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Experimental Design
 

Experimental Design

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    Experimental Design Experimental Design Presentation Transcript

    • Hypothesis Controlled Experiment and Variable Independent and Dependent Variable Sample Size and Validity Scientific Method and Experimental Design
    • Steps of the Scientific Method
      • Make observations.
      • Ask a question.
      • Form a hypothesis.
      • Test the hypothesis.
      • Analyze the results.
      • Draw conclusions.
      • Communicate the results.
    • Hypothesis An explanation of a natural event or observation that can be tested by additional observations or experimentation
    • Example of Hypothesis Observation: The population of tiger salamanders declined 65% between 1984 and 1988 Hypothesis: Acids that were formed in the upper atmosphere by pollutants were falling onto mountains in the winter snows
    • Controlled Experiment and Variable Tests one variable at a time (experimental variable) Controlled experiments include 2 groups: Experimental Group Exposed to experimental variable Control Group Not exposed to experimental variable
    • Independent and Dependent Variables Independent variable : The factor that is deliberately manipulated in an experiment (also called experimental variable) Dependent variable : The variable that is changed or determined by manipulation of the independent variable. It is what is measure in the experiment
      • Sample Size
      • Sample Size (N)
      • The number of subjects involved in experimentation
      • Increasing N
        • Decreases impact of chance events and error
        • Increase reliability of results
    • Why does a good experiment need to have two parts, including a control?
      • It isolates and tests the effects of one variable at a time
      • Provides certainty that the change is due to the effect of the variable being tested
    • Validity The extent to which experimental results can be generalized to other settings or situations To increase validity, increase N