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Advanced Behavior Support Planning (PBIS Implementer's Forum 2011)
 

Advanced Behavior Support Planning (PBIS Implementer's Forum 2011)

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  • It is tempting to go into crisis mode—focus on stopping the behavior in the short run. \\
  • Maybe, just maybe the intervention to address this—swinging her arm at a teacher– (e.g., counseling, suspension, parent conference) worked and averted future occurrences however this means that other behaviors in the chain were not addressed and thus will keep occurring!We therefore need a more detailed analysis of what occurred…include teacher behavior
  • We don’t know what prompted or set off each of Malia’s behaviors. We assume Malia’s behavior set off her next behavior abut chains don’t usually happen in this way. Additional prompts usually occur that set the occasion for the next behavior
  • Teacher’s response, in large measure, determiens what the student may do next. Situations can most often be escalated or defused depending on kind of response we make
  • Relevant—if you stop or start doing X it WILL affect the behavaior
  • Relevant—if you stop or start doing X it WILL affect the behavaior
  • Increase: frequency, duration, intensity, pair natural consequence with arbitrary reinforcer, etc.
  • Extra attention at start of activityCheck-in frequently (check work, point card with positive feedback)Teachers helperConsider setting phone to vibrate every X min
  • Extra attention from teacher (e.g., teacher’s helper)
  • Be a “brick wall”

Advanced Behavior Support Planning (PBIS Implementer's Forum 2011) Advanced Behavior Support Planning (PBIS Implementer's Forum 2011) Presentation Transcript

  • Advanced Behavior SupportCynthia M. Anderson, PhD Brianna Stiller, PhD Planning University of Oregon & School District 4j
  • What are your biggestchallenges?
  • Our Challenge.. Wrong focus: What the behavior looks like  Right focus:  What are the triggers?  What maintains the behavior? Wrong goal: Stop the problem now  Right goals:  Make problem behavior LESS likely in the future  Increase likelihood of desired behavior
  • Tip: Consider Precursors Does student reliably exhibit less intense behaviors before “melting down?” If so, Intervene when precursors occur
  • Responding toEscalations—Avoiding fromBad to Worse
  • Effective Teachers Need: Systematic strategies for  Preventing problem behavior from occurring  Teaching pro-social behavior  Reinforcing desired behavior  Decreasing future probability of problem behavior Also need: Strategies to defuse a situation before it becomes “out of control.”
  • Goals of Correction1. Stop the problem behavior & start desired behavior2. Ensure correct behavior occurs in future3. Avoid behavioral escalations
  • Effective Response RequiresLooking at the Big Picture
  • Malia Malia was sitting at her desk not doing her work. She’d had a bad attitude all day. I gave her a reminder to get started and she began arguing about the work. I tried to explain what I wanted and offered to help but she wouldn’t quit arguing. I gave her a choice of doing the work now or doing it after school. She became very belligerent and started shouting. I gave her a warning to settle down or get an ODR. She stood up and I directed her toward the office. She then swung her arm at me and could have hit me so I called security
  • Big Picture = Behavior Chain Mistake: Focus on behavior that led to the referral
  • Malia Malia was sitting at her desk not doing her work. She’d had a bad attitude all day. I gave her a reminder to get started and she began arguing about the work. I tried to explain what I wanted and offered to help but she wouldn’t quit arguing. I gave her a choice of doing the work now or doing it after school. She became very belligerent and started shouting. I gave her a warning to settle down or get an ODR. She stood up and threw down her book and I directed her toward the office. She then swung her arm at me and could have hit me so I called security
  • Big Picture = Behavior Chain Chain—set of discrete behaviors, each prompts the next Behaviors to consider  Target student  Other student  Adult(s)
  • Malia Malia was sitting at her desk not doing her work. The teacher approached her and told her to get to work; Malia said she’d finished it. The teacher noted that she had barely started and that if she needed help she should ask; otherwise get started. Malia said she had done what was asked. The teacher pointed out that she needed to do 12 problems and only three were done. Malia said, “I am not doing this crap twice, it isn’t fair!” The teacher told her to quiet down and said she could do the work now or stay in and do it during break. Maila pushed her book on the floor and stood up. The teacher told her to go to the office and lightly nudged her arm. Malia swung her arm backwards very vigorously and nearly hit the teacher’s head.
  • Sitting at desk, notworking Prompt to workSays, “I’m done” Checks work, notes student isn’t done and offers help or says to start work Says work is done Notes that only 3 of 12 problems are done Yells she is done and this is unfair Says settle down and do it now or later Pushes book to floor and stands Directs to office with nudge Swings arm back and almost hits Sends for help, ODR teacher
  • Key Point Changing student’s successive behaviorsrequires US to change our responses
  • Difficulties Personal reactions
  • Belinda Belinda has been argumentative all morning. Her teacher has for the most part ignored this. The teacher tells the class to turn in their work and Belinda says, under her breath, “you fat ogre.”Teacher is angry and offended“This is no way to talk here—you need togo to the office.”Student reacts with even worse behavior
  • Belinda What makes sense: Belinda has been argumentative with Withdraw, work all morning. Her teacher has for the most others, return to student part ignored this. and address matter of The teacher tells the class to turn in their factly. work and Belinda says, under her breath, “you fat ogre.”Teacher is angry and offended“This is no way to talk here—you need togo to the office.”Student reacts with even worse behavior
  • Difficulties Personal reactions Establishing fluency  Responding automatically and smoothly, in a planful way
  • The Side Conversation Most students working on a class activity Two students are engaged in a side conversation
  • The Side Conversation Most students working on a class activity Two students are engaged in a side conversation
  • The Side Conversation Most students working on a class activity Two students are engaged in a side conversation
  • The Side Conversation Most students working on a class activity Two students are engaged in a side conversation
  • The Side Conversation FirstTeacher---Low fluency Second Teacher—High fluency Third teacher—Wrong response
  • The Fluency Problem It is one thing to know what to do &another to DO it We often are fluent at ineffective (reactive) strategies Goal  Let go of existing habits  Develop new habitual responses First response is often the most crucial!  Students often expect a predictable response from the teacher  Their response also is automatic (fluent)
  • The Fluency Problem It is one thing to know what to do &another to DO it We often are fluent at ineffective (reactive) strategies Goal Key Point:  •If we can change our Let go of existing habits initial  response… Develop new habitual responses First • Then we can often alter student response is often the most crucial!  responses Students often expect a predictable response from the •And thereby…. teacher  Their response also is automatic (fluent) DEFUSE the situation
  •  Teacher is explaining problem on p. 32; Ben refuses to open his book. Teacher asks students to sit down and complete worksheet. Jasmine and Toby remain out of seat talking. Teacher asks Satish to join the group and he glares at her and says, “make me.” Teacher asks Marcos to enter the room and he fiddles with his backpack, saunters to the fountain, and then enters the room.
  • Prerequisite Conditions Instruction is given by someone with recognized authority Following instructions is taught explicitly  Explicit and implicit instructions  Instruction following is acknowledged Students understand the direction Students must have skills to follow the instruction Tone of instruction delivery is positive Student attention is secured before delivery of direction
  • Steps to Defuse a Situation1. Assess the situation2. Maintain instruction3. Attend to students who are on-task4. Redirect students privately5. Focus on student decision-making6. Follow through7. Debrief
  • Assess the Situation Continue if behavior is not a threat to safety and is minimally disruptive Are prerequisites met?
  • Maintain Flow of Instruction
  • 3. Repeat Instruction Privately Rationale: Maybe student did not hear or understand instruction Private repetition  Ensure full attention of student  Student does not have audience
  • 4. Disengage Immediately after repeating instruction…  Withdraw and go to other students, acknowledge cooperation  Monitor student discreetly  Rationale  Staying with the student may result in a power struggle  Student focus is on teacher not the request
  • 4. Disengage Immediately after repeating instruction…  Withdraw and go to other students, acknowledge cooperation  Monitor student discreetly  Rationale  Staying with the student may result in a power struggle  Student focus is on teacher not the request
  • 5. Focus on Student DecisionMaking Goal: Deliver a planned response to avoid a power struggle  Steps1. Plan ahead for these moments2. Non-confrontational delivery3. Present request as a statement4. Follow through
  • 5. Focus on Student DecisionMaking1. Plan ahead for these moments  Review classroom management several times per year  Have several consequences “at your fingertips”  Examples: ODR, detention, loss of privilege2. Non-confrontational delivery  Maintain calmness and respect  Consider body language, tone of voice, and words
  • 5. Focus on Student DecisionMaking1. Plan ahead for these moments2. Non-confrontational delivery3. Request as a statement  Student learns that a decision must be made; follow request or face a consequence  Provide student time (1 min or less) to decide  Withdraw and attend to others
  •  Mia has not started working after having the instruction clarified privately. Ms. Johnson says, “Mia, I asked you to get started on your science worksheet. You need to get started or you will have to do it during break. You have a few seconds to decide.”(Ms. Johnson then moves toward other students)
  • 6. Follow Through Based onStudent’s Decision Possible outcomes1. Student follows request satisfactorily  Brief acknowledgement and continue lesson2. Student continues to be noncompliant  Deliver negative consequence3. Student tests limits  (most likely when student knows your procedure)  Student doesn’t comply until you state consequence  Critical: follow through with consequence!
  • 7. Debrief With Student Later Occurs after student is engaged and negative consequence has occurred Plan  Review events leading up to noncompliance  Review what student could have done differently  Encourage student to ask for help or what is needed to follow instructions
  • 7. Debrief With Student Later Occurs after student is engaged and negative consequence has occurred Plan Are there times when debriefing is contra-  Review events leading up indicated? to noncompliance  Review what student could have done differently  Encourage student to ask for help or what is needed to follow instructions
  • Repeated Instances ofSimilar Behavior Require anFBA and Support plan
  • Outcomes of a Functional BehaviorAssessment  Testablehypothesis  Function-based intervention
  • Testable hypothesisFocused on a functional routine Consists of observable behavior, antecedents, & consequences Relevant environmental features identified  Affect behavior  Can be altered
  • 45 Problem MaintainingTrigger Behavior Consequence
  • FBA leads to a BehaviorSupport Plan Support plan is a roadmap for how to:  Teach new skills  Adapt the setting  Adjust consequences for desired and undesired behavior Requirements  Strong hypothesis statement  Key players involved in decision-making
  • Components of a Support Plan Practices—what will occur to  Teach & reinforce appropriate behavior  Prevent inappropriate behavior  Minimize reinforcement of problem behavior Systems—what will be done to support implementation Measurement—how will outcomes be monitored?
  • Practices within an FBA
  • 49 Function- Based Support Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • 50 Function-Based Support Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Goal: Make problem behavior irrelevant
  • 51 Function-Based Intervention Desired Desired Behavior ConsequenceSetting Event Trigger Maintaining Consequence Replacement BehaviorGoal: Make appropriate behavior pay off
  • Reinforcers will “work”only if… It is something the student prefers/enjoys
  • Reinforcers will “work”only if… It is something the student prefers/enjoys Matching law
  • Skill-building interventions Goal:Increase pro-social behavior Considerations  Do you need to teach a new skill?  Consequences: Do you need to increase reinforcement for an existing skill?  Antecedents: Do you need to change the environment to evoke the desired behavior?
  • 55 Function-Based Support Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Goal: Make problem behavior ineffective
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • Obtain Teacher Attention Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Antecedent Interventions Neutralizingroutines Provide attention BEFORE problem occurs Increase supervision
  • Obtain Teacher Attention Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Incentive-Based Interventions Skill-building  Teach in target environment or program for generalization  Teach relevant skills  Ensure skill will pay off more often than problem behavior Incentives for desired behavior
  • Obtain Teacher Attention Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Obtain Teacher Attention Ignore???? Make consequence consistent
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 64 Obtain Peer Attention Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 66 Obtain Activities Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 68 Avoid Peers Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 70 Function- Based Support Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 72 Function- Based Support Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 74 Avoid Adults Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior
  • Multi-component InterventionsDepend on Function  Obtain  Teacher attention  Peer attention  Desired activities  Avoid  Peer attention  Adult attention  Activities/tasks  Sensory function
  • 76 Avoid Activities Desired Desired Behavior Consequence Problem MaintainingSetting Event Trigger Behavior Consequence Maintaining Consequence Replacement Behavior