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Cpe 2101 professional ethics 0911 Cpe 2101 professional ethics 0911 Document Transcript

  • CPE  2101      0911   Page  1    
  • Professional Ethics Table of Contents Overview / Learning Objectives Key Concept 1: What are ethics? Key Concept 2: What are some examples of ethical dilemmas? Key Concept 3: Are there ethical theories that provide background for moral behavior? Key Concept 4: How are ethics involved in problem solving? Key Concept 5: Can ethics help resolve conflict? Key Concept 6: Are there standardized codes of ethics that professionals can follow? Key Concept 7: How can ethics help professionals make decisions? Key Concept 8: Do ethics impact research and writing in technical fields? Key Concept 9: Can ethics impact business success? Key Concept 10: How can I apply good ethics in my day-to-day work? Summary Further Reading Knowledge Review Test Course DesignAll Centrestar Academy courses are designed in a consistent 10 concept learning format withfeatures to enhance and reinforce learning and conclude with an assessment to test knowledge.All courses are also aligned with a competency based model for leadership and professionaldevelopment. The model is a research-based framework comprised of 35 competencydimensions that have been found to be associated with successful performance in leadership andprofessional roles. The model is based on extensive research with both public and private sectororganizations and is aligned with other activities supported by the U.S. Department of Labor.The 35 competency dimensions are grouped into five domain clusters. All courses are anchoredto one of the five clusters to simplify locating appropriate courses to meet specific learner needs.Visit our Assessment area for additional information.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  2    
  •     Registered  Continuing  Education  Program  Centrestar,  Inc.  has  met  the  standards  and  requirements  of  the  Registered  Continuing  Education  Program.    Credit  earned  on  completion  of  this  program  will  be  reported  to  RCEP.  A  certificate  of  completion  will  be  issued  to  each  participant.  As  such,  it  does  not  include  content  that  may  be  deemed  or  construed  to  be  an  approval  or  endorsement  by  NCEES  or  RCEP.               Copyright  Materials  © 2011 Centrestar, Inc. All rights reserved.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  3    
  • Professional EthicsOverview“Action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics.” – Jane AddamsEthics are a type of guide that people use to ensure that their behavior is morally right. Often,ethical behavior is seen as something that benefits the greater good, helping people to behave inways that do not hurt others. Some might think that ethics apply only to religious life or socialissues, but the fact is that ethics should guide our behavior in everything we do, particularly inthe workplace. When it comes to technical fields such as engineering, information technologyand the like, ethics can provide a set of principles by which professionals can solve problems,handle conflict and perform most day-to-day activities.One aspect of ethics as relates to technology is that which one set of authors call “moralimagination” (Lau & Devon, 2001). This term refers to, "an ability to imaginatively discernvarious possibilities for acting in a given situation and to envision the potential help and harmthat are likely to result from a given action" (Lau & Devon). Specifically, moral imaginationinvolves the ability to imagine possibilities and picture the potential consequences, as well as theCPE  2101      0911   Page  4    
  • ability to morally evaluate these possible outcomes and the impact they will have. The idea hereis to recognize that decisions which seem to be very cut and dry actually have moral implicationswhich need to be considered.All people have a responsibility to behave in ethical ways. For professionals this means workingto create solutions that benefit people and society, and implementing those ideas in an ethicalway.The purpose of this ethics course is to expand your skills and knowledge relevant to professionalpractice. This course will explain the value of ethics in technological and other professionalfields, showing the dangers of unethical behavior and the business benefits of ethical behavior.At the end of this course you should be able to: • Understand what ethics refers to. • Recognize the dangers that unethical behavior can cause. • Internalize the value of ethics in a profitable organization. • Recognize the moral responsibilities inherent in design and implementation. • Understand how to use ethical thinking in day-to-day work.By design, this course is expected to take approximately 4 hours to fully complete. The course issegmented into ten concept modules each with readings, reinforcing concept and a scenarioquestion designed to provide foundational knowledge on the topic. However, many of theconcept modules also include additional videos or readings designed to enhance learning of theconcepts. While these readings and videos may add an additional 3-10 minutes work per concept,the student is highly encouraged to take advantage of these opportunities for additional learning.A listing of recommended books for further reading is also included at the conclusion of thecourse along with a 20 question post review quiz which you may take as many times as you wishto achieve complete mastery of the course material. An interactive weblog or forum isincorporated into the website design for you to share your thoughts regarding additionalresources for expanding skills and knowledge relevant to professional practice.CPE  2101      0911   Page  5    
  • Key Concept 1.What are ethics?Dictionary.com defines ethics as “a system of moral principles”. This leaves the idea somewhatopen to interpretation, as one can then wonder, what is moral? This is defined as, “pertaining tothe principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction between right and wrong.” Thesedefinitions are interesting, yet a bit vague. Thus, it is sometimes easier to define ethics by firstlooking at what ethics are not, and considering some examples.Many people equate ethics with how they feel about something, but ethics is not necessarily amatter of feeling; often people behave in a way they know to be wrong, or recoil from behavingin a way they know to be morally right (Velasquez et al, 1987). Neither is ethics a matter ofreligion, as some believe. Certainly many religions preach high moral standards, but if ethicswere confined to religion then they would apply only to religious people, which they do not(Velasquez et al).Similarly, ethics is not simply the following of guidelines or laws. While such rules often areethically founded, they can sometimes deviate from what is ethical (Velasquez et al); slavery andapartheid are such examples. Furthermore, ethics is not simply doing what is socially acceptable(Velasquez et al).CPE  2101      0911   Page  6    
  • To understand the importance of ethics it is necessary to know the following about whatethics are and what they are not (Velasquez): • Ethics is not simply doing what is socially acceptable; in some situations what is socially acceptable can actually contradict good ethics. One such example is Nazi Germany. • Social acceptability is also not necessarily an indicator of ethics because this implies that one must know what a society accepts in order to act ethically. Thus, in order to know what was ethical one would need to survey all the people in a society; people do not do this. The varied feelings about abortion is one such example. • One part of ethics refers to an unwritten code of standards steeped in history, which prescribe what behavior is right and wrong. Examples include standards against stealing, rape and murder. • The other part of ethics refers to one studying and defining their own ethical standards. Because ethical actions are not black and white or clearly defined it is important to constantly evaluate one’s own standards as far as personal actions and professional practice, ensuring that they are reasonable and well founded. ü Ethics involve two parts: a general set of standards that are universally accepted as ethical, and the continuous re-evaluation of your own personal ethical standards. Watch the following brief video which shows a variety of people defining ethics, illustrating the complexity of ethics. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on the definition of ethics and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Watch the following video: What is ethics? (2008). Available at, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8Morirr8bQ&feature=relatedCPE  2101      0911   Page  7    
  • You are taking a work training class on the history of ethics. Which of the following is an example of why ethics are NOT about what is socially acceptable? ___ A. The Challenger Disaster. ___B. Professional code of ethics. ___C. Nazi Germany. ___D. Abortion. ___E. None of the above demonstrates why ethics are not about what is socially acceptable. The answer is C. Ethics is not simply doing what is socially acceptable; in some situations what is socially acceptable can actually contradict good ethics. One such example is Nazi Germany.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  8    
  • Key Concept 2.What are some examples of ethical dilemmas?Ethics help us to guide decisions that we make every day. They inform our opinions about issueslike gun control and the death penalty, impact our voting choices and political views, andinfluence where we live, who we associate with and what schools we send our children to. Whatyou may not realize is that ethics and values also influence our work activities in a variety ofways, in situations large and small.In addition to the importance of individual’s ethical values, the ethics of a company as a wholeare important as well. An organization’s ethics set the tone for how the employees will behave.The ethical behavior of the employees then impacts how customers see the company.Every day companies and individuals within the company make decisions steeped in ethics.Sometimes poor ethical decisions can result in untold tragedy. Other times, they simply causemundane issues to develop. But large or small, inappropriate actions caused by poor ethicaljudgment can create many problems in businesses, small and large.To understand the potential impact of ethical decisions, read the following brief examples: 1. Retaining wall (Kardon, 1999): One relatively innocent example involves structural engineer working on designing a retaining wall. This engineer was working with a subcontractor who chose a proprietary retaining wall system, made of precast concrete modules. The structural engineer had never worked with this product design before. Thus, when the vendor provided the engineer with sample calculations for finalizing the design, the engineer used the calculations. Unfortunately, the engineer did not check theCPE  2101      0911   Page  9    
  • calculations – which had errors. Shortly after completion, the wall collapsed under heavy rain. A forensic engineer evaluated the work and found the mathematical errors when he developed his own calculations. He called the original structural engineer negligent, saying that he used “canned” calculations without understanding their application and verifying them. In short, no engineer is expected to be perfect, however, they are expected to exercise reasonable care; this engineer did not. Fortunately, this resulted in only a financial loss. 2. Reverse engineering (Wallberg, 2007): A common ethical issue in engineering and technology is that of reverse engineering. In this example, one software company was working on developing a new type of computer disc reader. In doing so, they wanted to ensure that their reader could read a variety of discs, including a special disc type from another company. Thus, the software company used reverse engineering to determine how the other company’s disc worked, then to ensure their reader was compatible. Of course, the disc company was not pleased. While they agreed that reverse engineering is an acceptable engineering practice, they felt that the company was behaving unethically, specifically in how they were labeling their product. The topic is not cut and dry and no definitive resolution can be given. But the story does illustrate that ethics is not black and white, but rather consists of many shades of gray.   3. Space shuttle (Snarski, 2011): A very serious examples comes when on January 28, 1986, NASA made the decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger, despite reservations voiced by engineers as to the ability of the o-rings to function properly in the cold temperatures projected for the launch. Just seconds after launch the o-rings failed and the shuttle exploded, killing the entire crew and shocking the nation. While there were many factors that contributed to the loss of Challenger, problematic communications between engineers and management played a major role. The situation illustrates two problems – the unwillingness of management to listen to their engineers, and the inability of the engineers to push an important point to the forefront. There is no one person, or even one group, to blame for the shuttle disaster. Rather, there were various incidents of inadequate communications as well as a lack of receptiveness on the part of the management, which illustrates seriously poor ethics. A climate existed that made postponing the launch a negative decision, and thus closed the minds of the Marshall Space Flight Center management to various issues that were presented. ü Ethics involve some large scale problems and dilemmas, relating to major world events such as the Holocaust, Challenger disaster, and 911. Imagine how these events might have been different if the people involved had different ethics. ü Ethics can also involve more mundane, but very important, daily decisions. It is important to remember that technical professionals should always exercise good judgment, considering how their work will impact others.CPE  2101      0911   Page  10    
  • Review the following 18 slide presentation on the ethical issues of NASA’s Challenger disaster. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on ethical disasters and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Review the following: Challenger disaster: Ethics and communications. (n.d.). Available at, http://www.engr.msstate.edu/current_students/technical_communications_program/tc p/barton/Challenger_Disaster.pdf Some ethical dilemmas and situations can be life changing and of global import. Others can simply be part of day-to-day professional life, yet still very important. One example of poor ethics caused the challenger disaster. What can you learn from this disaster? ___ A. Communications is a two way street; one must provide information but also be willing to listen. ___B. No one person was responsible for this disaster, but the culture of the organization overall lead to poor decisions. ___C. The inability of engineers to communicate effectively contributed to the disaster. ___D. None of the above are true. ___E. All of the above are true. The answer is E. There is no one person, or even one group, to blame for the shuttle disaster. Rather, there were various incidents of inadequate communications as well as a lack of receptiveness on the part of the management, which illustrates seriously poor ethics. A climate existed that made postponing the launch a negative decision, and thus closed the minds of the Marshall Space Flight Center management to various issues that were presented.CPE  2101      0911   Page  11    
  • Key Concept 3.Are there ethical theories that provide background for moralbehavior?  As we have said, ethics is not something that is cut and dry. There is no definitive list to tell usthat this is right and this is wrong. Neither are ethics simply about feelings. Rather, ethics evolvewithin humans as a whole and within individuals, stemming from a combination of globalvalues, regional thoughts and personal understandings.While ethics are not black and white or easy to quantify, there are a number of theories ofdeveloping ethics that can help us to understand how ethics are derived and applied. Some ofthese theories may seem a bit esoteric, like something created by ancient philosophers meantonly for religious zealots or thespians, however that is truly not the case. As we have mentioned,a strong ethical system requires that a person constantly evaluate their ethics, comparing theirown thoughts, actions and behaviors against their ethical values. Understanding somefoundational theory can help you do this.Most ethical situations involve an agent (you) who performs action, which then lead to certainconsequences. Exercising good ethics requires contemplation of potential consequences and thustaking actions which you can reasonably expect to lead to positive consequences (PSCE, n.d.).CPE  2101      0911   Page  12    
  • In order to truly understand where ethics come from, and to be prepared to continuallyevaluate your own ethical principles, it can be valuable to understand some basic ethicaltheories, as follow (PSCE, n.d.): • Deontological theory: Deontological theory looks at actions, attempting to determine whether an action is right or wrong. • Consequentialist theory: Consequentialist theory looks at the external result of an action – the consequence. This theory is commonly used in engineering, particularly in the form of cost-benefit analysis. It is a way of saying that “the end justifies the means.” • Utilitarianism is one theme of consequentialist theory: Utilitarianism looks at a situation and considers how it will impact everyone involved and which actions will produce the greatest good for the most human beings. • Altruism is another theme of consequentialist theory: Altruism asserts that all actions should benefit others, whether it benefits individuals or society as a whole. • Egoism is another theme of consequentialist theory: Egoism asserts that actions should benefit oneself. • Deontological theory: Deontological theory looks more at actions and the intention behind the action, asserting that some actions are inherently wrong and simply cannot be justified, even by predicting a positive outcome. • Deontological theory has a few basic principles and ideals: Among these ideals are that one should always act in a way that seems in accordance with universal ethics, always treat all people as an end (never a means), and the Golden Rule (do unto others as you would have them do unto you). • Virtue theory: Virtue theory focuses on the agent – you. With this theory, ethics require the development of good habits for a lifetime. These virtues provide strength of character. ü There are some problems with consequentialist theory: The application of consequentalist theory can be limited because consequences can be difficult to predict, it can tend to reduce ethics to economics, there is no weight given to life other than humans, and a good consequence does not always mean that the means were morally acceptable. ü Deontological theory has some limitations: Among the limitations of deontological theory are that it can be challenging to form intentions into a rule and then test them globally, it is difficult to know one’s intentions, it leaves no role for emotions, common sense tells us that sometimes consequences do matter, and there is no concern in the principle for non-human life. ü Virtue theory has some limitations: Limitations of virtue theory include that the idea of virtues is too loosely defined to really guide challenging decisions, it defines virtue inCPE  2101      0911   Page  13    
  • terms of society making the application not global enough, and there is no regard for non- human life. ü Most ethical situations involve an agent (you) who performs action, which then lead to certain consequences. Exercising good ethics requires contemplation of potential consequences and thus taking actions which you can reasonably expect to lead to positive consequences (PSCE, n.d.). Read the following brief paper from an aerospace college that introduces some ethical theories. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on ethical theories and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Read the following: Ethical theories. (n.d.). Available at, http://aerostudents.com/files/ethics/ethicalTheories.pdf If you are working with a person who you believe is behaving unethically and simply has questionable moral character, which theory of ethics are of most concern to you? ___ A. Consequentialist theory. ___B. Deontological theory. ___C. Virtue theory. ___D. Utilitarian theory. ___E. None of the above. The answer is C. Virtue theory focuses on the agent, the person. With this theory, ethics require the development of good habits for a lifetime. These virtues provide strength of character.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  14    
  • Key Concept 4.How are ethics involved in problem solving?  Ethics are a necessary part of creation, development and problem solving. Ethics should beemployed in early stages of project design, leaving technical professionals to ask what creationsare beneficial to people and society and what the consequence of creating various things mightbe. Ethics tell us that there are certain world issues that we should solve, and help to pave a roadtowards applying our knowledge in a way that can benefit mankind.The application of good ethics requires that we be able to imagine the consequences of ouractions. However, ethics are not all about limitations. Good ethics can add to our imagination,giving us the ability to envision new possibilities and solutions (Lau, 2001). Having good ethicscan help one in solving many problems in personal life and the workplace. Ethics can help us togain a higher awareness of our situation, looking at how the context of where we are might beinfluencing ethical ideals and behaviors (Lau, 2001). For example, had scientists and soldiers inNazi Germany had the knowledge and strength to step back and examine the ethicalrepercussions of what they were being told to do, perhaps things could have been stoppedsooner.A positive example of ethical problem solving and moral imagination comes from Shanghai(Lau, 2001). A manufacturing building was being developed. Conventional design called for a 95hp pump. The engineer, recognizing the assumptions in the design process and considering theimpact of the design on energy requirements, resource use and pollution, redesigned the systemto use a 7 hp pump – a 92% reduction. The redesign worked perfectly. With a little extra effortand thought, this engineer developed a new system that had all the benefits of the old system, butwas also more environmentally and economically sound. Similar situations might be moreCPE  2101      0911   Page  15    
  • difficult, perhaps if the revised system were going to cost more money or provide otherchallenges. Using ethical decision making can help one to weigh the variables in such a problem.When considering a problem use ethics to help solve it, asking yourself the followingquestions and understanding the related concepts (Velasquez, et al, 1996): • Ask yourself: What benefits and what harms will each course of action produce, and which alternative will lead to the best overall consequences? • Ask yourself: What moral rights do the affected parties have, and which course of action best respects those rights? • Ask yourself: Which course of action treats everyone the same, except where there is a morally justifiable reason not to, and does not show favoritism or discrimination? • Ask yourself: Which course of action advances the common good? • Ask yourself: Which course of action develops moral virtues? • Understand that these questions do not provide an automatic solution to work problems, but can help you to identify the most important ethical concerns inherent to a problem. ü Most ethical situations involve an agent (you) who performs action, which then lead to certain consequences. Exercising good ethics requires contemplation of potential consequences and thus taking actions which you can reasonably expect to lead to positive consequences (PSCE, n.d.). ü Ethics can be complicated; they are not simply about doing what is socially acceptable, religiously advocated or a means to an end. ü Ethical problem solving is a complicated issue. When all is said and done it is up to you to contemplate ethic issues for yourself, considering the facts, ethical situations and potential consequences keenly in your mind. Read the following list of six steps to ethical problem solving. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on ethical problem solving and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Read the following: Reamer, F. & Patrick, A. (1995). Essential steps for ethical problem solving. Available at, http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/oepr/steps.aspCPE  2101      0911   Page  16    
  • Imagine that you saw a coworker copying company owned software to their own personal laptop. Which of the following questions would help you decide on a course of action? ___ A. What benefits and what harms will each course of action produce, and which alternative will lead to the best overall consequences? ___B. What moral rights do the affected parties have, and which course of action best respects those rights? ___C. Which course of action develops moral virtues? ___D. Which course of action advances the common good? ___E. All of the above. The answer is E. All of these questions can help you make a decision. You can also ask, “Which course of action treats everyone the same, except where there is a morally justifiable reason not to, and does not show favoritism or discrimination?”    CPE  2101      0911   Page  17    
  • Key Concept 5.Can ethics help resolve conflict?Like many things in life, ethics is a two way street. Even if you behave in an ethicallyimpeccable way, conflict is likely to arise occasionally. And, if you behave in unethical waysconflict is likely to arrive frequently. Ethics on the job with technical professionals can involve avariety of issues from quandaries about the legal and moral implications of reverse engineeringto the taking of trade secrets when moving from one job to another. Job related ethical conflictscan arise in much smaller ways, as well.Conflicts in the workplace are impossible to avoid. However, if we understand human nature,and behave in accordance with ethical guidelines, conflict can be resolved. While every person isdifferent from others in some ways, it is also true that most humans share a core set of basicethical values. Furthermore, most people (regardless of race, gender, or other demographics)share a few other basic human traits (Staneart, n.d.). Specifically, most people hate to bedisagreed with, yet love to be agreed with. Most people form a dislike for people who disagreewith them, yet like people who agree with them.Given the above knowledge, it is not surprising to know that people who are good at resolvingconflict often begin by looking for areas of agreement between the parties (Staneart). So, tobecome better conflict resolvers ourselves it is wise to work on our soft skills, those people skillssuch as communication.Use the following seven tips to help avoid, and resolve, conflict in your workplace(Staneart, n.d.): 1) Be proactive, not reactive: Make good plans and allow them to shape ethical decisions. 2) Be slow to anger:CPE  2101      0911   Page  18    
  • Anger is often more detrimental to resolution that the initial problem which caused the conflict. This is particularly true in small conflicts. 3) Be subtle, when possible: Avoid telling people that they are wrong. Instead, try to find subtle ways to point out a mistake indirectly. Asking clarifying questions that cause the person to see their own mistake can work well. Also, try to make problems about the action, not the person. 4) Find common ground: Always try to find a place of agreement in every conflict situation. Finding something you can both agree on is an important step in working towards a solution somewhere in the middle. 5) Admit when you are wrong: Admitting your own mistake early can stop damage caused before it gets too deep and can help you feel less embarrassed. As one saying goes, “It is easier to eat crow while it is still warm.” 6) Admit your own fallibility before pointing out flaws in others: Not only is it important to own up to your own mistakes, but it is important to learn from those mistakes. Also, showing others that you have made, and recognized, mistakes can make it easier for them to point out their own errors. 7) Mend fences whenever you can: Try to repair damaged relationship. It is always better to have more friends than enemies. As the saying goes, “never burn bridges” for you do not know what you may need them. ü Being “right” does not get a problem solved. ü Admitting culpability is easier when done as soon as possible. Watch the following video to see some applications for using ethics to solve conflict in the workplace, practices which can be applied directly in your work. If you have problems with this video link, conduct a search on your own for examples of workplace conflict resolution and see what new concepts you can find! Watch the following video: Mediation Training – Workplace Conflict. (2010). Available from, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ESt6lLeca0CPE  2101      0911   Page  19    
  • A coworker asks you to collaborate on a document. You do so, then later learn that the coworker presented the materials to management, who loved it, without giving you credit. What should you do? ___ A. Do not get angry. ___B. Talk to the coworker and give them a chance to admit their mistake. ___C. Find common ground with the coworker; get them to admit that when people collaborate both deserve credit. ___D. All of the above are true. ___E. None of the above are true. The answer is D. To become better conflict resolvers ourselves it is wise to work on our soft skills, those people skills such as communication.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  20    
  • Key Concept 6.Are there standardized codes of ethics that professionals can follow?While all people have an unspoken duty to behave in ways that are ethical, engineers and othertechnical professionals have some specific obligations due to their unique station in life.Professionals have an obligation to exercise a certain standard of care consistent with otherprofessionals of their stature. While no professional is required to be perfect, they are expected touphold high ethical standards and make every good faith effort to provide good services.Technical professionals should also use ethics in their decision making, problem solving andconflict resolution. An ethical professional exhibits moral behavior in all that he/she does,serving as a role model to others.To ensure the ethical behaviors of technical professionals such as engineers, variousorganizations have developed their own code of ethics. Often, individual companies will rely onthese codes, though some may develop their own codes, more specific to common concerns intheir individual field.To be ethical in professional fields it is important to understand the ethical codes thatgovern such practice. Following are highlights of some codes that may be pertinent to you,as a technical professional: • According to the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), engineering has a direct and important impact on human life, affecting quality and safety. Thus, in their daily work engineers must demonstrate the highest level of honesty and integrity. • The National Society of Professional Engineers requires engineers to behave in a way that is honest, impartial, fair and expresses equality. Engineers should be dedicated to public health, safety and welfare. • The National Society of Professional Engineers holds dear six principles of behavior, specifically that engineers must: 1) Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2) Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3) Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4) Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5) Avoid deceptive acts.CPE  2101      0911   Page  21    
  • 6) Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession. • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has their own code of ethics designed to foster awareness of ethical issues, encourage ethical behavior amongst others in their field, and create a professional environment where engineers, scientists and other technical professionals are respected for their highly ethical behavior. • The IEEE code of ethics requires its members to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment. • The IEE code of ethics encourages its members to avoid conflicts of interest, reject bribery, make only accurate claims, maintain technical competence and treat others with respect. ü All people have a responsibility to behave in ethical ways. For technical professionals behaving ethically involves working to create solutions that benefit society and individuals, and implementing those ideas in ethical ways. ü Ethics involve an unwritten code of standards steeped in history, which prescribe what behavior is right and wrong. Examples include standards against stealing, rape and murder. But they also involve individual values and sometimes professional standards. ü Because ethical actions are not black and white or clearly defined it is important to constantly evaluate your own standards of professional practice, ensuring that they are reasonable and well founded. Review the following two websites from IEEE and the NSPE. If you have problems with these links, conduct a web search on professional codes of ethics and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Review the following two websites: IEEE. (n.d.). IEEE ethics and member conduct. Retrieved from, http://www.ieee.org/about/ethics/index.html National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE). (n.d.). NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. Retrieved from, http://www.nspe.org/Ethics/CodeofEthics/index.htmlCPE  2101      0911   Page  22    
  • You are a certified engineer. While working on designing a construction project, you learn that there is a structural insufficiency. Which of the following codes provides explicit warnings against such problems? ___ A. IEEE ___B. NSPE ___C. Your own ethics ___D. All of the above are true. ___E. None of the above are true. The answer is D. The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) holds paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. IEEE requires its members to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Your own ethics should match this as well.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  23    
  • Key Concept 7.How can ethics help professionals make decisions?Ethics are an important part of many areas of technical practice. Ethics can help one resolveconflict and solve problems. But ethics can also be used proactively to help with makingdecisions.To make a decision you must first analyze the situation. This can involve asking a variety ofquestions (PSCE, n.d.). Factual questions can help identify the hard facts and locate anydiscrepancies. They can also help you determine what facts are relevant to the problem.Conceptual questions seek to determine the meaning of a term, concept or idea. It can help youensure that how you are defining a problem is consistent with how others define it. Ethicalquestions can help you decide how to evaluate an action or a person. Ethical questions can helpwith conflict problems, where it seems challenging to meet all moral obligations. Ethicalquestions can also help with line-drawing problems, where an issue seems to fall in the middle ofclearly drawn right and wrong sides.Decision making is sometimes relatively easy, where the ethical obligations are clearly seen(PSCE, n.d.). Sometimes, though, even relatively easy decisions can be difficult to carry out.Some decisions are moderately difficult to make, as they may require one to honor variousobligations or codes, or require some level of compromise. Other decisions are very difficult,involving competing obligations and very fuzzy ethics.Ethics can help inform your decision making process if you follow these nine guidelines forfacilitating solutions (PSCE, n.d.): 1) Get the facts:CPE  2101      0911   Page  24    
  • Determine all of the facts of the situation, obtaining unbiased information whenever possible. 2) Identify stakeholders: Define who the stakeholders are (those who have reason to care about the outcome) for all concerns. 3) Understand stakeholder motivation: Use effective communication techniques and your own personality assessments to understand what is motivating each stakeholder and what they are looking to achieve. 4) Create alternatives: Using the most complete information available, formulate as many alternative solutions as possible. Use basic ethics as a guide. 5) Evaluate potential alternatives: Evaluate all of the potential solutions that are raised, immediately rejecting any that are not ethical. Ensure your final choice is between only ethical solutions. 6) Get help, if necessary: You can often get assistance from engineering codes of ethics, previous similar situations, experienced co-workers, etc. 7) Choose action: Select the best course of action, one which satisfies the highest core ethical values. 8) Implement: Implement the chosen solution, taking any necessary action. 9) Monitor outcome: Monitor and assess the outcome of your actions, considering how the process and decision might be improved in future situations. ü Always begin decision making by getting the facts. ü When making decisions, be sure to consider all stakeholders, as well as their motives. ü After you implement a decision, always monitor the results to learn for the future. Read the following nine steps in ethical decision making. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on ethics in decision making and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Read the following: Penn State College of Engineering (PSCE). (n.d.). Decisions processes. Retrieved from, http://www.engr.psu.edu/ethics/process1.aspCPE  2101      0911   Page  25    
  • You just finished leading your first team project. Things went well; a few conflicts and problems arose, but you used ethics to solve them. Now what do you do? ___ A. Assess the needs of the stakeholders. ___B. Look for clues to what you did wrong. ___C. Throw a party for your team. ___D. Monitor the outcome. ___E. Get a new job since you now have leadership skills. The answer is D. Monitor and assess the outcome of your actions, considering how the process and decision might be improved in future situations.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  26    
  • Key Concept 8.Do ethics impact research and writing in technical fields?Engineers and technical professionals are called upon to communicate every day. Wecommunicate with customers, employees and coworkers, and sometimes we communicate theresults of our work and research. Particularly when communicating our work progress or ideas itis important to do so in an ethical way, in order to appear credible. It is important to note thatscientific research and development is built upon trust (Whitbeck, 1995); technical professionalstrust their fellow professionals to research and develop ideas and products in ways that aresound, true and ethical. Communications, specifically write up research results or otherdocuments, requires strong attention to ethics.Effective technical professionals are often called upon to write documents reporting their actionsor to perform research and write up their findings (Snarski, 2011). Thus, it is important that alltechnical professionals know how to communicate effectively and ethically. Effectiveness inwriting depends upon the ability of the writer to convince the reader that what they are reading isworthy of their attention – that it is credible. Your readers will be more likely swayed to yourpoint of view if they perceive you as a credible source of information. Credibility comes fromshowing good ethics.Projecting ethical credibility in writing is sometimes done explicitly, by actually telling thereader why the writing, or more specifically the writer, is credible (Snarski, 2011). Credibilityand ethics can also be illustrated indirectly, simply through writing in a way that is engaging,professional, accurate, and when necessary, objective, as well as firm (Snarski). A writer doesthis through the use of proper format, strong grammar and vocabulary, solid writing style andciting references. It is a matter of showing, rather than telling – simply appear credible and youare more likely to be viewed as credible.CPE  2101      0911   Page  27    
  • To ensure credibility in your research and writing remember the following (Snarski, 2011): • Using proper grammar, punctuation and sentence structure are ways that you give an impression of credibility. • Ethics are very important in writing professionally. It is important that you are ethical in the information you convey, both in its accuracy and in giving credit where credit is due. When you write it is important that you give proper credit to those whose work you borrow, whether you are paraphrasing or quoting. • Throughout life we are called upon to write in many different forms. Often, particularly in academic and professional writing, we use reference material to learn from before writing, and to support the position that we are presenting. Using information gleaned from other sources is an excellent, and often necessary, way to add to the credibility of our writing. However, it’s imperative that we always give proper credit to those that created the information that we use. • Credibility can be more than perception; it can also be an ethical issue. How we present ourselves and deal with situations can impact how we are perceived by others, and thus, how we are treated and what opportunities are open to us. In a business setting, ethical concerns can arise in many different contexts. • Ethics and business do not always go hand-in-hand. Behaving in an ethical way is not always easy, and does not always bring a happy ending. That is not to say that one should change his/her behavior, rather to illustrate that ethics in the business world is a tangled web, and that each decision that we face on a day-to-day basis must be carefully considered. • Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics. According to Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, to plagiarize is defined as, "To steal or purloin from the writings of another; to appropriate without due acknowledgement (the ideas or expressions of another)." Essentially, plagiarism is taking the words or ideas of another person, whether taken from his/her writing or spoken word, and to use that information without giving proper credit to the originator. • Plagiarism is wrong on many levels, both legally and morally. Plagiarism is essentially stealing and lying. Plagiarism not only cheats the person whose ideas were stolen, but it also cheats the author, who is not learning through his/her work; it cheats coworkers who are doing their own work; and it cheats the business, who trusts the employee to do his/her own work. ü Most of us realize that completely copying and pasting from Web sites or books is not a legitimate way to write any type of document. We also realize that it is wrong to have others do our work then take the credit. But even for those with the best of intentions – those who want to learn and add to literature in the field – the partial use of small bits of information without giving credit can seem acceptable. It’s not (Snarski, 2011). ü Not all plagiarism is malicious. Often, good people who did not set intend to steal anyone’s ideas accidentally plagiarize. Plagiarism is not always as clear as copying others’ work word for word or failing to give credit. Sometimes we change wordsCPE  2101      0911   Page  28    
  • slightly, or we do give credit to some extent, but the writing is still a form of plagiarism. This happens when we give credit in an improper or unclear way, or when we take too much information directly from a source, so much so that the work is not ours in any substantial way (Snarski).   Read the first three sections of the following article about ethics in research. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on ethics in research and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Read the following: Whitbeck, C. (1995). Truth and trustworthiness in research. Available at, http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/RespResearch/ResEssays/cw2.aspx   A coworker has just written a white paper or other technical documentation. Before submitting it to the boss, she asks you to review it. As you read, some of it sounds familiar. You do some looking around and find that a full page of text was copied from a popular technical website. This is an example of what? ___ A. Poor ethics. ___B. Plagiarism. ___C. An ethical dilemma. ___D. All of the above. ___E. None of the above. The answer is D. Plagiarism involves using someone else’s work or words without citing it and giving them credit. It shows poor ethics and now leaves you in an ethical dilemma of what to do.  CPE  2101      0911   Page  29    
  • Concept 9.Can ethics impact business success?We live in an ultra-competitive world today and this is particularly true of business. In theUnited States small businesses fail every day, and even large corporations are often forced byexcessive competition to close locations and tighten their global presence. This means that everybusiness, small and large, needs to be constantly looking for ways to satisfy customers and builda strong platform of success.Building this platform of success requires more than just technical skills and a good product; itrequires a good reputation and the ability to maintain a solid workforce. In light of recentquestionable individual and corporate ethics that have splattered the media, people are examiningthe behaviors of the companies that serve them more than ever before. Customers, businesspartners and employees are requiring more accountability, more transparency and more ethicalbehavior than we have previously required.Thus, today business ethics are at the forefront of every successful business. This means that theleadership and employees within a business must hold high ethical standards and live up to thesestandards. It also means that the company itself must promote an environment of ethicalbehavior.Following are a few specific details of how good ethics make good business sense: • Operating ethically can create improved productivity and profitability.CPE  2101      0911   Page  30    
  • • Ethical operations improve employee morale, enhance recruitment of stellar employees and improve retention. • A company that operates ethically has a good reputation and is more apt to experience long-term success. • Conflict of interest can be a serious detriment to ethical credibility. Conflict of interest can cause division within a company, which can lead to corruption. • Conflict of interest can be real or perceived, and either can be just as damaging. Even the perception of a conflict of interest on the part of a company, leader or individual can wreak havoc on the reputation of a company. • Ethical conflict can cause staff to become distracted, which can lower productivity and increase costs. • A lack of clear ethical guidelines in a corporation can give rise to confusion and eventually to bickering and even resentment. • Ethics must extend across political boarders. Good ethics are universal; just because something distasteful is common practice in one country does not give a company or individual free reign to engage in unethical behavior. ü Time and again research has shown that consumers, and business-to-business customers, would rather do business with an ethical company (BBB, n.d.). ü Research has proven that people prefer to do business with companies that clearly show honesty, fairness and trustworthiness (BBB). ü Unethical behavior can lead to disruption in the workplace and lost productivity (BBB). Visit the following link to read more about how ethics can be applied directly in your work. If you have problems with this link, conduct a search on your own for websites and organizations that cover principles of ethics and how they make business sense and see what new concepts you can find! Read the following article: Johnson, A. (2008). Practicing good ethics gives competitive advantage. Available from, http://www.bizjournals.com/denver/stories/2008/03/03/smallb6.htmlCPE  2101      0911   Page  31    
  • You are on a project that takes you across borders into another country. In this country, bribery is common place. Which of the following is NOT true? ___ A. Good ethics are universal. ___B. When in Rome, do as the Roman’s due. So, if bribery is common, you must use it. ___C. Good ethics make good business sense. ___D. Good ethics lead to a strong public image. ___E. All of the above are true. The answer is B. Ethics are universal and they make good business sense. Most people prefer to work with a company that is ethical. Losing a little business now could pay off in the long run.        CPE  2101      0911   Page  32    
  • Key Concept 10.How can I apply good ethics in my day-to-day work?Ethics guide us in many aspects of our personal lives, helping us make daily decisions and formour own belief systems. But ethics apply equally to the workplace. Good business ethics makegood business sense, as most people prefer to work with companies and people whom theybelieve to be ethical.Ethical businesses must have a culture of awareness, one where the individuals within thecompany continually re-evaluate their own ethics and have a firm knowledge of the company’svalues and mission. Good ethics in an organization require ethical behavior modeling from thetop down, as well as training and a process for dealing with ethical problems that arise.Ethics are not limited to what goes on inside a company building. Ethics must extend to allleadership and employees, but also to how a company and its people work with their clients andother businesses. Good ethics extend across time and geographical boarders.Following are some guidelines for ethical behavior in your daily professional life: • Ethics for engineers and technical professionals involve two general areas: 1) creating solutions that benefit people, and 2) implementing those solutions in ethical ways. • You should always behave in a way that you believe is ethical, modeling that behavior for others and expecting such behavior from those you supervise. • Understand how you can use ethics to enhance your problem solving and help resolve conflict. • Recognize that “the end does not justify the means,” and that ethical behavior must be observed throughout any creation project.CPE  2101      0911   Page  33    
  • • Recognize that, as a technical professional, it is your duty to develop projects that add to the great good. • Ensure your workplace has a code of conduct and other guidelines for ethical values. • Know your company’s policy for reporting ethical problems or receiving help with ethical dilemmas. • Work to promote a culture of company-wide ethics. • Work with your company to ensure they provide ethics training which can enhance the awareness of ethical issues in your company and prepare employees to deal with such issues. • If you are aware of an ethical issue in your company, involve management early. • Have a clear understanding of any ethical values inherent to organizations that you are a part of. • Be aware of ethical values of yourself and company as relates to business issues such as trade secret and reverse engineering. ü Ethics involve two parts: a general set of standards that are universally accepted as ethical, and the continuous re-evaluation of your own personal ethical standards. ü Ethics involve some large scale problems and dilemmas, relating to major world events such as the Holocaust, Challenger disaster, and 911. However, ethics can also involve more mundane, but very important, daily decisions. It is important to remember that technical professionals should always exercise good judgment, considering how their work will impact others. Watch the following brief video which highlights some potential ethical issues in the workplace. If you have problems with this link, conduct a web search on promoting work ethics and see what interesting tips you can find. Share interesting resources that you find, or see what others have dug up, by visiting our interactive learning forum. Watch the following video: Ethics in the workplace. (2010). Available at, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mUxMpMTT28CPE  2101      0911   Page  34    
  • What is your role in ensuring ethics within your field and your organization? ___ A. Practice good ethics. ___B. Continually re-evaluate your own ethics. ___C. Be an ethical role model. ___D. Encourage your company to develop an ethical policy. ___E. All of the above are true. The answer is E. Ethical businesses must have a culture of awareness, one where the individuals within the company continually re-evaluate their own ethics and have a firm knowledge of the company’s values and mission. Good ethics in an organization require ethical behavior modeling from the top down, as well as training and a process for dealing with ethical problems that arise.      CPE  2101      0911   Page  35    
  • SummaryGood ethics should be a regular part of all work activities.Ethical decision making and behaviors are necessary in all parts of life, especially in the modernworkplace. Every professional has a responsibility to adhere to general ethics as well as anyethical standards specific to their field or organization. They should also be sure to continuouslyevaluate their own ethical standards, practices and actions, ensuring that they continually behavein a positive, ethical way. The responsibility of a professional goes far beyond simply designing,building, or providing services. Professionals must develop and implement products or servicesin ethical ways, considering the repercussions of their creations and the impact it will have onindividuals and society.It is also important to remember that ethics must have a strong influence on research and writing.Ethics is an important part of writing, research and all forms of self presentation because itenhances credibility (Snarski, 2011). Credibility is important particularly when one iscommunicating with an audience, trying to sway them to a certain point of view or a certain wayof thinking. A main way that we prove we are credible is simply to be reliable, ethical andcredible. Double-check your information. Verify, verify, verify. And when you are sure that yourinformation is correct, present it in such a way that you instill confidence in the audience, thatthey listen to your suggestions because you sound like you are knowledgeable and present yourevidence ethically (Snarski).CPE  2101      0911   Page  36    
  • Ethical behavior should happen every day. From how you communicate to how you behave,ethics are how you show the world that you are dependable and credible. Good ethical behaviorenhances your relationships with employers, employees, coworkers and customers – good ethicsmake good business sense.Action Planning:Consider what actions you can take to use good ethics in decision making on the job by askingyourself: • What ethical situations have I faced in the past? Am I proud of how I handled these? • What types of ethical situations am I likely to face in the future? • How can I help promote ethical behavior in my organization? • How can I exemplify good ethics in my daily work?Take a few minutes to reflect on how you might apply what you learned in this course. Action Plan____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Course interaction, learning assessment and post evaluation:Expand our skills and knowledge relevant to professional practice by sharing your thoughts,experiences, and best practices. You are invited to interact with the course instructor(s) via emailor others via our online Weblog. After taking the quiz and post-course evaluation, if you feel thatyou have not met the full 4 Professional Development Hour (PDH) requirements for this course,please make-up any time deficiencies by participating in our online Weblog, and in the futureplease feel free to revisit the Weblog to learn what others are saying!CPE  2101      0911   Page  37    
  • Sources / Citations:BBB. (n.d.). Benefits to companies that stress ethics. Retrieved from,http://ethicsforbusinesssuccess.com/index.php?src=news&srctype=detail&category=homepage_bottom_left&refno=3IEEE. (n.d.). IEEE ethics and member conduct. Retrieved from,http://www.ieee.org/about/ethics/index.htmlKardon, J. (March 1999). The structural engineer’s standard of care. Retrieved from,http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/ProfPractice/PPCases/standard_of_care.aspxLau, A. & Devon, R. (June 2001). Transformations: Ethics & design. ASEE Annual ConferenceProceedings. Retrieved from, http://www.engr.psu.edu/ethics/moral.aspNational Society of Professional Engineers. (n.d.). NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers.Retrieved from, http://www.nspe.org/Ethics/CodeofEthics/index.htmlPenn State College of Engineering (PSCE). (n.d.). Ethics. Retrieved from,http://www.engr.psu.edu/ethics/default.aspSnarski, R. (2011). Professional Ethics. Centrestar, Inc.Snarski, R. (2011). Technical communications in the information age. Ann Arbor, MI: CopleyCustom Publishing.Staneart, D. (n.d.). Ethical conflict resolution. Retrieved from, http://ezinearticles.com/?Ethical-Conflict-Resolution&id=96877Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T. and Meyer, M. (1996). Thinking ethically: A frameworkfor moral decision making. Retrieved from,http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/thinking.htmlVelasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T. and Meyer, M. (1987). What is ethics? Retrieved from,http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.htmlWallberg, J. (2007). Discussion and conclusions from ethics and reverse engineering. Retrievedfrom, www.onlineethics.org/Resources/Cases/revintro/rev-disc.aspx © 2011 Centrestar, Inc. All rights reserved.CPE  2101      0911   Page  38    
  • Further ReadingIf you would like to learn more about the content areas covered in this course, we recommendthe books listed below; and, if you know of other books or resources that you would like torecommend to other professionals interested in this topic, please post them in ourForum/Weblog. Bergeron, E. (2009). A Pocket Guide to Business for Engineers and Surveyors. Berne, R. (2005). Nanotalk: Conversations with Scientists and Engineers about Ethics. Meaning, and the Belief in the Development of Nanotechnology. Bowen, R. (2010). Engineering Ethics: Outline of an Aspirational Approach. Hansen, K., Zenobia, K. (2011). Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice. Martin, M., Schinzinger, R. (2009). Introduction to Engineering Ethics. Robinson, S., Dixon, R., Preece, C., Moodley, K. (2007). Engineering, Business and Professional Ethics. Russ, T. (2010). Sustainability and Design Ethics. Seebauer, E., Barry, R. (2000). Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers. Speight, J., Foote, R. (2011). Ethics in Science and Engineering. Vesilind, P., Gunn, A. (2010). Hold Paramount: The Engineer’s Responsibility to Society.CPE  2101      0911   Page  39    
  • Knowledge Review TestCPE 2101 Professional Ethics 1. Which word is defined as, “a system of moral principles”? a. Morality. b. Ethics. c. Conflict. d. Ethical code. e. None of the above. 2. Which of the following is NOT true of ethics? a. Ethics involve simply doing what is socially acceptable. b. One part of ethics refers to an unwritten code of standards steeped in history, which prescribe what behavior is right and wrong. c. One part of ethics refers to one studying and defining their own ethical standards. d. Because ethical actions are not black and white or clearly defined it is important to constantly evaluate one’s own standards as far as personal actions and professional practice, ensuring that they are reasonable and well founded. e. All of the above are true. 3. Some ethical dilemmas and situations can be life changing and of global import. Others can simply be part of day-to-day professional life, yet still very important. Which of the following is an example of a global or catastrophic event caused by ethical issues? a. Collapse of a residential retaining wall. b. Nazi Germany. c. The Challenger disaster. d. Both a and b. e. Both b and c. 4. Some ethical dilemmas and situations can be life changing and of global import. Others can simply be part of day-to-day professional life, yet still very important. One example of poor ethics caused the challenger disaster. Who was responsible for the destruction of the shuttle in this disaster? a. Engineers. b. Managers. c. NASA culture. d. All of the above. e. No one was responsible; it was an accident.CPE  2101      0911   Page  40    
  • 5. Which theory of ethics looks as the result of a chosen action? a. Consequentialist theory. b. Deontological theory. c. Virtue theory. d. Action theory. e. None of the above. 6. Which theory of ethics focuses on the character of the person doing the action? a. Consequentialist theory. b. Deontological theory. c. Virtue theory. d. Action theory. e. None of the above. 7. Which of the following is NOT true of good ethics? a. The application of good ethics requires that we be able to imagine the consequences of our actions. b. Ethics are only about limitations. c. Good ethics can add to our imagination, giving us the ability to envision new possibilities and solutions. d. Having good ethics can help one in solving many problems in personal life and the workplace. e. Ethics can help us to gain a higher awareness of our situation, looking at how the context of where we are might be influencing ethical ideals and behaviors. 8. Which of the following is a good question to ask when trying to solve an ethical problem? a. What benefits and what harms will each course of action produce, and which alternative will lead to the best overall consequences? b. What moral rights do the affected parties have, and which course of action best respects those rights? c. Which course of action treats everyone the same, except where there is a morally justifiable reason not to, and does not show favoritism or discrimination? d. Which course of action advances the common good? e. All of the above. 9. Which of the following is NOT a good part of resolving a conflict?CPE  2101      0911   Page  41    
  • a. Be proactive, not reactive. b. Get angry; people take mad people more seriously. c. Be subtle. d. Find common ground. e. All of the above are true of resolving conflict ethically. 10. Which of the following is a good part of resolving a conflict? a. Admit when you are wrong. b. Be slow to anger. c. Admit your own fallibility. d. Mend fences when possible. e. All of the above are true of resolving conflict ethically. 11. Which of the following is true of ethical standards? • All people have a responsibility to behave in ethical ways. • For technical professionals behaving ethically involves working to create solutions that benefit society and individuals, and implementing those ideas in ethical ways. • Ethics involve an unwritten code of standards steeped in history, which prescribe what behavior is right and wrong. • Because ethical actions are not black and white or clearly defined it is important to constantly evaluate your own standards of professional practice, ensuring that they are reasonable and well founded. • All of the above are true. 12. What are two organizations that have strict ethical guidelines that govern engineers? a. IEEE. b. BBB. c. NSPE. d. Both a and c. e. None of the above. 13. Which of the following is NOT true of using ethics to ask questions? a. To make a decision you must first analyze the situation. This can involve asking a variety of questions. b. Ethical questions cannot help with conflict if there is not obvious correct answer. c. Factual questions can help identify the hard facts and locate any discrepancies. d. Conceptual questions seek to determine the meaning of a term, concept or idea. e. Ethical questions can help you decide how to evaluate an action or a person.CPE  2101      0911   Page  42    
  • 14. Which of the following is the first step in ethical decision making? a. Define the stakeholders. b. Understand the stakeholder’s motivations. c. Get the facts. d. Create alternatives. e. Choose an action. 15. Which of the following is true of ethics in research and writing? • Using proper grammar, punctuation and sentence structure are ways that you give an impression of credibility. • It is important that you are ethical in the information you convey, both in its accuracy and in giving credit where credit is due. • Using information gleaned from other sources is an excellent, and often necessary, way to add to the credibility of our writing. • Credibility can be more than perception; it can also be an ethical issue. How we present ourselves and deal with situations can impact how we are perceived by others, and thus, how we are treated and what opportunities are open to us. • All of the above are true. 16. Which of the following is NOT true of ethics in research and writing? a. In a business setting, ethical concerns can arise in many different contexts. b. Ethics and business do not always go hand-in-hand. Behaving in an ethical way is not always easy, and does not always bring a happy ending. c. When ethics are not good business, sometimes we must behave in a way that we know is unethical because of economics. d. Plagiarism is not ethical. e. All of the above are true. 17. Which of the following is true of ethics in business? • Time and again research has shown that consumers, and business-to-business customers, would rather do business with an ethical company. • Research has proven that people prefer to do business with companies that clearly show honesty, fairness and trustworthiness. • Unethical behavior can lead to disruption in the workplace and lost productivity. • Ethical behavior makes good business sense. • All of the above are true.CPE  2101      0911   Page  43    
  • 18. Which of the following is NOT true of ethics and business? a. Conflict of interest is only important if it is real. b. Ethical conflict can cause staff to become distracted, which can lower productivity and increase costs. c. A lack of clear ethical guidelines in a corporation can give rise to confusion and eventually to bickering and even resentment. d. Ethics must extend across political boarders; good ethics are universal. e. All of the above are true. 19. What can you do to promote good ethics in your workplace? a. Work with your company to ensure they have an ethics policy. b. Work with your company to ensure they provide ethics training. c. Understand the ethical values of the organizations you work under. d. Be aware of your own ethical values. e. All of the above. 20. Which of the following is NOT true of ethics in the workplace? a. Business ethics can include small daily problems. b. Ethical situations can include large, global issues. c. Ethics are limited to what goes on inside a company building and depend upon the morals of the region. d. If you are aware of an ethical issue in your company, involve management early. e. All of the above are true.CPE  2101      0911   Page  44    
  •     Thank you! This concludes the educational content of this course. 200 Innovation Boulevard, Suite 252 * Innovation Park @ Penn State * State College, PA 16803 USA Phone: 814-231-0618 Fax: 814-231-0755 Email: info@centrestar.comCPE  2101      0911   Page  45