components to makedeliver for the poor or the vulnerable. development work and the capacity of 2. See: <http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/ Global_Inequality_Beyond_the_Bottom_Billion.pdf>. ‘social technologies’ to produceOften, the backdrop for the discourse on development and growth. Contributing 3. See Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962) and Limits to Growth by Donella Meadows (1972).sustainability has been characterised by to the debate about getting policy right,tension, rather than by reconciliation, Gabriel Labbate discusses the challenges 4. Thomas, L. (2011). ‘The Earth is Full’among the economic, social and and opportunities that policy makers in The New York Times. Available from <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/08/opinion/environmental dimensions of face in implementing policies with 08friedman.html?_r=1&src=me&ref=general>.development (i.e., the three pillars). probably environmental and social 5. See: <http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-At times, the discourse has been framed dividends, and, together with Kishan information/India%20Taking%20on%20within ‘limits to growth’,3 and, more Khoday, argues that the environment Climate%20Change.pdf>.
  • 4 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growthand society are organic systems While not a comprehensive list of policy mixes that combineconstantly in flux and change and that or accounting of the richness of social the macro and the micro to deliver.there may therefore be no ideal state of and political innovation available forsustainable development. Specifically, development, the examples highlighted On this point, Lucy Wanjiru’s article onKhoday’s article, supported by many underscore the need for global policy, accounting for gender and sustainabilityothers, including those of Lindiwe Sibanda including the global climate change raises the profile of equality as an(FANRPAN) and Dan Smith and Janani agenda, to focus on incremental and important condition for a greenVivekananda (International Alert), signals long-term gains as well as immediate economy and shows the potential ofthe need for more flexible policymaking, ‘wins’. From the perspective of social the Women’s Business Initiative to tackleone able to adjust as new information is innovations, the comparative analysis by growth and affordability in tandem withmade available. Nicolas Perrin’s article on Darana Souza and Danuta Chmielewska equity, access, opportunity and thethe ECA region argues for the importance highlights the benefits of ‘publicly- quality of development. Leonardoof taking note of the political economy assigned rights and rights-holders’, Hasenclever and Alex Shankland’sdimensions of various policies. particularly when policy and review of REDD+ makes the case for programmes then reinforce them. the indigenous community as an equalThe article by Helene Connor and Laura partner, not just a beneficiary. Thus, aWilliamson further reinforces this by The contributions by Leonardo picture of cautious optimism, balancedcalling for a “blinders off” approach Hasenclever, Alex Shankland and with the need to move beyondwhich move us beyond simplistic Nicolas Perrin highlight the continuing rhetoric, emerges.viewpoints of how power relationships lack of coherence and the need todefine the interactions of the three avoid complacency even when big Reviewing the development contextpillars of development and how battles are won. Leisa Perch’s article and challenges in the smallest countriesthose pillars interact with each other. on gender and employment also (SIDS) to one of the largest (India), the speaks to a number of subtle localized authors’ common clarion call is forIndividually and collectively, the and micro realities that continue to sustaining development and anchoringcontributions herein make a clear undermine socio-economic resilience. development in society.case for a strong, representative state While specific to SIDS, they highlightand the complementary role of civil the dynamic interplay between the The authors argue that the sustainabilitysociety and the private sector in economy at the household, group of the supply of resources (environment),defining and achieving sustained and macro level which often limits sustained access to resources in securingand sustainable development. sustained growth. livelihoods (society) and the quality ofThey also refer directly and indirectly financial resources (investments) areto the role of formal and informal Moreover, concerns expressed about the essential to stabilizing environmentalinstitutions necessary for the negotiation quality of employment and about the change cycles, reducing/mitigatingand reconciliation of conflicting and disconnect between needs and income ecological scarcity, and enhancingcompeting interests. The article by as well as the continuous exposure of the renewal of the ecological system.Denis Sonwa and Olufunso Somorin, SIDs to external shocks, resonate also Even so, they also note that populationfor example, makes a clear case for other countries and suggest the growth and other demands placeanchoring rights and responsibilities need to focus on adaptation and significant and potentially exponentialin law where they can be defended resilience-building, not just as marks pressures on assets, goods and servicesyet linked to fluid systems of on the development trajectory, but that are critical to future generations.institutional building that respect also as continuously evolving processes.local reality and culture. Perhaps most critical for a rapidly By probing some of the ‘uncomfortable’ globalizing and changing South isThis consensus suggests that the questions of politics and interests and our reconfirmation that transnational,planned discourse for the Rio+20 by highlighting the potential for regional and global concerns willmeeting on ‘institutional frameworks’ conflict, both overt and gradual, these increasingly influence ‘national’ policy.may need to ensure a broad scope articles suggest the need for greater There can be no green economythat can set standards and promote caution when addressing complex without an international enablinginnovation and adaptation at all development challenges where not all environment, particularly on trade,levels of society. interests, capacities and implications that allows countries to invest, support rest easily or clearly on the surface. and anchor today’s developmentThis accords with Hodgson’s definition decisions in tomorrow’s possibilities.of institutions as “systems of established They particularly outline the acute butand prevalent social rules that structure lesser known ‘social’ knock-on effectssocial interactions. Language, money, of public policy failures and warn thatlaw, systems of weights and measures, socially blind policies are unlikely 6. Hodgson, Geoffrey M. (2006). ‘What are Institutions?’ Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. XL No. 1. Pp 1-25.manners and firms (and other to be sustainable in the long term. March edition. Accessed from <http://checchi.organizations) are thus all institutions”.6 Critically, the articles show the capacity economia.unimi.it/corsi/whatareinstitutions.pdf>.
  • Poverty in Focus 5Integrating Poverty and by Gabriel Labbate, Ph.D, Senior Programme Officer, UN-REDD Programme/PovertyEnvironment Policies: and Environment InitiativeIssues, Challenges and OpportunitiesThe integration of environmental the poor, with a substantial share ofand development policies can be damage originating in commercial The integration oftraced as far back to the 1960s with the ventures attempting to satisfy the poverty and environmentpublication of Silent Spring (Carson, 1962), increasing demands of a growing policies has taken centreto the 1970s with the establishment population that has an increasing stage in the developmentof UNEP, and to the 1980s with the spending capacity and shifting debate for their potentialBrundtland Commission (WCED, 1987). consumption patterns for value-added to generate substantialThe concept took central stage in the good and services (MEA, 2005). social benefits.Rio 1992 conference on environment anddevelopment and continues today as a There is little challenge to the idea that Contrary to acceptedpivotal element in the ‘green economy’ the integration of development and beliefs, these policiesdiscussion (UNEP, 2011). environment can result in cost-effective do not produce systematic policy options. The benefits can be win-win situations forThe understanding of how poverty and non-trivial and encompass almost all sectors of societyenvironment interact with each other every policy area, from local to national/ and therefore theirhas also evolved. Initially, the idea regional, from urban to rural (DFID, EC, implementation facesof a poverty-environment nexus UNDP, WB, 2002; TEEB, 2010). However, political difficulties.as a synergistic spiral of environmental while integrating poverty anddegradation and poverty dominated environment policies can producethe discussion (WCED, 1987; World Bank, significantly positive and quantifiable1992). Short-term needs overran potential results, it remains more thelong-term benefits, with poverty inducing exception than the rule.environmental degradation, which,in turn, exacerbated poverty. In this Even development agencies findconceptual model, poor individuals the integration of their poverty andare both victims and agents of environment portfolios a challenge,environmental degradation. despite expanded efforts like the Poverty and Environment Initiative,This synergistic cycle, however, a partnership between UNEP and UNDP,provides limited insight into the and the global commitment to thetrue dynamics of resource use by poor MDGs as an overarching developmentgroups (Brocklesby and Hinshelwood, policy framework.2001; Dasgupta et al., 2005). Formal andinformal institutions are better at There are good reasons for this:explaining the short- and long-termincentives that influence patterns First, poverty and environmentalof resource use (North, 1990). policies can have significant synergies and be complementary,The generalisation of this synergistic but they still comprise largelyspiral also ignores issues of heterogeneity, different types of interventionor the notion that not all poor individuals packages. A healthy environmenthave the same capital endowments and can be a necessary, but not sufficient,that, therefore, equally poor groups can condition to lift people out ofmake different use of similar pools of poverty. Some of the deepest povertyresources (Chomitz, 1999; Barbier, 2000). readings take place in quite pristine environments, such as in tropical forestsOften, the drivers of environmental beyond the agricultural frontierdegradation are also moving away from (Chomitz, 2007).
  • 6 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth The relationship can go the other way, too. developing countries. In this context, The effect of very rapid Addressing social imbalances can be a integrating poverty and environment growth on ecosystems necessary, but not sufficient, condition would require policies that could be and their services has not to ensure sustainable resource use politically unpalatable. The notion (see also Gilbert, 2010). that sectors of society might have to been trivial. More than sacrifice some consumption to achieve half of all ecosystem Second, a healthy environment is a world free of poverty under conditions services are degraded or not a binary (0,1) variable. In most of sustainability is still anathema to some cases, the challenge is to find that citizens in developed and developing being used unsustainably. level of resource pressure which allows countries (Lind, 2010; Soley, 2010). for increased income among the poor, Some estimates put yet that stays within perceived safe Fourth, mainstreaming poverty- limits—for example, those required to environment policies in development global environmental preserve the resilience of ecosystems. plans is not cost-free. It demands damages in 2008 alone This can turn into a complex time and attention from qualified at 11 percent of global optimisation problem, one in which staff, a generally scarce resource. the target is not to maximise a single It can also entail re-accommodation GDP, several times the variable, but rather to find the of expenditures between sectors impact of the global best balance among several. because realizing the benefits of financial crisis in the same poverty-environment mainstreaming Third, improving the well-being of the can require increases in environmental year (UNEP, 2010). poorest implies increased consumption spending, a potentially difficult choice capacity (e.g., more food, better for a policy maker with limited resources The best chances of clothing, housing, etc.). Traditionally, (see also Bah, 2008). development has been coupled with an success will come from increased production and consumption As a result, some needed environmental sustained interventions of goods and services, resulting in a investments may not be carried out that are honest at rate and pattern of growth in the last because, as portfolio theory teaches us, 50 years in which the global economy the fact that an intervention has a recognizing challenges, has increased six-fold, food production positive payoff is not a sufficient focus on impact, do not has increased by two and a half times, reason to automatically expect divorce themselves from and water use has doubled. The effect its implementation. Proposed of this very rapid growth on ecosystems interventions must have a positive the underlying reasons and their services has not been trivial. payoff and a rate of return above of poverty, and invest More than half of all ecosystem that of other competing demands. in better governance services are degraded or being In the long run, environmental used unsustainably. The species policy can pay for itself, but, in and greater efficacy extinction rate is 1,000 times above the short run, the transition costs of public policy. the estimated normal level. Cultivated can often be significant. Development systems already cover one quarter agencies would do well to better of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, while understand these costs and their the amount of water impounded in influence on the decision-making process. dams is three to six times that of natural rivers (MEA, 2005). Finally, the mainstreaming of poverty-environment policies Some estimates put global environmental does not escape the law of diminishing damages in 2008 alone at 11 percent of returns. Projects that provide technical global GDP, several times the impact support to countries in order to integrate of the global financial crisis in the same poverty and environment policies year (UNEP, 2010). should prioritise those interventions in which payoffs are maximised, The unlimited production of preferably in the short run, and use consumer goods is not a feasible these as building blocks for more option. Consequently, the increased complex efforts. consumption of the poorest under conditions of sustainable resource use will Vaguely focused interventions need to be balanced by readjustments distract scarce public-service talent, in the consumption patterns of middle render poor services to the objective of and upper classes in developed and scaling up the mainstreaming of poverty-
  • Poverty in Focus 7environment policies, and generally exposure to toxics, the informal discussion notes prepared for the WDR Summer Workshop on Poverty andhave difficulties in demonstrating impact. waste collection sector, and recycling, Development, 6-8 July 1999, Washington DC. an area in which the PovertyNotwithstanding the above, the potential Environment Initiative is already Chomitz, K. (2007). At Loggerheads?: Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction,for integrating poverty-environment working in Uruguay. and Environment in the Tropical Forests,policies is immense. The following Washington DC, World Bank.examples outline the scale of potential The increased production ofpayoffs for rural and urban environments. waste has surpassed the capacities DFID, EC, UNDP and the World Bank (2002). Linking poverty reduction and of most urban centres in developing environmental management: For the rural sector, small-scale countries and has provided grounds Policy Challenges and Opportunities. agriculture and improved for the establishment of an informal Gilbert, N. (2010). ‘Can Conservation water and soil management hold waste collection sector that is Cut Poverty?’ Nature 467, 264–265. , great potential for integrated poverty responsible for most recycling. Available at: <http://www.nature.com/news/ and environment policies. In many The conditions under which this 2010/100913/full/467264a.html>. settings, it can reverse ongoing activity takes place are extremely Holt, E. (2001). ‘Measuring Farmers’ processes of land degradation, harsh and often reinforce Agroecological Resistance to Hurricane improve food security, and diminish structural poverty. Mitch in Central America’, Gatekeeper Series No.Sa102, International Institute the vulnerability of poor populations for Environment & Development. (Barbier, 1987; Holt, 2001). It is true In summary, the integration of poverty that, in many rural settings, realising and environment policies can have Lind, M. (2010). From Shrillness to S obriety: Pragmatism in Climate Politics. the benefits of poverty-environment significant social rewards. Sustained Available at: <http://www.policy-network.net/ policies can require addressing land interventions that keep structural publications_detail.aspx?ID=3758>. tenure issues, land concentration, and realities in view, focus on impact, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). power asymmetries, underscoring the do not divorce themselves from Ecosystems and Human Well-being: observation that environmental the underlying causes of poverty, Synthesis, Washington DC, Island Press. investments are insufficient, in of and invest in better governance North, D. (1990). Institutions, Institutional themselves, to lift people in and greater efficacy of public Change and Economic Performance, out of poverty. policy are more likely to deliver Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. the transformations necessary Soley, C. (2010). ‘Needs Must: Should the Current efforts at reducing to anchor sustainable development. Environment Trump Prosperity?’ deforestation and forest Available at: <www.policy-network.net/ degradation (REDD+) provide publications_download.aspx?ID=3662>. Bah, El-hadj M. (2008). ‘Structural another avenue with tremendous TEEB (2010). The Economics of Transformation in Developed and potential for ‘win-win’ poverty Developing Countries’ MPRA Paper 10655. , Ecosystems and Biodiversity. and environment policies. Available at: <http://mpra.ub.uni- Available at: <http://www.teebweb.org/ muenchen.de/10655/1/ TEEBSynthesisReport/tabid/29410/ A mosaic of improved land Default.aspx>. MPRA_paper_10655.pdf>. use practices and forested areas supported by economic incentives Barbier, E. (1987). ‘Cash Crops, Food Crops UNDP (2005). Millennium Project. and Agricultural Sustainability’ Gatekeeper , Report of Task Force 7 on Water and technical support is probably and Sanitation. Available at: <http:// Series 2, International Institute for the best option currently available Environment & Development. www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/ to stabilise frontiers in large sectors WaterComplete-lowres.pdf>. Barbier, E. (2000). ‘The Economic Linkages of developing countries and to UNEP (2010). Why environmental between Rural Poverty and Land reduce rural poverty. Such efforts Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa’, externalities matter to institutional alone will not reverse deforestation Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, investors. Available at: <http:// Vol. 82, pp. 355-370. www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/ trends; they should be accompanied universal_ownership.pdf>. by efforts to tackle large-scale Brocklesby, M. and Hinshelwood, E. (2001), agriculture, real estate speculation, ‘Poverty and the Environment: What the UNEP (2011). Towards a Green Economy: Poor Say: An Assessment of Poverty- Pathways to Sustainable Development and other forces that promote and Poverty Eradication. Environment Linkages in Participatory forest cutting. Poverty Assessments’, DFID. Available at: <http://www.unep.org/ greeneconomy/GreenEconomyReport/tabid/ Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. 29846/Default.aspx>. At the urban level, the traditional New York, Houghton Mifflin. sectors of water and sanitation World Bank (1992). World Development remain the most promising Dasgupta, S., Deichmann, U., Meisner, C., Report 1992 – Development and the and Wheeler, D. (2005). ‘Where is the Environment, New York, Oxford areas for a twin-track approach. Poverty Environment Nexus? Evidence University Press. The poverty-environment linkages from Cambodia and Lao PDR and Vietnam’, here have been well researched World Development, Vol. 33, No. 4, World Commission on Environment pp. 617–638. and Development (1987). Our Common and the payoffs are substantial Future, Report of the World Commission (UNDP, 2005). Linked to these Chomitz, K., (1999). Environment-Poverty on Environment and Development, Oxford, is the interface between health, Connections in Tropical Deforestation, Oxford University Press.
  • 8 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Lucy Wanjiru, Programme Specialist, Gender and Environment, Accounting for Green UNDP/BDP Gender Team Growth From the Lens of Gender Equality: Why It Matters! The world is shifting away from While a green economy has the potentialWhile a green economy economic growth models based on fossil to contribute to global economichas the potential to fuels and toward a new ‘green’ economy recovery and to create both high- andcontribute to global based on low-carbon development. low-skill jobs, it also supports qualityeconomic recovery and to The financial and economic crises have investments at the community level tocreate both high- and prompted increased investments in provide clean, affordable energy andlow-skill jobs, it also environmental infrastructure through to reduce threats from food, water,supports quality economic stimulus packages, while ecosystem and climate crises. A greeninvestments at the countries continue to make commitments economy that functions in this way iscommunity level to provide and substantial monetary pledges to more likely to deliver on its promise toclean, affordable energy support emerging financing mechanisms eradicate poverty and to promote equity,and to reduce threats from to mitigate and adapt to climate change. especially among women.food, water, ecosystemand climate crises. A green economy can help to achieve In many developing countries, women sustainable development by alleviating are living on the frontlines of climateA green economy that environmental threats, contribute to the change. As primary producers of staplefunctions in this way is creation of dynamic new industries and foods—a sector that is highly exposedmore likely to deliver on its income growth, and create quality jobs to the risks of drought and uncertainpromise to eradicate poverty that can improve workers’ economic rainfall—women are disproportionatelyand to promote equity, standing and thus their ability to impacted by climate change and areespecially among women. better support their families. often excluded from political and household decisions that affect their These new industries and jobs can help lives. During natural disasters such as protect and restore ecosystems and floods and hurricanes, for example, biodiversity, reduce energy consumption, women suffer disproportionately and decarbonize the economy, and often count higher among the dead.1 contribute to climate change mitigation and adaption. In addition, women tend to possess fewer assets and have insecure forest The sustainability of the new green and land tenure rights. Even where1. Oxfam International (2005). economy depends, however, not only legislation to secure women’s land rights2. Gender Justice: Key to Achieving the Millennium on that economy’s ability to yield exists, the process of implementing theDevelopment Goals. Available at <http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/MDGBrief-English.pdf>. environmental benefits, but also on laws remains a challenge. In Madagascar, its effectiveness in helping to eradicate for example, only 15 percent of women3. Policy Paper: Intellectual Property, Agro poverty and to increase gender equality own small landholdings, although thebiodiversity and Gender. and women’s empowerment. constitution guarantees women’s land4. Evidence for Action Gender Equality and Economic rights and 83 percent of employeesGrowth. Available at: <http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/15/45568595.pdf>. Green economy initiatives that aim at in the agricultural sector are women. creating more environmentally-sound Furthermore, agricultural financing5. UNDP and Energy Access for the Poor: Energizing theMillennium Development Goals. Available at: <http:// economies are not automatically processes do not often include genderwww.undp.org/energy/>. inclusive of fundamental social considerations. “OECD statistics show requirements such as income equity, that of the US$18.4 billion spent on6. “A Gender Perspective on the “Green Economy”Equitable, healthy and decent jobs and livelihoods“, job quality and gender equality. In failing agricultural aid between 2002 and 2008,Women’s major group position paper in preparation to account for social factors, they could donors reported that just 5.6 percentof the “Rio+20" United Nations Conference onSustainable Development 2012. maintain or even aggravate the negative included a focus on gender”.2Available at: <http://www.unep.org/civil-society/ social and distributive trends of thePortals/59/Documents/12_GMGSF/docs_and_presentations/Additional_messages/ traditional economy, such as existing Although women generally lack decision-gender_perspective_on_the_green_economy.pdf>. inequalities and gender gaps. making power in social and political
  • Poverty in Focus 9institutions and are excluded are essential for climate change mini-grids, water pumping and biofuel)from leadership positions or given only mitigation, can have significant and are also being introduced rapidly.secondary roles, they are not only victims rapid economic benefits for women Scaling up energy access in off-gridof adverse climate impacts. Indeed, they in developing countries. It can improve areas across Africa will be instrumentalare also active agents of change, leaders, productivity and efficiency and open up in empowering women and acceleratingand champions of economic growth and new income-generating opportunities progress on multiple MDGs.5sustainable development. for women, especially in currently underserved rural areas. Still, despite recent gains in genderDespite suffering from socio-economic equality and women’s empowerment,disadvantages, women are already Supporting women in designing, a significant wage gap and extremelyresponding to climate changes while producing and marketing new energy- low numbers of women in high-growththey work to maintain their families related equipment could trigger a employment fields remain. Womenand communities. They are at the positive chain reaction. Research shows still face significant challenges infrontlines of everyday adjustment and that women are most likely to invest in entrepreneurship, including limitedadaptation to changing conditions the wellbeing of their families; their access to start-up capital, financing,and environments. increased control over resources likely networks, and technical expertise, leads to increased spending on children, as well as a lack of opportunity toAs primary caretakers of families, a greater accumulation of human capital bid on competitive federal contracts.6communities and natural resources, in the next generation, and the creationwomen are energetically supporting of sustainable livelihoods for A truly sustainable ‘green economy’rural food security and maintaining whole communities.4 must promote gender-friendly, green-agricultural biodiversity.3 collar employment and entrepreneurship The green economy will need to support opportunities and social equity andThey have accumulated specific innovative approaches and business must create green pathways out ofknowledge and skills about local models to facilitate women’s poverty for both genders.conditions and ecological resources entrepreneurship opportunities andand have the power to contribute to support the scaling-up of field-proven The Case of UNDP’s Women’s Greeneconomic transformation and sustainable solutions and approaches that facilitate Business Initiativedevelopment. But to reach their full growth for female-owned business The United Nations Developmentpotential, they need support in scaling up ventures beyond social assistance and Programme’s (UNDP’s) strategic approachand upgrading their activities related to micro-credit schemes. In Mali, Burkina to addressing climate change is guidedsustainable agriculture, renewable energy, Faso and Senegal, for example, access by the principles of inclusion andand the conservation of water supplies, to mechanical power (multifunctional sustainable development, recognizingforests and other natural resources so that platforms), some of which is run from that climate change is a developmentthey can generate greater economic clean biofuel, is generating income for issue and must be addressed hand-in-benefits from their labour. 2 million rural women, increasing school hand with efforts to reduce poverty. completion rates, and equalising the To this end, UNDP has launched theIncreased access to cleaner fuels, energy girl-to-boy ratio in primary schools. Women’s Green Business Initiative,sources and technologies, all of which New options (e.g., off-grid decentralised a global programme aimed at promoting women’s employment and entrepreneurship opportunities through Women and the Environment: climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Forests contribute to the livelihoods of many of the 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty, and the large majority of these poor (over 70 percent) are women Working in close collaboration with (Gurung and Quesada, 2009). governments, civil society organizations, 70 percent of the 1.3 billion people living in conditions of poverty and the private sector, the Initiative is are women. In urban areas, 40 percent of the poorest households are establishing “service delivery platforms” headed by women (UNDP, 2009 from UNFPA, 2008). that offer policy advice, capacity building, financing options, information, Women predominate in the world’s food production (50-80 percent), but they and increased access to new own less than 10 percent of the land (UNDP, 2009 from UNFPA, 2008). technologies for developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, women comprise 60 percent of the informal economy, This initiative will further the UN System- provide about 70 percent of all the agricultural labour and produce about wide Policy on Gender Equality and the 90 percent of the food (FAO, 2008). Empowerment of Women7 and the UNDP By training women, including grandmothers, to be solar engineers, the Barefoot Gender Equality Strategy (2008-2013).8 College has helped them and communities to access renewable energy and reduce reliance on biomass as an energy source (Castonguay, 2009). The Women’s Green Business Initiative will contribute to poverty reduction
  • 10 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth The green economy The Types of Enterprises that can be Supported by the Women’s Green Business Initiative Include: will need to support innovative approaches Producing and marketing low-emission, more efficient stoves and equipment. and business models Producing, marketing, and installing renewable energy technologies. to facilitate women’s Producing biofuels and biogas for lamps, cookers and motorised equipment. entrepreneurship Expanding existing businesses using new energy efficient and renewable opportunities and energy sources. support the scaling-up Preserving forest and biodiversity through tree planting, ecosystem conservation of field-proven solutions and sustainable use of indigenous resources. and approaches. Providing financial, business and environmental management and consulting services. Integrating gender considerations in theand the achievement of the Millennium access to existing climate change green economy is criticalDevelopment Goals (MDGs), especially of funds and pursues the establishment to the creation of a moreMDG 3 on gender equality and women’s of new targeted financing options for equal and sustainableempowerment. This is particularly women’s green business initiatives.important for gender-responsive society for all.and green public investment. The Women’s Green Business Initiative aims to directly empower women inThe Initiative equips women to engage developing countries to engage in thevigorously in new economic activities design, production and delivery of green UNDP (2009) Resource guide on Gender and Climate Change.that address climate change threats while technologies, products, services, and Available from: <http://content.undp.org/building stronger, more resilient and self- information to adapt to and mitigate the go/cms-service/download/publication/reliant communities by implementing effects of climate change. It also provides ?version=live&id=2087989>.three strategic elements: support services to remove legal, policy FAO (2008). Gender Equality: Ensuring rural and regulatory biases that hinder women’s and men’s equalparticipation in Creating a policy environment that women’s entrepreneurship and development. Food and Agriculture Organization. <ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/ enhances equal economic opportunities employment in the new green industries 011/i0765e/i0765e10.pdf>. for women: The Initiative provides and activities of the future. Evidence advice and technical support to shows that investing in gender equality Castonguay, Sylvie (2009). Barefoot Colleague Teaching Grandmothers governments on policy and planning can accelerate economic growth and to be Solar Engineers. WIPO Magazine, frameworks to remove legal, reduce poverty.9 3/2009. June 2009. WIPO, Communications administrative and financial constraints Division. Available from: <http:// www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2009/03/ affecting women’s economic Therefore, integrating gender article_0002.html>. advancement and provides incentives considerations in the green economy and resources for the expansion of is critical to the creation of a more women’s green enterprises. equal and sustainable society for all. 7. UN System Doc. CEB/2006/2. Doing any less means not involving 8. The UNDP Gender Equality Strategy calls Building capacity for women’s and capitalising on the capacity, for tailored initiatives to support broad-based, organizations and women entrepreneurs: innovation and learning of 50 percent equitable development that is inclusive of women’s needs and contributions—especially those of poor The Initiative provides training and of the world’s population. women. Section 6.1 of the Gender Equality Strategy support services to assist women’s deals broadly with “Poverty Reduction and the Achievement of the MDGs” and includes initiatives organizations and entrepreneurs in for “Promoting inclusive growth, gender equality starting, incubating and scaling up The following references are related and MDG achievement.” Paragraph 51 states that viable business enterprises that to the box on page 9: UNDP will be pro-active in working with national entities to incorporate a gender perspective, contribute to climate mitigation, with special attention to four areas: Gurung, Jeannette and Andrea Quesada adaptation and resilience. 1) macro-planning instruments that incorporate (2009). Gender-Differentiated Impacts gender analysis and specify gender equality results; of REDD to be addressed in REDD Social 2) women’s unpaid work; 3) gender-responsive public Standards. A report prepared for an Increasing women’s access to climate investment; and 4) gender-sensitive analysis of data. initiative to develop voluntary Social change finance mechanisms: and Environmental standards 9. Klasen, S. “Does Gender Inequality Reduce The Initiative promotes gender- for REDD. Available from: Growth and Development? Evidence from <http://www.wocan.org/files/all/ Cross-Country Regressions“. responsive public and private gender_differentiated_impacts_of_redd_final_ Available at: <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ investments. It facilitates increased report1.pdf>. INTGENDER/Resources/wp7.pdf>.
  • Poverty in Focus 11Sustainable Development by Kishan Khoday, Deputy Representative, UNDP Saudi Arabia1as Freedom: Energy, Environmentand the Arab TransformationControl over energy and the people’s long-term choices and freedoms.environment has been central to state Unless trends of resource scarcity and As countries across the Arablegitimacy and power in the Arab region, ecological change are addressed, basic region move forward withshaping the nature of governance freedoms, human security and human new social compacts, theand influencing how sovereignty and development stand in jeopardy. equitable and sustainablestatecraft function in the region. use of natural resourcesAs the systemic transition across the Arab In particular, the vulnerability of food, will emerge as an issueregion proceeds and countries craft new water and energy resources and the of contention.social compacts for development, the exacerbation of climate change togetherequitable and sustainable use of natural bring serious risks to sustaining human Transformational changeresources will likely emerge as a central development. As noted by former UN in the Arab region is anissue of contention. Secretary General Kofi Annan, “when opportunity to rethink resources are scarce—whether energy, the role of natural resourcesThe social compact in past decades has water or arable land—our fragile in creating more inclusivebeen defined by a balance between state ecosystems become strained, as do and sustainable growth andcontrol over natural capital, on the the coping mechanisms of groups and as a means of expandingone hand, and the provision of social individuals. This can lead to a breakdown people’s long-term choiceswelfare benefits, on the other. However, of established codes of conduct, and and freedoms.sustainable development is about more even outright conflict.” Underlying shiftsthan charity—it is also about justice and in global resource demand and fragility Sustainable development isaccountability, with a key challenge of supply combined to create record about more than charity—itbeing to expand the benefits of the prices for basic food and energy is also about justice andregion’s natural wealth for the average commodities in recent years, accountability.citizen and the poor in particular. exacerbating social and political instability in many countries.Higher expectations have emergedfor more transparent, accountable The transformation in the Arab regionand participatory use of energy and now provides space to rethink the rolethe environment as a public good, of natural resources in the economy, withcombating corruption, preventing new green economy concepts potentiallythe squandering of natural wealth, providing a channel to increase socialand preserving natural capital equity and the efficiency of resource usefor future generations. and generating new knowledge-based approaches to economic innovation andThe spirit of transformational change competitiveness. Such rethinking wouldin the region stands as an opportunity do well to consider the role of the green 1. Kishan Khoday has served with UNDP since 1997,to address entrenched systems of economy, defined as an economy “that as UNDP Sustainable Development Advisor and Deputy Coordinator for Natural Resourcescontrol, broaden access and benefit- results in improved human well-being and the Environment in Indonesia (1997-2005), UNDPsharing related to natural wealth, and social equity, while significantly Assistant Representative and Team Leader for Energy & Environment in China (2005-2009) and UNDPexpand the role of local governance, and reducing environmental risks and Deputy Representative in Saudi Arabia (since 2009).strengthen resilience of the natural asset ecological scarcities”. 2 The concept has emerged as a way to stimulate economic 2. UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways tobase on which the poor depend. Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication –While analyses of the links between activity, while responding to food, water, A Synthesis for Policy Makers, UNEP, Nairobi (2011), 2.environment and human development energy and climate crises and reorienting 3. Jose Antonio Ocampo, The Transition to a Greenoften focus on consumption the global economy from a “system that Economy: Benefits, Challenges and Risks from asustainability, a broader perspective is allowed, and at times generated, these Sustainable Development Perspective, Report of Experts to Second Preparatory Committee for the UNneeded to address the important role of crises to a system that proactively Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio2012),natural resources as a means to expand addresses and prevents them.”3 UNDESA, UNEP and UNCTAD, New York (2010), 2.
  • 12 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth Food Security at the Crossroads Energy and Inclusive Growth The 2012 Rio Earth Food security accelerated the emergence As noted by the 2010 IMF World Economic Summit is an opportunity of some civil society movements, with Outlook, “the persistent increase in oil to engage in new south- 2011 seeing record prices because of prices over the past decade suggests surging global demand and historic that global oil markets have entered a south cooperation for droughts and flooding in key exporting period of increased scarcity. Given sustainable development, countries in 2010. the rapid growth in oil demand in to engage the new role of emerging market economies and a The Arab region already stands as the downshift in the trend growth of oil the South in emerging world’s largest net food importer and supply, a return to abundance is risks and solutions. many fear we are witnessing a shift away unlikely in the near term.”5 from cyclical price fluctuations towards longer-term structural change driven The convergence of declining energy A south-south solutions by a shift in supply and demand reserves, the dramatic rise in emerging exchange can support fundamentals—a convergence of surging economy demand, and a gradual global sharing of models for emerging economy demand alongside shift to climate-friendly growth have bottlenecks to expansion of agricultural created a break from the type of cyclical sustainable development land and productivity that include climate factors that shaped the past, with oil and green economy change, rising energy costs, reduced prices likely to remain high for some policy, and the transfer groundwater irrigation capacities, time to come. This holds risks for desertification and reduced soil fertility. Arab countries, most of which and development of clean are net energy importers. technologies within the Enhanced social safety nets and new south. It could also approaches to agricultural productivity There is now recognition that rising gains are needed for Arab countries to prices could constrain future human facilitate the integration adapt to these challenges. New attention development trends unless energy of green economy is needed to review economic and fiscal alternatives are engaged. As a result, approaches into rapidly policies related to agricultural production countries across the region are now and land use, subsidy and social security intensifying efforts to expand renewable growing ODA and foreign systems, ecologically sound farming, crop energy and energy efficiency measures investment flows from diversification, expansion of sustainable to reduce import dependence and emerging economies to irrigation and water use efficiency, use of thus to save public resources for social energy efficiency and renewable energy development goals while also creating least developed countries. measures, and soil replenishment. the foundations for new growth and a green economy. Furthermore, food insecurity is driving some Arab countries to explore overseas Energy plays an equally important role land acquisition and leasing. Globally, in defining the nature of the state and the acquisition of land for food security human development in oil-exporting has topped 140 million acres, bringing countries in the Arab region. The energy with it an investment potential of US$50 sector remains central to the region’s billion to host countries.4 economy, making up approximately 40 percent of GDP, but, as reserves decline, Saudi Arabia, for example, is now active oil-exporting countries are also in land acquisitions and leasing in intensifying efforts to expand local Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sudan driven by renewable energy and energy efficiency high population growth in the Arab Gulf, measures. This is meant to conserve with populations expected to double increasingly scarce oil reserves for future from 2000 levels by 2030 in an export revenues, on the one hand, and to environment of scarce arable land and diversify economies beyond oil to ensure groundwater resources. However, this a sustainable base for economic growth new global trend brings concerns and youth employment, on the other. about the impact on local communities in terms of land and water rights and In Saudi Arabia, for example, which is their own food security, with a need largely dependent on oil-burning power for South-South cooperation and facilities and the expansion of non-oil integration of sustainability, inclusion industrial sectors, recent years have seen4. Lester Brown, The New Geopolitics of Food, May/ and equity into growth and a dramatic increase in local direct oil use.June 2011, Earth Policy Institute, Washington DC, 7-8. investment policies. The new King Abdullah City for Atomic
  • Poverty in Focus 13and Renewable Energy forecasts that, ifcurrent trends prevail, local oil demandcould increase from about 2.5 millionbarrels per day (mbpd) out of the 10mbpd produced today, to as manyas 8 million barrels per day by 2028.6Thus, in addressing energy risks andopportunities in the Arab region, twocomplimentary goals are taking shapein the region, both in line with the visionof the UN Secretary General’s AdvisoryGroup on Energy and Climate Change:1) to reduce the energy intensity ofgrowth and 2) to expand access tosustainable forms of energy for thepoor, the latter of which is in particularfocus in 2012 as the InternationalYear of Sustainable Energy for All.7As a result of the global shift in Source: Cleantech Group (2011).resource supply and demand andemerging green economy opportunities, social development and must be Opportunities exist to build new strategicclean technology reached a record high overcome if the MDGs are to be achieved.” partnerships to combine experiences andmarket capitalization of US$386 billion expertise and to establish policies andin 2010, of which US$200 billion was in South-South Solutions institutions as the foundations for newclean energy (see Figure).8 This is driven Coming 20 years after the landmark 1992 green growth and benefits to the poor.by emerging economies like Brazil, Rio Earth Summit, the upcoming 2012 Rio Scope also exists for cooperationChina, and India.9 Potential also exists Earth Summit will place a major focus on among natural resource exporting andfor the Arab region to join this trend institutions for sustainable development importing countries in the South to findby building on its world-leading energy and on the green economy. new solutions to surging prices, marketsector capacities and solar radiation volatility, and vulnerability of the poor.levels. Initial steps include renewable Two underlying issues are important:energy and energy efficiency targets the role of emerging economies in global A South-South solutions exchangein Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, sustainability challenges and solutions on issues of natural resources andMorocco, Tunisia and UAE, and plans and the emerging risks from resource the environment can add value to thisfor a pan-Arab solar power network. scarcity for social equity and inclusive process, connecting achievements and growth. Unlike in previous eras of best practices among partners andHowever, while clean energy holds economic transformation, current helping shape evolving green economybenefits for the sustainability of responses to food, water and energy strategies in follow-up to the upcomingdevelopment, it will not necessarily security are emerging through 2012 Rio Earth Summit.benefit the poor without policies leadership of the South.for inclusive growth in the sector.10 5. IMF, World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Thus, South-South cooperation can play Fund (IMF), Washington (2011), 89.The 2008 Riyadh Declaration on a key role in harnessing the comparativeEnergy for Sustainable Development, advantages of partners in the South to 6. KACARE (2011), Statement by the President of the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewablefor example, advocated to make clean bring about transformational change in Energy to the Global Competitiveness Forum,energy accessible for Least Developed the global economy and to support 14 January 14 2011, Riyadh.Countries and was supported by sustainability of their own economic 7. UN, Report of the UN Secretary-General’s Advisorythe OPEC Fund for International and social development. Group on Energy and Climate Change, United Nations Publications, New York (2010), 7-9.Development and other partners. Just as the agricultural green revolution 8. Nicholas Parker, The Emerging Global Clean Economy:This is important for the Arab region, of the past reduced poverty across the The Race for Sustainability Prosperity Goes Mainstream, Cleantech Group, Presentation to the Globalwhere 40 percent of the poor lack energy world, so, too, could the next wave of Competitiveness Forum, 24 January 2011, Riyadh.access, with electrification rates in Sudan clean technologies emerge as a critical 9. UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways toand Yemen as low as 25 percent. As noted tool for achieving inclusive growth and Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication:at the global MDG+10 Summit in 2010, sustainable development. South-South Policy Synthesis, UNEP, Nairobi (2011), 23.“lack of access to modern energy services cooperation can be a transformative 10. IEA and UN, Energy Poverty: How to Make Modernis a serious hindrance to economic and force in this regard. Energy Access Universal, OECD/IEA (2010), Paris.
  • 14 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Nicolas Perrin, Senior Social Development Specialist Europe and Central Asia Region, Challenges and Opportunities World Bank for Inclusive Green Growth In the Europe and Central Asia and legacy issues, even countries andA focus on the social region (ECA), where the effects of sectors that potentially stand to benefitdimensions of climate climate change are already being felt, from a warming climate are poorlychange improves post-Communist legacies create unique positioned to do so (Fay et al., 2009).operational quality in environmental and infrastructuralterms of both substance problems, and the consequences of Although most ECA countries haveand process, thereby climate change could easily exacerbate achieved an absolute reduction incontributing to better existing social inequalities. emissions during the past two decadesoverall results. due to industrial decline, emissions This article seeks to identify some have begun to rise again, as effortsSocial and institutional of these intersecting considerations to de-couple economic developmentanalysis helps provide a and the role of social approaches in from carbon intensity meet with littlesnapshot of vulnerability sustaining efforts to mitigate and success (World Bank, 2010).and assesses institutional adapt to climate change.capacity for responding to Among the world’s top ten highestclimate change helping us Why? A focus on the social dimensions greenhouse gas emitters per unit of GDP,not just to understand of climate change improves the five are from the ECA: Uzbekistan (1),vulnerability in itself but operational quality of substance Kazakhstan (3), Ukraine (6), Russia (7),who is vulnerable, for and process, thereby contributing Azerbaijan (8). Still, while reducing GHGhow long and why. to better overall results. Social and emissions is vital for stabilising the institutional analyses help provide global climate, national public policyThis strategy is particularly a snapshot of vulnerability often seeks to balance this with the needimportant in the Europe and and assess institutional capacity to provide access to affordable energy,Central Asia region (ECA), for responding to climate change, opportunities for the mobility of people,where the effects of climate helping us to understand not just goods and services, and transitionalchange are already being vulnerability itself, but also who is support to those dependent onfelt, post-Communist vulnerable, for how long, and why. carbon-intensive livelihoods.legacies create uniqueenvironmental and Can ECA countries adapt to climate Structural transformation of theinfrastructural problems, risks and reduce emissions while economy to renewable energies in ECAand existing social safeguarding development? offers opportunities for GHG reductionsinequalities could easily be Climate change represents a multi- and important distributional andexacerbated by the sectoral concern for the Europe institutional challenges.consequences of and Central Asia region. Temperatureclimate change. increases between 0.5 degrees celsius in Social dimensions of green the south and 1.6 degree celsius in the growth and climate change in ECA north have been noted, with anticipated Unprepared to manage a changing increases of up to 1.6 to 2.6 degrees climate, ECA countries face increasing celsius by the mid-century. economic losses and inequitable social impact that will be disproportionately Climate variability significantly threatens borne by the poor. Climate change, ECA countries, with negative effects combined with a crumbling and already evident. The region’s poor inflexible infrastructure, renders ECA infrastructure and dire environmental countries vulnerable. situation, rather than the changing climate itself, figure most prominently as Over the past 30 years, natural disasters the region’s key drivers of vulnerability. have cost ECA countries about US$70 Due to these pervasive socio-economic billion, a figure anticipated to rise.
  • Poverty in Focus 15Most of this damage has occurredin Armenia, Romania, Poland, Russia Possible Social Impact of Climate Change in ECAand Turkey (World Bank, 2010). This addsto the challenges confronting individuals 1. Loss of livelihoods related to stressed agriculture sectors (especially aroundfacing poverty, hunger, disease, mortality, rain-fed agriculture), water access degradation, increased climate variabilitydisplacement and conflict who already and natural disasters.lack the necessary access to social capital, 2. Increase of forced migration (both rural and regional) triggered by climatefinancial assets, effective governance variability can create new social challenges in the provision of urban services,and community mobilisation remittances, social justice.structures (see Box). 3. Increased conflicts between social groups (and possibly between countries) over scarce resources, especially water.Ensuring the creation of alternativelivelihoods, equitable energy tariff 4. More frequent natural disasters can be devastating to health, infrastructure,reform, equitable access to renewable and housing.energy and social assistance, robustnational institutions and legal structures, 5. Raised morbidity rates due to the likely return of malaria to the Caucasus and Central Asia, and an increase in other weather-related diseases.as well as awareness-raising amongmajor industry and citizens on 6. Climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies can exacerbate inequalitiesgreenhouse gas emission reduction based on gender, youth, and wealth and undermine the realisation of rights to basictargets (often defined as ‘soft social services (housing, access to health and water, participation, etc.) and reinforceadaptation’) are a prerequisite inequity through socially unsound mitigation efforts to reform energy and transportto developing holistic, effective sectors and restructure industries.long-term green growth strategies. Source: World Bank (2010).The economies of ECA countries arehighly carbon-intensive due to energy-intensive export industries (mining, stakeholders for long-term GHG emission Whereas technology is often toutedmetals, and textiles) and a dearth of strategies because, as residents, they as the starting point for green growth,efficiency regulation and standards. would benefit from reductions in social dimensions may prove to be even emissions (and particularly in air more crucial. Large-scale biomass andInternational efforts to mitigate climate pollution) precisely when emissions have heat production programmes and thechange set stringent emission reduction the potential to grow markedly as the alteration of electrical grids to maketargets for the energy sector (World living standards of the poor improve. better use of renewable energy sourcesBank, 2010), causing significant increases will be pivotal in ensuring accessibilityin the household cost of energy, These are inherent contradictions of those services across society whilepotentially limiting access for poorer between poverty reduction and natural safeguarding livelihood opportunitieshouseholds, and ultimately undermining resource management that need to be and offering equitable employmentreform efforts. The poor are critical better understood and addressed. opportunities to a changingSource: World Bank (2008).
  • 16 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth resilience in their respective contexts so play a central role in ensuring that green This article seeks to growth investments are not only that they can design and implement identify some of socially inclusive, climate-resilient profitable, but also equitable. these intersecting policies and programmes. Banda, K. (2009). ‘Gender and Mitigation’, considerations and the presentation to Global Gender and Climate Social analysis can inform the Alliance side event, Bonn, Germany, 1 June role of social approaches discussion by ensuring that green 2009. Accessed online at: <http:// unfccc2.meta-fusion.com/kongresse/ in sustaining the growth interventions effectively target 090601_SB30_Bonn/downl/ vulnerable populations, deliver direct efforts to mitigate 20090601_Banda.pdf>. benefits, and support their adaptive and adapt to capacity and resilience while ensuring Cameron, C., Bachofen, C. and Perrin, N. (2010). ‘Social Dimensions of Climate climate change. solutions for more equitable mitigation Change, Learning in Focus: Europe and (by, for instance, applying a gender lens Central Asia region series: vulnerability, to reforms in low-carbon growth sectors). resilience and adaptive capacity, climate policy building blocks, mitigation,workforce in reformed infrastructure and adaptation’, Washington DC, World Bank.sectors. New and innovative land use Applying political economy analysis todevelopment practices will need to be assess the levels of accountability and Fay, M., Block, R. I. and Ebinger, J. (eds.) (2010). ‘Adapting to Climate Change inexplored to reduce infrastructure costs inclusiveness could help to manage Eastern Europe and Central Asia’,along with the energy required for more effectively the political and Washington DC, World Bank.transportation, community services, social risks of mitigation and ensure Perrin, A., Agrawal, A. and Kononen, M.and buildings. Similarly, transportation that adaptive capacity is strengthened (2009). ‘The Role of Local Institutions intechnologies are likely to reduce the more comprehensively across societies. Adaptation to Climate Change’, Socialcarbon footprint while improving Promoting good governance is key Development Paper No. 118, Washington, DC, World Bank.development prospects, particularly to pro-poor adaptation and mitigationfor poorer and rural communities. and reinforces social resilience. Perrin, A., Agrawal, A. and Kononen, M.,Moreover, better forestry and agricultural (2009). ‘Climate Policy Processes, Local Institutions and Adaptation Actions:techniques can offer cost-effective As recent experiences from the Pilot Mechanisms of Translation and Influence’,mitigation with significant potential to Program for Climate Resilience have Social Development Paper No. 119,improve livelihoods, reduce soil erosion, shown, designing and implementing Washington, DC, World Bank.and protect biodiversity participatory approaches to increase World Bank (2010a). ‘Climate Change(World Bank, 2010). transparency, accountability, and and the World Bank Group. Phase II: performance, while supporting the the challenge of low carbon growth’ , Independent Evaluation Group,How can social approaches contribute to participation of dynamic civil society Washington, DC.successful green growth strategies? organizations, can help achieve betterGreen growth changes are largely programme outcomes and deliver World Bank (2010b). ‘Development and Climate Change’, World Developmentsocietal if one considers the changes benefits to societies’ most vulnerable Report 2010, World Bank, Washington, DC.and scale required. In many countries, groups.1 Experiences with community-though, the climate change agenda has based disaster risk management and World Bank (2011). ‘Issues Paper on Gender and Energy: A Background Paper for thenot been seen as a priority and is often community-based adaptation hold World Bank Group’s FY2011 Energymet with skepticism. important lessons here. Strategy and Activities’, World Bank, Washington DC.The lack of general awareness of green Capacity-building and awareness-raising World Bank (2011). ’Low carbongrowth options and climate risks remains of local institutions and communities/ growth in Europe and Central Asia:an important obstacle for the adoption citizens to respond and adapt to the Principal issues and a program of work’ (draft), World Bank, Washington, DC.and adaptation of effective policy. challenges of the green growth agendaInstitutional challenges further reinforce in the ECA region are indispensiblethis knowledge deficit. Green growth if those strategies are to succeed. 1. The Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR),innovation as a public policy response is This should be complemented by approved in November 2008, was the first program me developed and operational under the Strategic Climateoften divided among various agencies enhanced monitoring of the social Fund (SCF), which is one of two funds within the designat national-level and lower-level dimensions of the green growth in of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF). The PPCR aims to pilot and demonstrate ways in which climate risk andinstitutions (regions, municipalities), locally and externally funded resilience may be integrated into core developmentwhere implementation capacity programmes to ensure synergies planning and implementation. In this way, the PPCRgenerally remains weak. This persistent between all levels (government, provides incentives for scaled-up action and initiates transformational change. The pilot programmes andcapacity gap has direct consequences donor, private sector, civil society). projects implemented under the PPCR are country-ledfor the sustainability and effectiveness and build on National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPA) and other relevant country studies andof short- and long-term strategies. The next decade offers a window of strategies. They are strategically aligned with other opportunity for ECA countries—a critical donor funded activities to provide financing for projects that will produce experience and knowledge useful toIt is crucial for ECA countries to better opportunity to get the politics and the designing scaled-up adaptation measures.understand drivers of vulnerability and policy right. Knowledge-sharing will See: <http://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cif/ppcr>.
  • Poverty in Focus 17Adapting to Change: by Dan Smith and Janani Vivekananda, Secretary General and Senior Climate Change and Security Adviser, respectively, at International AlertThe Linked Challenges ofBuilding Resilient CommunitiesOver the past three years, and the norms that they shape. Whenthe global discourse on climate one adds to the ‘mix’ a diverse humanity As climate change interactschange has shifted from an almost in various conditions of well-being, with other features of theexclusive focus on mitigation to more persistent inequality and a rapidly social, economic andattention being given to adaptation evolving global ecosystem, traditional political landscape, manyoptions for vulnerable communities. assumptions no longer apply either in countries face a high riskWhilst this shift is welcome and needed, the same ways or even at all. of political instability andit presents policy makers with a stubborn violent conflict. This risk ofchallenge, namely, how to cope with The implications of this are far-reaching. instability both adds touncertain future changes. Adaptation, as process, cannot rely the burdens faced by solely on forecasting and the design of deprived and vulnerableAt the macro level, scientific data on the scripted solutions for predicted impacts. communities, and makesphysical impacts of climate change are That itself is daunting enough for it harder for them topatchy. And if this is the case at the most countries and well beyond the reduce their vulnerability byglobal level, then the quality and capacity of existing financial and adapting to climate change.reliability of data only diminish at the scientific resources.regional, national and subnational levels. By tracing these complex The significant public investment in and interlinked trajectoriesIt suggests that there is a limit to what innovation and ‘green transformations’, of risk, it is clear that climateand how science can inform the process including research and development, change and variability areof adaptation and the requisite flexibility by Brazil, India, China and South Africa are not climate issues alone.and nimbleness required to confront beyond the reach of many other countriesincreasing uncertainty. How, then, can in the South. Brazil’s investment in the To shape adaptation policiespolicies and programming be planned agricultural sector in 2009-10 amounted to to best effect, it is necessaryand implemented to address over US$60 billion, more than double the to go beyond responding tothese great challenges? available global funds for climate change the most immediate natural as of October 2010 (Perch, 2011: 17) and impacts of climate changeStandard approaches to planning tend to China reportedly plans to invest US$738 and look to the broaderanalyse historical records and the current billion in renewable energy over the next dimensions of resiliencesituation in order to extrapolate to the 10 years (Wirth and Podesta, 2010). such as power, livelihoodsfuture. In principle, this methodology and access to justice.also needs to cover climate and the Even if the capacity and funds werenatural environment: nature sets available, there would still be anthe context for everything and additional challenge: responding toenvironmental change is a variable the unpredictable. One solution wouldthat must be included in designing any be to strengthen communities’ resilience,structure or process that is designed to i.e., their ability to face and ride outlast for more than a few months. shocks to the system, whatever form those shocks might take. Such thinkingHowever, climatic events of the recent is reinforced in the World Resourcespast and of the present are likely to be Report (2010-2011) Decision-makinglargely unreliable ‘predictors’ of the in a Changing Climate.future. In development, policy makersseek to build societies, infrastructure, and The Framing Paper for the Report (Levi, 2010)economies to fit a certain set of physical cites five elements for effective climateconditions assumed to be constant. change adaptation, one of which isIn contrast, environmental change ‘adaptive’, i.e., flexible and able to adaptdirectly challenges those conditions to new information and conditions.
  • 18 International Policy Centre for Inclusive GrowthGiven increasing uncertainty and insecurity,it also makes sense for adaptation Adapting Socially?efforts focused on resilience-building On the flood plains of the Brahmaputra, in the state of Assam, India, people respondto learn from other governance failures. to increased flooding by seeking new livelihood opportunities, often challengingThe failure of institutions responsible traditional cultural norms on acceptable livelihoods strategies for specific socialfor safeguarding poor communities’ groups. For instance, agriculture is connected with a certain group in the society,interests—both formal and informal— while fishing is connected to another that the local community considers to be a lower-class ethnic group. In some cases, it might be suggested that a shift awayhas been at the root of the vulnerability from agriculture could reduce their vulnerability. However, a shift from agriculture,of those communities. Governments weakened by floods and sedimentation, to fishing requires considerably more thanincreasingly acknowledge that equipment and finance. Complementary moral support and capacity-building forvulnerability to climate change lies cultural change is a vital component for sustaining change.more in context than in absolutes.Poverty, weak governance, political Though important, they often fail to policy tools.” Consequently, the appeal ofinstability and corruption are all address the knock-on social consequences an ‘all-risks’ approach to developmentpotential barriers to effective adaptation; that require more attention and becomes obvious.they also drive insecurity. Moreover, the resources and that ultimately cancombination of these elements often undermine the sustainability of How to embark on such an approach?heightens susceptibility to events, development progress. These remain First, there needs to be greaterturning them into crises and disasters. least understood in policy and practice. understanding of the social complexities in adapting to climate change. Second,A review by Colten et al. (2008) on In fragile contexts, particularly, this has decisions and institutional mechanismscommunity resilience and lessons from significant resonance. Changing rainfall need to be shaped to address linkedNew Orleans and Hurricane Katrina patterns and increasing natural hazards problems with linked responses.highlights the role of threat-multipliers will affect national economy, trade, Take, for example, a water-relatedand manifold challenges in shaping the development, equity, governance, problem such as floods, where thescale of impact and the length of the and political stability, and these, best approach to adapting mightrecovery from disasters. Their findings in turn, affect the ability of people and actually lie in the education sector.note that vulnerability to hurricanes governments to respond adequately See the example in the box.arises from numerous causes,1 and to the challenges of climate shocks.not just from the hurricane itself. The World Bank (2010:34) acknowledges The humanitarian crisis in Pakistan last that “education will also affect a person’sAdditionally, ‘silent’ emergencies are year, as a result of floods, rapidly fuelled ability to anticipate climate events, makeat risk of further escalation by climate widespread political unrest, linked to proactive adaptation decisions andchange. Malaria currently costs African the perceived inability of the national reduce losses related to disasters.”economies US$12 billion a year in lost government to adequately respond to Accordingly, adaptation practice mustproductivity (World Bank, 2011:19) and, people’s needs. Individuals often do not also begin to reflect that climate changeaccording to the Food Price Watch, necessarily distinguish between climate- is not just a climate issue.escalating food prices have driven an driven stressors and other stressorsestimated 44 million people into poverty (unequal market-access, population In considering what makes peoplein developing countries since mid-2010 growth) that result in heightened and systems resilient, including the(World Bank, 2011).2 insecurity and deteriorating livelihoods. availability of information and the ability to digest and act on it, relationships ofRiots over access to food skyrocketed in Accordingly, a shift to the ‘no-regrets’ trust between citizens and authorities,2008 and have been, it is suggested, at approach of building resilience, viable livelihoods options and goodthe root of the ‘Arab Spring’ in 2011. 3,4 writ large, becomes critical. Yet, this governance, there is a good chanceThus, resilience, conflict resolution, remains more concept than reality. that adaptation efforts could yieldand peace-building go hand-in-hand. Berrang- Ford et al. (2010: 6) found that double and triple dividends. “most adaptations are occurring at theYet, despite many acknowledgements of individual level with weak involvement Failure to do so will likely resultthis, most recently by the UK government of government stakeholders, and in maladaptation and the wastingin the recent review of its bilateral aid adaptation activities are more likely to of a rare opportunity to re-engineerprogramme, efforts to operationalise occur in natural resource sectors such as development for the benefit of thosethese linked goals remain stilted and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, or the who need it most.silo-ed. Most efforts respond to the securing of food resources”.direct environmental risks of climatechange by switching crops, building Adaptation mechanisms are more likely Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J. D., and Paterson, J. (2010). ‘Are We Adaptingflood defences, moving homes, and to include community-level mobilisation To Climate Change?’ Global Environmental ,building dwellings differently. rather than institutional, governmental or Change 21 (1), 25–33.
  • Poverty in Focus 19Colten, C. E, Kates, R. W., and Laska, S. B. Smith, D. and Vivekananda, J. (2009).(2008). ‘Community Resilience: Lessons from Climate Change, Conflict and Fragility: 1. A summary from an article by Kates and the reportNew Orleans and Hurricane Katrina’, CARRI Understanding the Linkages, Shaping were also included in ‘Lessons in ResilienceResearch Report No.3, Oakridge Research Effective Responses. International Alert. From New Orleans’ by Andrew Revkin (2010).Laboratory. Available online at: <http:// Available at:rwkates.org/pdfs/a2008.03.pdf>. World Bank (2010) Economics <http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/08/13/ of Adaptation to Climate Change: lessons-in-resilience-from-new-orleans/>.Levin, K. (2010). ‘World Resources 2010 Social Synthesis Report. 2. See: <http://www.worldbank.org/foodcrisis/Framing Paper: Decision Making in a Available online at: <http:// food_price_watch_report_feb2011.html>.Changing Climate’, World Resources Report, siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALWashington DC. Available online at: <http:// DEVELOPMENT/Resources/244362- 3. See: <http://www.iiss.org/publications/survival/www.worldresourcesreport.org>. 1232059926563/5747581-1239131985528/ survival-2011/year-2011-issue-2/global-warming-and- EACC_Synthesis_report_final_web.pdf>. the-arab-spring>.Perch, L. (2011). ‘Mitigation of What and byWhat? Adaptation by Whom and for Whom? World Bank (2011). Africa’s Future 4. See: <http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/Dilemmas in Delivering for the Poor and the and the World Bank’s Support to It. publications/bp018.pdf>.Vulnerable in International Climate Policy’, Africa’s Regional Strategy.Working Paper 79, Brasilia, International February 2011. Available online at:Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth. <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/Available at: <www.ipc-undp.org/pub/ INTAFRICA/Resources/Africa_s_Future_IPCWorkingPaper79.pdf>. and_the_World_Bank_s_Role_in_it.pdf>.Challenges for the by Leonardo Hasenclever, Research Fellow, IEB1 and Alex Shankland, Research Fellow, IDS2Real Participation ofIndigenous Peoples in REDD+Ambitious claims are being made land use category in reducing tropicalfor the potential of enhanced approaches deforestation (Nelson and Chomitz, 2009). Indigenous peoples playto the reduction of emissions from This fact received relatively little a critical role in forest anddeforestation and forest degradation acknowledgement before the advent biodiversity conservation(REDD+) to become a key source of of global climate change. In contrast, through their livelihoods,funding for forest conservation. references to indigenous peoples are or ways of living, even inMoreover, the development of REDD+ now increasingly common in climate the absence of broaderschemes is expected to bring so-called change policy statements, with an policy initiatives.‘co-benefits’ for forest conservation and apparent international consensusforest-dependent livelihoods, including emerging on the importance of The extent to whichbiodiversity conservation, forest involving them in adaptation the ‘carbon price’ accountsrecuperation, and sustainable and mitigation initiatives. for all co-benefits, and thusharvesting of forest resources. serves as proper incentive Even so, clear policy frameworks for the for sustaining pre-REDDIndigenous peoples continue to play effective and equitable involvement of environmental stewardshipa critical role in forest and biodiversity indigenous peoples have yet to emerge. actions, is still unclear.conservation through their livelihoods, Greater clarity is needed in both theor ways of living, in the absence of ‘what’ and the ‘how’: what thesebroader policy initiatives. While ‘REDD+’ frameworks should contain and howrecognizes this and promises to deliver they should be implemented. As Leisasignificant resources at an unexpected Perch noted in a recent review, policy 1. IEB – International Education Institutescale, there is some danger that this is makers across a range of international of Brazil – Research Fellow-Climate Change and Environmental Economics.more panacea than a fundamental shift agencies agree that “the ‘how’ remains 2. IDS – Institute of Development Studies – Researchin development policy and practice. the greatest challenging in moving Fellow-Participation, Power and Social Change Team.Indigenous territories, which cover forward on sustainable and co-benefits This article draws on work supported by UKaidaround a quarter of Amazonia (in Brazil) approaches” (2010: 10). through the Learning Hub for Low Carbon Climateand a substantial proportion of the Resilient Development, a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID)world’s other major forest regions, have Some of the most important issues for for the benefit of developing countries. The viewsbeen shown to be the most effective co-benefits debates in the context of expressed are not necessarily those of DFID, IDS or IEB.
  • 20 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growthindigenous peoples, indigenous warranted—or, in other words, the area particularly in the long term, bringingterritories and REDD+ relate to the of forest conserved, the degree of into question the extent to whichquestion of how different mechanisms preservation of its major ecosystem cost-effectiveness alone is a sufficientcan effectively translate the value of their services and social, cultural and criterion4 for evaluating policy options.complex livelihood system into carbon ecological processes.prices, i.e., how they can give economic On the one hand, the principle ofvalue to the source of the positive Consequently, the redistribution equi-marginality requires strong marketexternalities that these territories of REDD+ benefits would follow equity institutions in order to permit economichave historically generated. criteria proportionally on the basis agents to achieve socially optimal results of the relevant aspects of forest —often with no explicit effort to addressAs payment for such externalities are conservation for which indigenous equity. Most of the discussion arounddiscussed in terms of cash (per CO2 peoples (and other local communities) REDD+ and related economic instrumentsstored/emissions avoided), concerns are can claim responsibility and that are (such as benefit-sharing, warranty, andbeing raised about how such communities, important for their livelihoods and liability) derive from standard welfarewhose economies are not cash-based cultural and social values, including economics, but also understand thatand/or who have very little access to other non-use/intrinsic values. this is also inherently contradictoryformal mechanisms such as banks or other and counter-intuitive.financial service providers, will access and By informing price formation systemsbenefit from such opportunities. that seek to account for the critical On the other hand, the principle of co-benefits generated by indigenous equi-proportionality requires strongA further ‘how’ also needs to be peoples, positive incentives for political will, efficient participation,addressed: How can indigenous peoples pre-existing conservation activities solid institutions and regulationthemselves actually shape the policies can also be created. Such a shift would to enable economic agents to achievethat affect them? Alcida Ramos and also require compensating for likely equity-optimal results according tocolleagues note that “sovereignty, underestimations of the opportunity well-defined criteria—which dimensionsself-government and self-determination costs of REDD+ for forest-dwelling of forest conservation will be the basisare core values in the Western world, populations and would clearly for establishing proportionality, forbut they are seldom contemplated require significant political will example—within well-definedin relation to indigenous peoples. before implementation. socially defined objectives.[…] To indigenise development is to takeinto account the indigenous version of The literature on environmental According to the theory of pricethese values” (2009: 5). economics has already shown that formation, prices reflect only the relative market-based instruments can be a scarcity of the goods and services beingIn view of the findings of a recent ‘dynamically efficient’ incentive for the priced—in this case, tons of carbon or,study of the political economy of REDD+ development, innovation and adoption say, carbon credits via sequestrationregulation in Brazil, equi-proportionality of low-cost abatement technologies that or storage. In reality, though, these are—or equity and proportionality together, enable adopters to reduce the costs influenced by many of the aspects citedthat is, an equity criterion submitted of achieving emissions targets, in line earlier, a differentiation currently appliedto principles of proportionality— with the principle of equi-marginality3 without regulation.should be an essential element of a (Requate, 2005).more inclusive approach. In the case The extent to which the ‘carbon price’5of REDD+, this applies specifically to However, they may also contain an accounts for all co-benefits, and thusredistributive parameters/principles excessive bias against other seemingly serves as proper incentive for sustainingfor benefit-sharing, proportional to the expensive mitigation technologies that pre-REDD environmental stewardshiprelative benefits generated, conserved, have a large potential for cost reductions, actions, is still unclear. Box 1 In Brazil, concern about the potential Scope and Scale of Indigenous Lands in Brazil for rapid expansion of unregulated REDD+ activities targeting indigenous The territory of Brazil comprises 851,196,500 hectares, or 8,511,965 square lands has been growing among policy kilometres. There are 673 Indigenous Lands (TIs), with a total area of 111,523,636 makers, NGOs and indigenous hectares (1,115,236 square kilometres). Thus, 14 percent of the country is reserved peoples themselves. for the Indigenous peoples. The majority of TIs, numbering 405, are concentrated in the “Legal Amazon” In our recent study of the political (Amazônia Legal), and their combined area of 108,211,140 hectares, equates to economy of REDD+ regulation 20.67 percent of the total area of that region. The remaining 3,312,496 hectares are in Brazil, we examined the different scattered across the country’s northeastern, southeastern and southern regions and national and subnational processes the non-Amazonian parts of the mid-western region. through which government andSource: <http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/terras-indigenas/demarcacoes/localizacao-e-extensao-das-tis>. non-governmental actors have
  • Poverty in Focus 21 BOX 2 The principle of Perspectives on Values equi-proportionality Values are important. O’Brien and Wolf (2010: 233) note that “a values-based adds a critical normative approach to vulnerability and adaptation recognizes that economic assessments of impacts and responses, as exemplified in the Stern Review, cannot capture perspective. It is concerned the full significance of climate change. with the difference The experiential and cultural dimensions of climate change, largely ignored in between how things assessments by the IPCC, examine the meaning and relevance of climate change actually are and how for individuals and groups. Vulnerability is not simply about the negative material outcomes associated to climate change. [...] Consequently, what is considered they should be and legitimate and successful adaptation depends on what people perceive to be explicitly recognizes worth preserving and achieving, including their culture and identity”. the importance of values.Source: See O’Brien, K. L. and Wolf, J. (2010).tried to shape a national REDD+ policy accommodate indigenous peoples’ own Nelson, A. and Chomitz, K. M. (2009).framework (see Shankland and mechanisms of political deliberation and Protected Area Effectiveness in Reducing Tropical Deforestation: A Global Analysis ofHasenclever 2011). decision-making, are inconsistent. the Impact of Protection Status. Washington: World Bank.We noted that the initial polarization So far, Brazil’s REDD+ consultation O’Brien, K. L. and Wolf, J. (2010). ‘A values-between ideological positions favouring process has not fully taken on board the based approach to vulnerability andand opposing the use of market profoundly different understandings of adaptation to climate change’, Wileymechanisms for REDD+ initiatives, human beings’ relationships with ‘nature’ Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 232–242, March/Aprilthough not yet formalized, seemed to among indigenous peoples. These 2010. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.have been overcome through a series of different understandings are linked toconsultation processes, including a civil equally profound differences in values Perch, L., with Stahlberg, S. G. and Potiara, C. (2010). ‘Maximizing Co-Benefits:society-led initiative that shifted the (see Box 2). Exploring Opportunities to Strengthendebate towards a consensus on the Equality and Poverty Reduction throughimportance of defining safeguards for These findings resonate with other Adaptation to Climate Change’, IPC-IG Working Paper 75.any such initiatives involving indigenous critiques of REDD and even REDD+peoples or other local communities. globally and spotlight the need for Ramos, A. R., Osório, R. G. and Pimenta, J. local-global (micro-macro) management (2009). ‘Indigenising Development’ Poverty , in Focus 17.Still, we concluded that this apparent structures to appropriately match theconsensus also risked marginalizing nature of the issues involved. Requate, T. (2005). Environmental Policyindigenous concerns, given the speed under Imperfect Competition: A Survey. Available at: <http://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/of the policy process and the practical There is limited good practice, to date, cauewp/3198.html>.and political difficulties in ensuring on managing resources of local, nationalmeaningful involvement not only of and global relevance within a single, Shankland, A. and Hasenclever, L. (2011). ‘Indigenous Peoples and the Regulation ofindigenous leaders, but also of their complementary framework. REDD+ in Brazil: Beyond the War of thegrassroots constituents. Worlds?’ IDS Bulletin 42 (2). , The principle of equi-proportionalityFurthermore, we observed that safeguards adds a critical normative perspective, thatare not a sine qua non condition for REDD+ is, it is concerned with the difference 3. The basic intuition for the principle of equi-project implementation, a situation between how things actually are and marginality is that economic agents interacting in anypotentially leading to further risk of how they should be and explicitly space (market) and all conscious of their cost structure for some kind of good or service supplied, if left alone,marginalization for indigenous peoples recognizes the importance of values. will arrive at the best /optimal social result by, at theand other local forest communities. margin, adjusting their quantities and prices to the best for each one or, say, by maximizing individual profits. Anything less than a full recognition of It is an equity principle for private liberal economicManaging these macro-micro dynamics— and respect for distinctive values and interactions, derived from welfare economics.including effective and inclusive decision-making processes undermines 4. By developing mechanisms such as REDD+ basedcommunication and representation the principles of participation enshrined on a criterion like ‘cost effectiveness’ (STERN, 2007), theacross different levels from the local in many UN human rights conventions, results will be those which predict welfare economics or, say, a social Pareto optimum, which have not beento the global—is a key challenge for including the International Convention positive in the context of equity. Cost effectivenessindigenous peoples’ engagement in on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and works under a perspective of economic efficiency— the largest quantity with the minimum prices—butREDD+ policy processes. Despite broader social justice principles of access limits space for differential price formation schemes.strong efforts to ensure inclusion of and benefit-sharing as also expressed in the Nagoya Protocol of the UN 5. Theoretically, the price system will lead prices torepresentatives of indigenous peoples reflect mainly the relative scarcity of the good/serviceand other forest communities, efforts to Convention on Biological Diversity. being priced.
  • 22 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Olufunso A. Somorin and Denis J. Sonwa, Central African Regional Office, Center for International Forestry People, Decentralised Research (CIFOR) Power and Community Forestry in Cameroon In the past two decades, forest management for a period of 25The management boards extensive policy reforms have years.” The community can therefore beof some community forests fundamentally transformed the composed of one or more villagesuse their connections with institutional conditions for the governance legally represented by an association orexternal donor agencies to of natural resources in most developing common initiative group that representsdraw on interventions countries. As centralised and free market- the local communitarian institution.such as technical training oriented solutions have floundered, newand innovations to extend and more decentralised institutional The creation of community foreststheir livelihoods beyond arrangements that seek to incorporate aims above all to improve livelihoodstraditional agriculture. local actors and communities have dependent on forest management by emerged (Andersson, 2006). empowering precisely the users of localNew opportunities such as resources. In managing their forests, thethe domestication of high- Embedded in these decentralised members of the community forestspriced wild leaves and institutional arrangements is power generally make rules in the commonfruits, beekeeping, snailry, in the form of ‘local authority’ given to interest in order to reduce the loss of thegrasscutter farming, to name communities to manage their natural forest resources on which they depend,just a few activities, have resources. Local authority and decision- thereby reconciling short-term andincreased household income, making systems pertaining to the long-term interests.potentially reducing poverty management of natural resources affectby as much as 18 to 30 per livelihoods and the overall well-being Based on the assumption thatcent, especially among of the local communities that community forestry could be a promisingwomen, over about depend on them. and viable approach to reducing ruralthree years. poverty and to promoting sustainable Central to the global movement for forest management, many case studies increasing the decentralisation have investigated the success of of power, particularly in resource community forestry in the last decade management, is the recognition of the (Vabi et al., 2000; Somorin, 2011). importance of the participation and benefit-sharing of local stakeholders and The focus has been on its effectiveness in actors for the success and sustainability timber logging and forest management, of interventions and especially for the financial returns for socio-economic effectiveness of development. development, poverty alleviation, cost- benefit analysis of participation and The 1994 Forestry Law of Cameroon returns, and institutional roles in introduced the decentralisation policy mediating external interventions. for the forestry sector. Through this law, community forestry was established and With respect to poverty alleviation, the the management of forest resources was findings of these studies show that some formally transferred to local actors and communities have benefited monetarily institutions. According to the Forestry and more broadly economically either Law (Article 37) and the Manual of through direct cash payments or Procedure of the Ministry of Environment employment in timber processing. and Forestry, community forestry is For some households, this income, “a part of the non-permanent forest which supplements their normal gains estate, measuring up to 5000 ha, that is from agriculture (their main occupation), the object of an agreement between is financial capital that can be used to government and a community in which diversify into other livelihoods. Many communities undertake sustainable communities claimed to have at least
  • Poverty in Focus 23received financial returns in cash or to and its related benefits have created a authorities, thereby reducing the benefitshave benefited from local infrastructure sphere of recognition for ‘forest peoples’ of the decentralisation of power forprojects such as the construction of or marginalised groups such as the livelihoods. Where local customaryclassrooms or the roofing of local houses pygmies. With these changes, marginal authority has been reconciled withwith aluminum (Oyono, 2005; Brown and groups whose interests and needs were community forestry, there were reportsLassoie, 2010). The management boards not formerly integrated into formal of ‘elite capture’, whereby a few elitesof some community forests use their public legal system of laws and had mismanaged or embezzled revenuesconnections with external donor legislations now have access and (Oyono, 2005; Brown and Lassoie, 2010).agencies to draw on interventions such management rights to the forests.as technical training and innovations to Still, overall, community forestry as a formextend their livelihoods beyond As a result, financial returns from forest of power decentralisation in Cameroontraditional agriculture. decentralisation have been used for has provided various pathways for social infrastructure such as community participation and benefit-sharing,New opportunities such as the houses, health centres, schools, churches, mainly in the form of legal accessdomestication of high-priced wild water wells, and schoolteachers’ salaries. to the forest—a natural resource thatleaves and fruits, beekeeping, snailry, Community forestry can also be seen as a supports many livelihoods. Additionally,grasscutter farming, to name just a few space for social negotiation between the local access and well-defined propertyactivities, have increased household old and young generations. and management rights to localincome, potentially reducing poverty by resources are value-added benefitsas much as 18 to 30 percent, especially In a sense, where social amenities are of community forestry, enablingamong women, over about three years. provided in the rural areas through the sustainable livelihoods.In other contexts, the communitarian returns from community forestry, somearrangement has increased market of the younger generations have chosen Critically, the interest of local communitiesopportunities for local traders, where to remain in their communities rather in designing their own rules to regulateresources (both agricultural and NTFPs) than to migrate to urban cities in search resource exploitation is a good step forare sold together at negotiated prices in of a better life. Thus, their innovative sustainable forest management, withoutorder to maximise returns (Somorin, 2011). ideas and human capacities contribute which the designation of ‘formal access’ to the implementation of social and may not necessarily bring about eitherAt the heart of the creation of economic innovations (Oyono, 2005). transformation in the managementcommunity forestry in Cameroon of forest resources or reconciliation ofis the need to achieve better forest Community forestry in Cameroon poverty reduction with conservationmanagement at the local level. Many is not totally devoid of challenges. and management.research findings have shown that Additional revenue streams fromcommunities often develop a simple community forestry can be substantialmanagement plan to regulate the for poverty reduction, but, where Andersson, K. (2006). ‘Understandingexploitation of timber and to reduce such benefits are not equitable, the decentralised forest governance: an application of the institutional analysis anddeforestation and degradation as process can be a source of conflict or development framework.’ Sustainability:much as possible. Critically, higher social disorder. In most cases, there Science, Practice and Policy, 2(1): 25-35.ecological goods and services is a dire need for local communities Brown, H.C.P and Lassoie, J.P. (2010).such as biodiversity and carbon in to strengthen their technical and ‘Institutional choice and local legitimacycommunity forests promise new management capacities in order to in community-based forest management:future opportunities for payment maximise livelihood returns from the lessons from Cameroon.’ Environmental Conservation, 37(3): 261-269.for ecosystem services—a potential community forest arrangement.source of future income for local Ingram, V. (2010). ‘Cost-benefit analysiscommunities (Ingram, 2010). The uncontrolled exploitation of timber of community forestry in Cameroon’, unpublished document. in some community forests, pursued toIt is also noteworthy, though, that generate sufficient financial returns to Oyono, R.N. (2005). ‘Profiling local-levelcommunity forestry in Cameroon has offset the transaction costs of obtaining outcomes of environmental decentralizations: the case of Cameroon’s forests in the Congohad mixed results on poverty alleviation their legal status as community forests, Basin.’ Journal of Environment andfor various reasons, which include has weakened sustainable forest Development 14(2): 1-21.varying degrees of access to market management. Furthermore, conflicts Somorin, O.A. (2011). ‘Forest livelihoods,information, communities’ varying between traditional authorities (elders community forestry institutions andtechnical and managerial capacities, and and village chiefs) and community forest adaptation to climate variability: evidencevarying degrees of access to external management boards (younger and from southern Cameroon’, unpublished report.intervention programmes (Ingram, 2010). educated) within local forest management Vabi, M.B., Ngwasiri, C.N., Galega, P.T. and authorities have often arisen. Oyono, R.P. (2000). The devolution of forestThere is also a cultural dimension to management responsibilities to local communities: context and implementationdecentralising power in the forest sector This conflict often affects the social hurdles in Cameroon. Yaoundé,of Cameroon. Decentralisation of forests relations between local institutions and Cameroon: WWF.
  • 24 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Hélène Connor, PhD, Chairman of the Board and Laura E. Williamson, Ecodevelopment: Project Director, respectively, at HELIO International One Vision, Two Moral Imperatives, Three Pillars The goal of ecodevelopment1 US$63.17 trillion, with the US, the EU,The vision and overarching is to create a lasting harmony between China, the UK, Brazil, India and Russiaprinciples embodied in the humans and nature. Since the first contributing collectively 69 percent ofecodevelopment concept environmental international conference this output (CIA WorldFactbook, 2010).2are so powerful that for in Stockholm in 1972, the vision and Simultaneously, inequity seems to beover forty years they have overarching principles embodied in the increasing and stagnating, in some areassustained the environment ecodevelopment concept have sustained (see Ortiz and Cummins, 2011).movement as it strives to an international social movementmeet this elusive goal. concerned with the environment. To answer any of these questions requires reflection on the concepts,However, achieving The objective of ecodevelopment was thinking and politics behind theseecodevelopment can also adopted by the world’s governments issues. The idea that development willonly be attained if the that signed (but did not necessarily automatically benefit all is reminiscentappropriate relationships ratify) the 1992 Rio Treaties on Climate, of Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’ andbetween the three pillars of Biodiversity and Desertification. Voltaire’s Candide, where, in the latter,sustainable development are Ecodevelopment also inspires the “everything is for the best in the best ofbetter understood. development of Agenda 21s worldwide. all possible worlds”. This innate equilibrium Still, while there is an all-inclusive vision in all things has not materialised, and, of what ecodevelopment could and even in the face of deliberate policy, the should be, few efforts to implement it record is marked by limited success and have been fully successful. multiplying challenges. It is widely accepted that development China’s Environment Minister, Zhou should proceed along the three pillars Shengxian, wrote in February 2011 identified in the Brundtland Report that, “In China’s thousands of years (1987). Numerous lengthy articles and of civilization, the conflict between books have been written about the humankind and nature has never1. “Ecodevelopment refers to development at regional need to protect the environment, been as serious as it is today.and local levels, consistent with the potentials of thearea involved, with attention given to the adequate and the importance of the economy, […] The depletion, deteriorationrational use of natural resources, technological styles and the social requirements to be and exhaustion of resources and theand organizational forms that respect the naturalecosystems and local social and cultural patterns. fulfilled in a civilised society. worsening ecological environment haveThe term is also used to describe an integrated become bottlenecks and graveapproach to environment and development.” See:<http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=710>. In the early days of the environmental impediments to the nation’s economic movement, such concerns about nature and social development.”32. See: <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the- and people signalled definite progress.world-factbook/geos/xx.html>. More recently, discourse on socio- To understand this contrast between3. Jacobs, A. (2011). China Issues Warning on Climate environmental justice has led to such ‘intent’ and ‘application’, we must digand Growth. Published 28 February 28 2011.Available online at: questions as: Why is the gap between deeper, analysing behaviour and<http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/01/world/asia/ poor and rich increasing—whether it be scrutinising the sources of those failures.01beijing.html?_r=2&adxnnl=1&ref=world&adxnnlx=1300129236-TZEjvuDx2e0asPlfRc/WKA>. among or within countries? Why are We suggest that the characteristics of the women still the most adversely affected three development pillars and the4. Daily scientific discoveries prove that there is still group among the poor worldwide? Why relationships between them, i.e., themuch to learn about our environment and thatthoughtless initiatives are destroying this capital is there so much social distress in a very power structure that is formed betweenasset, which we still do not understand fully. affluent world? Why are there such them, is fundamental in this regard.5. Out of the availability, use and regeneration apparently irreversible failures?of the human-nature relationship comes civilisation The three pillars—environment, society, andthat encompasses culture, arts, politics, technologies,social constructs, institutions, and all forms of material There is real cause for concern. In 2010, the economy—are obvious tools at ourand social capital. gross world output was estimated at disposal to bring about ecodevelopment.
  • Poverty in Focus 25Logically, this triad is efficient if each inequality deepens, it is arguable that Saharan Africa’s total population as wellof the tools is well-designed and used our collective development and thus as more than 50 percent of the ruralappropriately. Sustainability also implies view of ‘progress’ runs the risk of population in South Asia lack accessthat both quantity and quality are remaining skewed, and mostly towards to electricity (UNDP, 2010b: 42).important, i.e., that an internal healthy the rich and powerful. In a recent paper,structure is needed to allow each pillar Ortiz and Cummins (2011:10) calculate Implicit in these contradictions is thatto play its role and act symbiotically that it has taken the bottom billion capital, labour and natural resources arewith the other two pillars. (the poorest) 17 years to increase its substitutable for each other. Costanza share of world income from 0.77 (1990) (1997) argues that the environment canThe first pillar, environment (the new name to 0.95 (2007) and could take eight never be wholly substituted. So how canfor nature), provides all the goods and centuries (at the current rate of progress) a focus on the second pillar (humankind)services available in the world, directly to increase this share to 10 percent. improve the evolution of developmentand indirectly. This refers to energy, so that it benefits all, equally, fairly andraw materials, food, etc. However, The third pillar of development has been sustainably? We suggest that twothese goods and services are subject identified as the economy, often principles be systematically appliedto physical, biological, and other laws restricted to the market. Contrary to by decision makers in this context.that must be studied and respected.4 current Western thought, which has These two moral imperatives can thenFor example, humankind must not tended to make this a central pillar to mould the interface between theharm (beyond repair) natural inputs, which the others are secondary, this pillar three pillars mentioned above andlest it hamper society’s survival. Knowing is only one dimension of civilisation ensure a convergence of actionsthat we are degrading our environment and thus is an output generated by towards ecodevelopment.and thus sawing off the branch on humankind5 (the second pillar). For some,which we sit, renders our existence the predominance given to this third First, we need to rethink the humankind-precarious and uncertain. pillar has unbalanced development. nature relationship vis-à-vis what has been given to us, i.e., our patrimony,There is perhaps no greater As discussed in Zaman (2008) heritage, and nature. Adopting amanifestation of this than in the worst- and Sen (2010), an overreliance usufructal approach may better reflectcase scenarios for global climate change. on or predominance of any one the dual role of beneficiary and steward.It is undeniable that our first and main pillar (in a balanced system) will lead topillar (environment) is under threat from disequilibrium or inefficient equilibrium. This suggests focusing on using naturalignorance, short-term thinking, and a This tension between growth and capital’s ‘interest’, as opposed to usingcavalier attitude to the importance development continues to play out in the basic capital itself, thus escaping theand relevance of nature, which is the aftermath of the global financial temptation to slowly erode the qualityoften largely defined in utilitarian terms. crisis and in the wake of significant of nature’s goods and services. (This is, bailouts of the private sector. Moreover, in fact, the advice any banker or portfolioThe second pillar, society or humankind, despite gargantuan leaps in technology adviser would give to a potentialis the beneficiary of the natural and infrastructure as well as energy investor.) We suggest a return to what arecapital from ‘nature’. Humankind is innovation, more than 75 percent of sub- known as ‘soft’ technologies that allowboth recipient and steward—whoseknowledge is important for defining thebalance between supply and demandand in devising new goods. As societyevolves continuously, no real ‘ideal state’exists. What, for example, can be calledsocial progress? It can be access to morefood, clean water, and electricity forrefrigeration, health improvement,and light for education and socialising.But is it ‘progress’ if people get sick fromtheir jobs? Is more income ‘progress’ ifobtaining it is made at the expense ofone’s quality of life? A balanced viewof progress has to be devised by thebeneficiaries themselves and mustinclude the input of women and theeconomically disadvantaged. As women’spolitical participation has stagnated,gender-based violence persists and Source: HELIO International.
  • 26 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growthfor the harvest of nature and protection technologies to use natural resources A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries’, Social and Economic Policyof its regenerative capacity. Usufructual and applying participatory governance Working Paper, UNICEF Policy andmanagement approaches show promise to control and regulate markets. Practice Series. Available online at:in moving us from the ‘what’ to the ‘how’, It is through these processes and <http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/ Global_Inequality_Beyond_the_Bottom_Billion.pdf>.including the reconciliation of competing interactions that ecodevelopmentideas, approaches and technologies. is achieved (Connor, 2008). Sen, A. K. (2010). ‘Markets and Freedom’, Oxford Economic Papers 45, 519–541.Second, we suggest a repositioning We can no longer remain at the stage Accessed at: <http://tek.bke.hu/korok/sen/ docs/markets.pdf>.of how we think about what we are of the discourse when famine and othercreating. Humankind can only achieve a silent and not-so-silent emergencies and UNDP (2010). The Path to Achieving thefair equilibrium among all its members if revolutions continue to take place. Millennium Development Goals: A Synthesis of MDG Evidence from around the World.there are equality, fairness, and freedom, The recent Arab Spring suggests that United Nations Development Programme,notions that precipitate social revolutions. the ‘people’ are, in fact, no longer willing New York.In the realm of development, this requires: to wait. From an ecological viewpoint, Zaman, M.M. (2008). ‘Welfare Dynamics1) a balanced approach between needs ecodevelopment must become a reality; Based on a New Concept of Inefficientand resources; 2) the establishment it is the basis of our human survival in Equilibrium’, Munich Personal RePEc Archiveof participatory governance at all the Anthropocene era.6 18. Available online at: <http://mpra.ub.uni- muenchen.de/11303/1/MPRA_paper_11303.pdf>.levels, from the UN fora to nationalgovernments, local and municipal Connor, H. (2008). ‘Assessing the Energy Contribution to Sustainability’, in OECDauthorities, down to the family sphere; Sustainable Development Studies’, 6. Wikipedia : “The Anthropocene is a recent andand, 3) the means to monitor the first Conducting Sustainability Assessments, informal geologic chronological term that serves totwo requirements. This third component pp. 109-118. mark the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on theis rarely implemented and has led to the Costanza, R. (1997). ‘The Value of the Earth‘s ecosystems.”repetition of revolutions, silent or otherwise. World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital’, Nature 387, 253–260. For more information about HELIO, please consult our website at:Ecodevelopment therefore entails Ortiz, I. and Cummins, M. (2011). ‘Global <www.helio-international.org>humans employing usufructal Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion – or write to us at: helio@helio-international.orgGender, Employment by Leisa Perch, Team Leader Rural and Sustainable Development, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growthand Economic Crisis:Seeding Social Sustainability in SIDS As the global economy emerges Employment, for example, servedEmployment, for example, from the global economic crisis (GEC) as a multiplier for more traditionalserved as a multiplier somewhat unevenly and as the global transmission channels in the crisis.for more traditional political agenda focuses on Rio+20, While the structure of the economiestransmission channels it is important to highlight key lessons in small island developing states (SIDS)in the crisis. from the crisis, especially the role that often meant that the government served inequality played in predisposing as the ‘employer of last resort’, otherSeveral features of informal- specific groups and households to factors also contributed. Youthsector employment exposed socio-economic vulnerability. The crisis unemployment and underemploymenthouseholds to significant revealed a worrying picture of localised were particularly acute in the Caribbeanvulnerability and income and structural vulnerabilities within and the Pacific, with unemploymentvolatility: seasonality, households, heightened by multiplying especially affecting young men in St.high mobility and turnover, and escalating risks and shocks. Kitts and Nevis (Perch and Roy, 2010).low skills, little capacity to Some of these are explained by a Moreover, poverty data for the Caribbeanadapt to dynamic labour- declining economy and sectoral fragility, reveal significant levels of workingmarket needs, and but others reveal a vulnerability shaped poverty (Perch and Roy, 2010), suggestingthe lack of structural more by structural inequalities that employment provided a key ‘securityprotective mechanisms. within society. function’ and that any reductions in
  • Poverty in Focus 27income would be potentially disabling. had only one source of income. The implied impact of this on theFindings in the synthesis report on the Even where high and sustained capacity of poor households to meetsocial impacts of the GEC in the investments in education have their needs is significant, often entailingCaribbean identified coping strategies persisted (on average, about 4 to 6 a high susceptibility to ‘food poverty’—such as acceptance of delayed salary percent of GDP annually in SIDS), that is, an inability to meet basic foodpayments and partial payments in order returns have been variable, with consumption requirements. Betweento remain employed (UNDP, 2010: 28). many new entrants to the labour the already relatively high expenditure market often unable to find jobs on food and the increased pressure onIn this context, gender (at the macro and (Perch and Roy, 2010). income through inflation and prices, dietmicro scales) played an important role in and nutrition, children’s development,conditioning household vulnerability. 3. Income volatility and related knock-on health, and education also becameSeveral elements highlight how effects. High informality in the susceptible to decline.this occurred. labour market results in stochastic uncertainty,1 with dependent Implications for the Broader1. The labour market itself. In SIDS tends households experiencing greater Policy Agenda to be segmented by gender and limits uncertainty than those involved These realities suggest some critical opportunities for men and women. in regular wage labour, thus being lessons for the discourse on making The domination of men in the private exogenously inelastic2 (Perch and Roy, green growth inclusive and for ensuring sector compared to women in the 2010). As a result, households with that the green economy also contributes public sector (as in Antigua and only one employed adult, particularly to poverty eradication and that green Barbuda), exposed men to income female-headed households, were jobs also follow the dictates of the losses from the crisis as the tourism vulnerable to the effects of the crisis. globally agreed ‘decent work’ agenda. and construction sectors, which they In the Solomon Islands, female- They also raise key questions about the dominated, declined sharply (Perch headed households seemed to be capacity of individuals and systems to and Roy, 2010). Moreover, several slightly disadvantaged overall, with cope with numerous and cyclical crises. features of informal-sector slightly higher representation in the employment, which seem to dominate three lowest expenditure deciles and In the background paper of a major the labour-market dynamics of SIDS, higher representation among poor high-level conference, the Nansen particularly in the Pacific, expose rural households (Perch and Roy, 2010). Conference on Climate Change and households to significant vulnerability Displacement in the 21st century, held in and income volatility: seasonality, high 4. Household structure. Pressure on June 2011,3 numerous critical questions mobility and turnover, low skills, little income did not arise simply from an were raised about sudden-onset capacity to adapt to dynamic labour- increased cost of living, but was also (disasters) and slow-onset events (crises). market needs, and the lack of highly influenced by the many structural protective mechanisms. demands on income in poor and The broad implications of a longer-term single-income households, which loss of assets and livelihoods and2. Gender-differentiated labour usually include children and elderly of the limited recovery time between market participation. Data from the people. Before the crisis, 23 percent of events, thrust new light on sustaining International Labour Organization poor households in Dominica included poverty reduction and equity. (ILO, 2009) indicate that, in the Pacific, a person with disabilities, 10 percent 82 percent of men of working age had someone with a long-term illness, (15 years and older) were active in the and 27 percent had someone who was 1. This refers to the fact that it is difficult to labour market, compared to about 57 diabetic or hypertensive (Government predict the level of income, sometimes the percent of women (ILO, 2009: 34), with of Dominica and Caribbean payment dates, or the extent to which the employment may last. There are no structural the implication that some households Development Bank, 2003: 87). protections such as contracts, so a person could be unemployed the next day and have few resources. Consequently, it becomes harder to predict income and so saving and asset-building become much harder. BOX 2. This means that, due to structural factors, Blue Carbon with Potential Social Co-benefits? earnings can be inherently volatile. For example, earnings in the tourism sector can depend on high- With the emerging discourse on ‘Blue Carbon’ and the push for the carbon season or low-season realities. Thus, in high season, sequestration of wetlands and mangroves to be fully integrated into the Clean staff may be able to earn 50 per cent more than in low season. Additionally, some people work in several Development Mechanism (CDM), there may be potential new sources of investment sectors, depending on availability, the seasonality financing that could stimulate new sources of growth and employment. Wetlands of work, and income needs. They face a greater play a critical role in regulating the climate (IUCN, 2011). On 6 June 2011, the uncertainty of income, payment and duration of employment. This is not something that they UNFCCC approved the methodology for calculating mangrove carbon storage (ibid.). control or could be improved by working harder, etc. In this area, large and small countries in the South potentially have much in common—a potential catalyst for enhanced collaboration at the global level. 3. See webpage and background paper: <http:// d2530919.hosted213.servetheworld.no/expose/sites/ clientweb/default.asp?s=1931&id=1937>.
  • 28 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth It spotlights a larger ‘security’ question stimulating progress on ‘low-carbon’ A larger ‘security’ question for governments and people alike: that of pathways in SIDS must therefore for governments and securing development gains and securing consider how gender and other forms people alike is how to assets and capabilities in the face of of structural inequality may hinder escalating uncertainty. Insights into this the full and participatory inclusion, secure development gains, cycle emerges from data on disasters particularly that of women, in the assets and capabilities in collected for research about the social benefits of such transformations the face of escalating policy implications of the economic and opportunities. crisis on SIDS (Perch and Roy, 2010). uncertainty. Our findings highlighted a worrying In early phases of development, many pattern of events, some with a lag time have been left behind. Reversing such Coastal improvements, of 4 to 5 years and some within a year or trends goes beyond addressing women’s less, and some within the same year. lack of access to and lack of participation including the in the economic process: it must also lead construction of Given the need to mitigate the impacts to their greater involvement and to their beach and coastline of such events, to strengthen social assumption of more leadership. resilience, and to shore up natural fortifications and the defences, a co-benefits approach Women’s leadership in the green maintenance of key seems to be an obvious choice for SIDS. economy was the focus of a parallel natural assets such as event in the wings of this year’s Meeting As the ‘green growth’ concept grows, of the Commission on the Status of mangroves, wetlands, expands, and is further integrated into Women (see: <http://www.wedo.org/wp- sea-grasses and marshes, the thinking on sustainable development, content/uploads/LocaltoRio_2March_WEDO- potentially deliver many there is significant potential to improve GGCA.pdf>). Much more is needed in this productivity and reduce environmental regard, including research, in order to benefits for both society impacts simultaneously, achieving many reconcile macro-level imperatives with and the environment. benefits from one intervention. Such an micro-level reality. approach maximises resources, bring more Asian Development Bank (2009). Vanuatu timely results, serves to help countries Reversing current trends Economic Report: Accelerating Reform. diversify away from public sector-led Executive Summary. goes beyond addressing growth, enables new businesses to Government of St. Kitts and Nevis and women’s lack of develop, and eases some of the fiscal Caribbean Development Bank (2009). constraints they continue to experience. Country Poverty Assessment St. Kitts and Nevis participation in the 2007/08: Living Conditions in a Caribbean economic process; Small Island Developing State. Volume 1: Perhaps more important for SIDS is the Living Conditions in St. Kitts and Nevis. it must also lead to attractive prospect of public employment Government of the Commonwealth of serving dual benefits for development by their assumption Dominica and Caribbean Development harnessing public works capacity for Bank. Country Poverty Assessment: Final of more leadership. public environmental goods. Coastal Report. Volume 1 of 2: Main Report. improvements, including the construction ILO (2009). Global Employment Trends. of beach and coastline fortifications and Geneva, International Labour Organization. the maintenance of key natural assets Perch, L. and Roy, R. (2010) ‘Social Policy such as mangroves, wetlands, sea-grasses in the Post-Crisis Context of SIDS: and marshes, potentially deliver many A Synthesis’. IPC-IG Working Paper 67. Brasilia, International Policy Centre for benefits for sustained employment and Inclusive Growth. improved resilience. Recent research findings and discussions (see Box) UNDP (2010). Social Implications of the Global Economic Crisis in Caribbean Small on ‘blue carbon4, 5, 6 suggest that this Island Developing States (SIDS): 2008/2009. could be a significant opportunity for a blue-green economy in SIDS. 4. Nature 473, 255 (2011) | doi:10.1038/473255a . “Add coastal vegetation to climate critical list”. A new framework to promote a more Posted 18 May 2011 online. Available online at: <http:// inclusive labour market also demands www.nature.com/news/2011/110518/full/ 473255a.html>. innovations in the quality of education and training (ADB, 2009b: 11). 5. This article, Guest Article #59, focused on Wetlands and Climate Change. Available online at: <http://climate-l.iisd.org/guest-articles/wetlands-and- Thinking Ahead climate-change/>. Policy efforts to identify new opportunities 6. See: <http://iucn.org/?7595/Mangroves-to-receive- for growing the economy and for huge-boost-from-new-carbon-credit-rules>.
  • Poverty in Focus 29Access to Food in the Context ofSustainability and Equity:Elements from IBSA by Darana Souza and Danuta Chmielewska, Senior and Associate Researchers, respectively, at International Policy Centre for Inclusive GrowthFood security has been in the practice. Lessons learned by devisingspotlight at the global level as concerns food production systems to reduce Alternative approachesover significant challenges in securing hunger, poverty and inequality in their provide for socio-economicsustained access to food have been own populations, could apply to efforts sustainability and equitymounting. These challenges include the in other developing countries. by supporting thedegradation of natural resources and livelihoods of the ruralclimate change, which are expected to Each of the IBSA partners—India, Brazil poor and promotingsubstantially increase risks to agricultural and South Africa—has developed environmentally sustainableproduction and people’s vulnerability to nationally defined policy frameworks agricultural practices.food insecurity in the coming years; at that guide each country’s food securitythe same time, food production will need agenda and distinctively treat the Emerging economies haveto increase by at least 70 percent by 2050 complexity of this phenomenon. considerable potential toin order to meet the demands of This mini-lateral group is thus a contribute to developmentgrowing populations (FAO, 2010). noteworthy example for policy practice. Lessons learned debate within the South. by devising food productionOther persistent concerns such as systems to reduce hunger,rural poverty will only exacerbate The Brazilian official concept of food poverty and inequality inthese expected difficulties; indeed, over security is anchored in its Organic Law their own populations,70 percent of the world’s extremely poor— of Food and Nutritional Security (LOSAN), could apply to efforts innearly one billion people—live in rural which states that “food and nutritional other developing countries.areas, particularly in Africa and Asia. security is the realization of everyone’s right to regular and permanent accessFurthermore, the livelihoods of to quality food in sufficient quantity,smallholder farmers, who constitute without compromising the access tothe majority of the rural population in other essential needs, based ondeveloping countries, are particularly health-promoting food practices thatincreasingly insecure (IFAD, 2011), given respect the cultural diversity and that aretheir dependency on the weather for environmentally, culturally, economicallyfarming and their limited access to and socially sustainable” (Brazil, 2006).human, social and financial capital. Specific threads of the BrazilianFrom the outset, it has been clear that policy discourse also reflect this broadlyone-dimensional answers will not be defined approach, wherein questionssufficient to tackle these challenges. such as who produces the food,Instead, solutions must be comprehensive what is produced and how it is producedand integrate factors such as the are pivotal. Brazil’s efforts are largelyenvironment, agricultural production, focused on smallholder producers,and rural poverty. Additionally, legally classified as ‘family farmers’,1 whoalternative approaches should provide form the bulk of the rural population.for socio-economic sustainability and 1. In Brazil, family farmers are legally defined in theequity by supporting the livelihoods This support is attentive to the National Family Farming Act (Law 11.326), of 2006,of the rural poor and promoting promotion of agro-ecological food according to four requirements: 1) the rural establishmentenvironmentally sustainable production models. Such orientations are (or undertaking’s area of activity) may not exceed four fiscal modules (defined in each municipality);agricultural practices. present both in the Zero Hunger (Fome 2) the labour used in the related activities must be Zero) strategy and in the National Food predominantly family-based; 3) the family’s income must originate predominantly from activities related toEmerging economies have considerable and Nutritional Security Policy (PNSAN), farming and the small-holding; and 4) the family mustpotential to contribute to development which underpin the guidelines and directly manage the establishment.
  • 30 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth objectives of the national the definition developed from the Each of the IBSA public support to food security. World Food Summit of 1996.4 partners—India, Brazil Among the Brazilian government’s and South Africa— initiatives that respond to these This concept states that food security matters, the National Programme for exists when all people, at all times, has developed Strengthening Family Farming (PRONAF) have physical, social and economic nationally defined is one of the main entry points. access to sufficient safe and nutritious policy frameworks food that meets their dietary needs Providing loans nationwide with low- and food preferences for an active that guide each country’s interest rates to promote diverse rural and healthy life. food security agenda activities, three of its credit lines (PRONAF and distinctively treat Agro-ecology, PRONAF Eco and PRONAF Reflected in the National Integrated Food Forest) seek to reconcile environmental Security Strategy (IFSS), it underpins a the complexity of this concerns with the general support to strategy that aimed to harmonise the phenomenon. family farmers. different food security programmes in This mini-lateral the country according to areas of PRONAF Agro-ecology provides low-cost priority (with a focus on household group is thus a support to family farmers based on the food production and trading), but noteworthy example principles of the National Policy of that remained somewhat limited for policy debate Technical Assistance and Rural Extension in its implementation. (PNATER). In addition, the newly created within the South. Bolsa Verde (´Green Grant´) provides lump- The country is currently discussing sum payments for environmental its Zero Hunger plan, which considers services for extremely poor farmers. at least three dimensions of the phenomenon: food production, Through the Food Acquisition food access, and food use. Programme (PAA) and the National Important programmes reflect School Feeding Programme (PNAE),2 these orientations and include the market access promotion delivers a Comprehensive Agriculture Support variety of public benefits, particularly Programme (CASP), which is designed in education. to support previously disadvantaged groups, e.g., small-scale and emerging Despite these innovations, the farmers who constitute the majority of promotion of new production models the population. in the country still needs further consolidation. On the one hand, public Through the Micro-Agricultural Financial support to family farming, measured in Institutions of South Africa (MAFISA), terms of budget allocation, is still limited access to finance is made easier via loans, compared to export-led agriculture, savings and banking facilities, with a despite the critical relevance of family focus on crop production, farming farming for Brazilian food security equipment, and production on piggery, and rural development. ostrich and poultry. It does not, however, have a particular focus on ecologically- In the 2009-2010 agricultural year, the based approaches. agribusiness sector was allocated a budget six times that of family farming— Like South Africa, India adopts the US$59.3 billion versus US$9.6 billion World Food Summit’s multi-dimensional (MAPA, 2009). definition of food security (1996), as reflected in the concept note On the other hand, agricultural for the proposed Indian Food production is still significantly tied Security Act (NFSA). to the use of agro-chemicals, with Brazil ranking as the world’s largest The controversial NFSA, which is user of these products3 (Souza and under consideration by the Cabinet, Chmielewska, 2011). seeks to enact a bill to ensure food security and statutory standing to2. For further reference on these programmes, South Africa’s macro-policy framework related policies in India. Currently,see Chmielewska, D. and Souza, D. (2010). treats food security as a multi- it is at the heart of national debates3. This data refers to absolute consumption in tons. dimensional challenge, acknowledging on the right to food.
  • Poverty in Focus 31In India, where three quarters of the production models and with support Further debatepopulation live in rural areas, mostly on to marginalised food producerssmall properties, with over 40 percent have been less explicit. and research in thisof them below the national poverty regard could help toline, there is already a range of The achievements and gaps of these promote nationalprogrammes anchored in benefits experiences go beyond the nationalthat the Supreme Court has declared scope and serve to inform South-South and global effortsto be ‘legal entitlements’ (Souza and dialogue more broadly. to consolidateChmielewska, 2011). comprehensive food Further debate and research in thisIncluded within the current policy regard could help to promote national security approachesframework is the Targeted Public and global efforts to consolidate supporting the transitionDistribution System (TPDS), a large comprehensive food security approaches to adaptive and resilientprogramme that ensures that the most supporting the transition to adaptivevulnerable sectors of society are entitled and resilient production systems in the production systemsto a defined minimum quantity of face of environmental, economic and in the face ofsubsidised cereals per month. social challenges. environmental,This wide-reaching initiative aims to Finally, our initial review suggests that economic andprovide mainly food items at subsidised there are many pathways to addressing social challenges.prices to pre-identified poor families. the complexities of the ‘right to food’,It also offers market opportunities to with each pathway having its ownagricultural products through strengths and weaknesses.government procurement. Our findings highlight that settingThis support, however, does not consider these policy objectives at the highestparticular environmental concerns or level of policy and policy-makingfarmers’ specific profiles. TPDS faces is an important element and cannumerous challenges and is the focus bring numerous benefits. Still, in theof debates on reform efforts (Souza and absence of consistent monitoring of theirChmielewska, 2011). multi-dimensions, the full impact and sustainability of such efforts becomeCritically, the food security policies of much more difficult to gauge andthese three countries represent diverse adjustments become moreapproaches to reconciling agricultural difficult to realise.production, environmental integrity Brazil (2006). Organic Law of Foodand rural poverty as well as to the and Nutritional Security (LOSAN).contribution these make to sustainability Law No. 11,346 of September 15, 2006.and equity. Chmielewska, D. and Souza, D. (2010). ‘Market Alternatives for SmallholderSocial, economic and environmental Farmers in Food Security Initiatives:sustainability along with equity remain Lessons from the Brazilian Food Acquisition Programme’ IPC-IG ,concerns for the Brazilian food security Working Paper 64. Brasilia,policy agenda, with increasing attention International Policy Centre forto production models based on family Inclusive Growth.farming and agro-ecological practices. FAO (2010). ´Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for FoodSouth Africa’s current policy, on the other Security, Adaptation and Mitigation´, Rome, FAO.hand, directs equity and social-economicsustainability efforts through support to IFAD (2011). ´Rural Poverty Report 2011´,household production, while focusing Rome, IFAD. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) (2009).less on environmental issues. Agricultural and Livestock Plan 2009/2010. Brasília, MAPA.India’s policy, in further contrast, Souza, D. and Chmielewska, D. (2011).concentrates on the right of access ‘Public Support to Food Securityto food as an attempt to promote in India, Brazil and South Africa: Elements for a Policy Dialogue’,equity and social sustainability, IPC-IG Working Paper 80. Brasilia,while its connections with International Policy Centre forenvironmentally innovative food Inclusive Growth.
  • 32 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth by Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, PhD, Chief Executive Officer, Food Agriculture and Natural Resources What Is Needed to Ensure Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) An Equitable Deal for Africa at COP 17 The African Challenge Agriculture – Climate NexusAfrica’s adaptive capacity The 21st century has seen renewed efforts Agriculture is central to Africa’sto climate change is itself to tackle Africa’s development problems. economies and its peoples’ livelihoods.constrained by widespread Since 2008, there has been greater If harnessed, its enormous potentialpoverty, low human capacity, interest in investing in African could help the continent meet its widera lack of appropriate agriculture, a sector that is the backbone ambitions of peace and prosperity,technologies, poor of the majority of African economies becoming a key driver of sustainableinfrastructure, and (World Development Report 2008; growth and development. Yet, in certainsusceptibility to high AlertNet, 2011). systems, agriculture contributes as muchfood prices. as 30 percent of total greenhouse gas However, Africa’s sustained development emissions (Meridian Institute, 2011).Agriculture is central to is often hampered by an unpredictableAfrica’s economies and its and unforgiving climate, with 12 of the Thus, sustaining food security willpeoples’ livelihoods. 25 most-at-risk countries being in Africa require intense efforts to increaseIf harnessed, its enormous (Maplecroft, 2010). The close link between productivity while shifting to low-carbonpotential could help the the changing climate and human security and zero-waste modes of production.continent meet its wider has increasingly become part of the Climate-smart agricultural techniquesambitions of peace and global discourse and Africa’s climate offer the potential to substantiallyprosperity, becoming a key story is largely defined by its reduce emissions and increasedriver of sustainable growth dependence on rain-fed agriculture. carbon storage in soil.and development. Risks to Africa’s well-being are not purely For FAO, climate-smart agriculture economic, though, but also include the delivers a critical ‘win-win’ situation, potential for the spread of disease and one that includes higher sustainable escalating conflicts over increasingly productivity, greater resilience, reduced limited and scarce resources, particularly greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), and water. Indeed, the volatile mix of food progress toward national food security and water insecurity has already been and development goals (FAO, 2010). linked to conflicts in Somalia, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso. Through sustainable intensification, use of alternative crops and changes in farm Yet, Africa’s adaptive capacity to management practices, African farmers climate change is itself constrained by could remain on the same land, enjoy widespread poverty, low human capacity, increased yields, and contribute to a lack of appropriate technologies, mitigating climate change by reducing poor infrastructure, and susceptibility deforestation and the encroachment of to high food prices. agriculture into natural ecosystems (Bellassen, 2010). These factors put millions of Africans at greater risk of poverty and hunger, Accordingly, Africa’s political leadership imperil the region’s chances to achieve at the highest level has stated its the Millennium Development Goals commitment to address the challenges (MDGs), and, indeed, increase the of climate change. likelihood of mass emigration. This is reflected in various decisions Climate change, therefore, is one of the and resolutions of African Union (AU) most pressing challenges on the regional Summits and conferences of relevant political and economic agenda. African ministerial bodies, most
  • Poverty in Focus 33notably the African Ministerial Framework Convention on ClimateConference on the Environment (AMCEN), Change (UNFCCC) process. Pillar 1 of the Comprehensivethe Joint Annual Meetings of the AU African AgriculturalConference of Ministers of Economy Despite the clear recognition of Development Programmeand Finance, and the Economic sustainable agriculture under theCommission for Africa (ECA) Conference Kyoto Protocol (Article 2, paragraph 1), (CAADP) advancesof Ministers of Finance, Planning and the 53 African countries, constituting the development ofEconomic Development (ECA, 2010). over a quarter of the 193 member a Framework on countries of the UNFCCC, have so farFurthermore, Pillar 1 of the not managed to sustain a visible policy Agriculture ClimateComprehensive African Agricultural space for agricultural adaptation and Change Adaptation andDevelopment Programme (CAADP) mitigation in the global climate Mitigation as part of theadvances the development of a policy framework.Framework on Agriculture Climate sustainable land andChange Adaptation and Mitigation During COP 16 in Cancun, agriculture water use portfolio.as part of the sustainable land and was considered under sectoralwater use portfolio. approaches within the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action Still, the policy messageAgriculture in the United Nations under the Convention (AWG-LCA) text, remains mixed andFramework Convention on Climate but was ultimately excluded in the final inconsistent.Change (UNFCCC) Process hours of deliberations.Still, Africa cannot make suchfundamental transformations on its own. The Cancun agreements recogniseDevelopment aid and foreign direct agriculture as a driver of deforestation,investment are needed, at appropriate thereby making the sector eligiblelevels of scale, particularly in the for consideration under adaptationagriculture sector. To date, though, actions, essentially allowing agriculturethere has been no decision or work to piggy-back on deforestation inprogramme dedicated to agriculture order to gain eligibility. Overall, thewithin the global climate change policy policy message remains mixednegotiations in the United Nations and inconsistent. BOX African Ministerial Conference on the Environment May 2009 Nairobi Declaration on the African Process for Combating Climate Change 1. To call upon Governments of Africa to promote further the common African position on the comprehensive international climate change regime beyond 2012 and participate actively in the continuing international negotiations, knowing that failure to reach a fair and equitable outcome will have dire consequences for Africa. 2. To agree that the African common position forms the basis for negotiations by the African group during the negotiations for a new climate change regime and should take into account the priorities for Africa on sustainable development, poverty reduction and attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. 3. Also to agree that the key political messages from Africa to inform the global debate and negotiating process, in terms both of the commitments that it seeks from the international community, and also of the actions that African countries can take themselves, should be based on the established principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. 4. To urge all Parties and the international community that increased support to Africa under the future climate regime should be based on the priorities determined by Africa: adaptation, capacity-building, research, financing and technology development and transfer, including support for South-South transfer of knowledge, in particular indigenous knowledge. For a complete list of the recommendations, see: <http://www.unep.org/roa/Amcen/Amcen_Events/3rd_ss/Docs/nairobi-Decration-2009.pdf>.
  • 34 International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth The event brings together hundreds BOX of pro-climate, smart-agriculture FANRPAN High Level Policy Dialogue, September 2010 proponents, including researchers, Key Recommendations on Climate Change governments, farmers, the private sector, NGOs and, unfortunately, only a small crop of negotiators 1. Emphasis should be placed on designing more coherent and dynamic (http://www.agricultureday.org/). research and policy agendas, necessary to reduce poverty and vulnerability in the face of climate change. Such efforts should be increased in the run-up to COP 17, with greater 2. Policy frameworks and development planning should be climate proofed involvement of negotiators. so they do not become obsolete as environmental and economic conditions change. 2. Training Journalists A well-informed and well-prepared 3. Sufficient resources should be devoted to adaptation, including media can help to give prominence infrastructure and market development, to mitigate effects of climate and visibility to key issues, also change on rural populations. making them more easily understood by policy makers and the public alike. 4. Increase investments in research for mitigation, the development of the capacity to undertake the research and technology development to help FANRPAN’s training workshops for the support political will and commitment to address impacts of climate change media help to build capacity and on agriculture, fisheries and rural livelihoods. knowledge in accurately covering agricultural development issues in the region. What is Needed for Africa These are usually held alongside Agriculture’s position to Be Successful in Durban, COP 17? the FANRPAN Regional Food in the discourse is not The next round of climate talks is Security Policy Dialogues without its value-laden poised to take place in Sub-Saharan (http://www.ips.org/africa/library/ Africa in November 2011 for the FANRPAN-newsletter-2010-SML.pdf ). context, often portrayed second time; in Durban, South Africa. as a villain in the context 3. Empowering African Negotiators of emissions. In contrast, Supported by the African Union (AU), Agriculture’s position in the discourse the African Development Bank (AfDB), is not without its value-laden context, its socio-economic role— and the New Partnership for Africa’s often portrayed as a villain in the livelihoods, nutrition Development (NEPAD), African states context of emissions. and health—calls are now in the driver’s seat and have a real chance to push for the In contrast, its socio-economic role— for a broader and more operationalisation of the agreements livelihoods, nutrition and health— developmental approach reached in Copenhagen (COP 15) calls for a broader and more in which social and and Cancun (COP 16). developmental approach in which social and environmental benefits environmental benefits Africa must maximise this singular have priority. have priority. opportunity to score a victory based on a dedicated track for agriculture Progress toward this has been slow within the UNFCCC process. partially due to a lack of information and knowledge, a situation requiring Success will rely on a number urgent attention. of key strategies: The poorest countries, significantly 1. Increasing Advocacy though Smart affected by such inconsistencies in Global Partnerships global policy, must strengthen their Since 2009, the climax event for key influence and advocacy in the global policy advocates of the agriculture- climate institutional framework. climate nexus, including FANRPAN, has been Agriculture and Rural Scientific evidence grounded in the Development Day (ARDD), local context is a key ingredient to held in parallel with the annual more meaningful engagement by UNFCC COP meetings. African negotiators.
  • Poverty in Focus 35 The UNDP and the Climate and A more development-oriented approach Development Knowledge Network is central to a long-term and sustained Adding voice to the (CDKN), amongst others, provide solution to climate change. ‘triple win’ of improving UNFCCC negotiators with the tools agricultural productivity to make evidence-based, Africa has not been idle. However, pro-development interventions sustaining home-grown good and food security, (http://www.unitar.org/delivering- practice and innovation depends addressing climate one-undp-and-unitar-join-forces- on equitable and fair partnership change, and improving strengthen-african-participation-key- arrangements and an enabling multilateral-negotia; http://cdkn.org/ policy framework. the lives and livelihoods resource/defining-climate- of rural populations that compatible-development/). The clarion message for COP 17, live in poverty, through hosted on African soil, should be4. Supporting Bottom-up “NO AGRICULTURE, NO DEAL”. multi–stakeholder Advocacy Campaigns policy dialogues, creates Bringing the voice of affected rural unique opportunities communities, where the greatest AlertNet (2011). ‘Climate Conversations - sense of urgency exists, more directly Beat back African poverty and for policy innovation. emissions with ag green growth’. into the negotiation process is key. Available online at: <http://www.trust.org/ alertnet/blogs/climate-conversations/beat- Bringing the voice Civil society organizations have a back-african-poverty-and-emissions-with-ag- pivotal role in advancing bottom-up green-growth/>. of affected rural and people-centric policies, including Bellassen, V., Manlay, R.J., Chéry, J.P., communities, where the scaling-up of ‘good practice’ Gitz, V., Touré, A., Bernoux, M. and Chotte, J.L. (2010). ‘Multi-criteria the greatest sense multi-focus adaptation interventions. Spatialization of Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Potential from Agricultural of urgency exists, Farmer participation and Intensification in Senegal’, Climatic Change, more directly into Volume 98, Numbers 1-2, January 2010, the use of innovative techniques pp. 213-243 (31). Available online at: the negotiation such as theatre for policy advocacy <http://www.springerlink.com/content/ (http://www.fanrpan.org/documents/ 0522527xq630622g/fulltext.pdf>. process is key. d00958/) are ideal for bringing an ECA (2010). Report on Climate Change African flavour to COP 17. and Development in Africa Meeting of the Committee of Experts of the 3rd Joint Annual Meetings of the AU Conference of Ministers5. Engaging in Multi-stakeholder of Economy and Finance and ECA Conference Intersectoral Policy Dialogues of African Ministers of Finance, Planning and Adding voice to the ‘triple win’ Economic Development, Lilongwe, Malawi, 25 – 28 March 2010. Available online at: of improving agricultural <http://www.uneca.org/cfm/2010/ productivity and food security, documents/English/Report-onClimateChange- addressing climate change, and andDevelopment-inAfrica.pdf>. improving the lives and livelihoods Food and Agriculture Organization of rural populations that live of the United Nations (FAO) (2010). in poverty, through multi– “Climate-Smart” Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food stakeholder policy dialogues, Security, Adaptation and Mitigation, FAO. creates unique opportunities Available at: <www.fao.org/docrep/013/ for policy innovation. i1881e/i1881e00.pdf>. Maplecroft (2010). ‘New Maplecroft Index In 2010, the FANRPAN Regional Rates Pakistan And Egypt Among Nations High Level Multi-stakeholder Food Facing “Extreme” Water Security Risks’, retrieved 10 July 2010 from Maplecroft Security Policy Dialogue focused website: <http://www.maplecroft.com/ on livestock and fisheries policies about/news/water-security.html>. for food security and trade in Meridian Institute (2011). Modalities for a changing climate. REDD+ Reference Levels: Technical and Procedural Issues, prepared for theLooking to Durban Government of Norway by Arild Angelsen, Doug Boucher, Sandra Brown, ValerieTo ensure that Africa emerges Merckx, Charlotte Streck, andfrom the 2011 UNFCCC negotiations Daniel Zarin. Available online at:with a fair deal, strengthened <http://www.REDD-OAR.org>.coordination and negotiation World Development Report 2008. Availablestructures are needed. online at: <www.worldbank.org/wdr2008>.
  • InternationalCentre for Inclusive Growth Poverty in Focus No. 23 - November 2011.International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC - IG)Poverty Practice, Bureau for Development Policy, UNDPEsplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco O, 7º andar70052-900 Brasilia, DF - BrazilTelephone: +55 61 2105 5000E-mail: ipc@ipc-undp.org URL: www.ipc-undp.org