Evidence of Change Evolution
“Evolve” Means to Change Over Time  <ul><li>The belief that life on Earth has changed over time is quite old </li></ul><ul...
The Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Naturalists have always wondered at the diversity of living things……… </li>...
Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>What could cause such great diversity, and why have so many species died out? <...
Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Darwin Concluded: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical traits and behaviors enable organi...
Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>These ideas were widely challenged until a tremendous amount of evidence was ga...
Natural Selection and Speciation
Charles Darwin <ul><li>Studied Medicine and Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Excelled in Geology and Biology </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle <ul><li>Collecting fossils and other specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Making detailed observa...
The Voyage of the Beagle: Ports of Call Noted that populations of organisms were slightly different from place to place Ea...
The Galapagos Archipelago
Land Iguana Marine Iguana The Galapagos Iguanas
The Galapagos Tortoises
The Galapagos Tortoises
The Galapagos Finches
The Galapagos Finches The Origin of Species Interactive Exploration
Charles Lyell Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Author of “ Principles of Geology” This book helped Darwin realize that th...
<ul><li>Malthus wrote  “Essay on  the Principles of Population” </li></ul><ul><li>Populations will always grow larger than...
<ul><li>Darwin coined the term  Artificial Selection   - the process of modification of a species through human actions wh...
What Darwin Learned from Artificial Selection <ul><li>When chosen organisms are mated, desired characteristics are formed ...
Lamarck’s View of Evolution <ul><li>Stated that  acquired  characteristics  can be passed on to offspring. </li></ul>Darwi...
Darwin’s View of Evolution Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Those giraffes with longer necks got more food and were bette...
“ Of course, long before you mature, most of you will be eaten.” 4 Key Ideas of Natural Selection
Evolution Through Natural Selection <ul><li>There is variation in populations caused by genetics  (Praying Mantis Camoufla...
4 Main Points of Natural Selection <ul><li>Variation (genetic) is present in the population and this variation is inherite...
Fitness Defined <ul><li>Organisms who better survive to produce larger numbers of offspring are considered more fit than o...
Darwin Today… Natural Selection in action … causes a frequency  of certain alleles in a population to increase or decrease...
 
 
Click the Link Below to Access the Cartoon <ul><li>http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/sneakermales_01 ...
Speciation results in Biodiversity
Speciation <ul><li>Natural Selection modifies populations. Some evolutionary changes are so great that some organisms can ...
Reproductive Barriers and Speciation <ul><li>Prezygotic: gametes never meet and fuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic isol...
Geographic Isolation <ul><li>2 populations separated by geographic barriers (rivers, mountains, bodies of water) </li></ul...
 
Temporal Isolation (Seasonal) <ul><li>Species reproduce at different times  </li></ul>
Behavioral Isolation <ul><li>Differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs of bi...
Behavioral Isolation
Mechanical Isolation <ul><li>Mating/Pollination is often impossible between different animal/plant species because of the ...
 
Black sage and white sage plants invite different pollinators <ul><li>White sage flowers have large landing platforms for ...
Two populations  live in different habitats and mating occurs in those habitats, thus their own gene pool. Land Iguana Mar...
After Mating Genetic Differences Occur <ul><li>Hybrid sterility  ( tigons  and ligers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Horse and a ...
Patterns in Evolution <ul><li>Adaptive Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of numerous new species from a common a...
Evolution Evidence to Support Evolution
<ul><li>The Origin of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>The Fossil Record </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Emb...
The Origin of Life <ul><li>Origin of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bang ( animation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Earth <...
The Miller-Urey Experiment <ul><li>Studied Molecules Present at Time of Early Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Methane, Ammonia, Ca...
Miller-Urey Apparatus Evidence to Support Evolution
Biological Evolution <ul><li>RNA as a information molecule and catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul><...
Geology <ul><li>The Study of the Earth and Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Early Ideas About Earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People b...
Geology <ul><li>In the 18 th  and 19 th  Century Scientists Studied Geology in Great Detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over mil...
Geology <ul><li>Hutton and Lyell: Earth is Changed by Weather and Natural Processes like Volcanoes and Erosion </li></ul><...
Geology <ul><li>These ideas refute the idea that the Earth is only a few thousand years old </li></ul><ul><li>Backed up by...
Direct Evidence of Evolution
The Fossil Record <ul><li>Fossils are the preserved remains of ancient organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information...
<ul><li>Preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>The Fossil Record
The Fossil Record <ul><li>Provide a record of past species </li></ul><ul><li>Important source of information for determini...
What does the fossil  record tell us? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/3/quicktime/l_043_01.html   <ul><ul><li...
The Fossil Record <ul><li>Taphonomy: The Formation of Fossils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils form in sedimentary rock </li>...
Determining the Age of Fossils <ul><li>Relative Dating: Technique used by scientists to determine the age of fossils relat...
Relative Dating of Fossils
 
Determining the Age of Fossils <ul><li>Radioactive Dating: Process by which traces of radioactive elements are analyzed to...
Radioactive/Radiometric Dating <ul><li>How it Works: </li></ul><ul><li>- radioactive elements (uranium, </li></ul><ul><li>...
Scientist Measure the Age of the Earth <ul><li>Radiometric Dating : way of estimating the age of the    Earth! </li></ul>h...
Carbon-14 Dating - Determines the age of fossils of a  biological origin  up to approx. 50,000 years old.  - used in datin...
 
Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years
Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years 22,920 11,460 28,650 17,190
Radiometric Dating Evidence to Support Evolution Radioactive Parent Stable Daughter Half life Potassium 40  Argon 40  1.25...
The Geologic Time Scale <ul><li>Based on fossil and geologic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>A record of the Earth’s past </li>...
Comparative Embryology <ul><li>Embryos are organisms at early stages of development  </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
Comparative Embryology <ul><li>All vertebrate embryos, including humans, share features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye spot  </...
Comparative Biochemistry <ul><li>All life is based on organic chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon based compounds </li>...
Anatomy and Comparative Anatomy <ul><li>Vestigial Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs inherited but not used by modern org...
Anatomy: Homologous Structures <ul><li>Similar parts of different organisms, often quite dissimilar in purpose, that devel...
Anatomy: Analogous Structures <ul><li>Similar in purpose, but not inherited from a recent common ancestor </li></ul><ul><l...
Summary <ul><li>There is overwhelming evidence to support the Theory of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence comes from di...
Evolution Produces Diversity <ul><li>All living things are classified by characteristics into 5 kingdoms of life  </li></u...
Linnean Taxonomy <ul><li>Example: human classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom animalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Human Evolution                          
Explore Human Evolution <ul><li>View the  Becoming Human   broadband documentary  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As you view each s...
The Order Primate <ul><li>Characteristics of Primates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong hands and opposable thumbs </li></ul></...
What Characteristics do Humans Have? <ul><li>All of those of primates, plus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upright posture and bipe...
The Steps to Human Evolution <ul><li>Terrestrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Bipedal  (Walking on all two’s) </li></ul><ul><l...
The Hominid Family <ul><li>Each year new fossils are found to add to the Hominid family tree </li></ul><ul><li>Most fossil...
Genus Australopithecus <ul><li>First human ancestor to live on the ground and walk on two legs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As ev...
The Australopithecines <ul><li>A. anamesis 4 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>A. afarensis 3.2 MYA ( Finding “Lucy”) </li></ul><ul><l...
Genus Homo <ul><li>More modern hominids that exhibited major evolutionary steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased brain size...
Homo habilis  “The Tool Man” <ul><li>Approx. 2.5 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>Brain ½ size of modern human </li></ul><ul><li>Firs...
Homo erectus  “The Upright Man” <ul><li>Direct ancestor of modern humans </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread in Africa and Asia b...
Homo sapiens “The Wise Man” <ul><li>Most likely evolved from  H. erectus as early as 400,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Neanderthals <ul><li>Found in Neander Valley in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils found throughout Europe, Middle East, an...
Cro Magnons and Fully Modern Humans <ul><li>First early modern  H. sapiens  appear about 130,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><...
                                                          
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Evolution natural selection_and_speciation

  1. 1. Evidence of Change Evolution
  2. 2. “Evolve” Means to Change Over Time <ul><li>The belief that life on Earth has changed over time is quite old </li></ul><ul><li>To be considered science, this belief requires a great deal of evidence </li></ul>Evolution
  3. 3. The Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Naturalists have always wondered at the diversity of living things……… </li></ul><ul><li>Great varieties in shape, size, and ecological role </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 3 million to 20 million different living species </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the natural world’s biodiversity has vanished through extinction </li></ul><ul><li>99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct </li></ul><ul><li>Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>What Killed the Dinosaurs? </li></ul>Evolution
  4. 4. Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>What could cause such great diversity, and why have so many species died out? </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin offered an explanation based on careful observations </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Charles Darwin? </li></ul>Evolution
  5. 5. Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Darwin Concluded: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical traits and behaviors enable organisms to survive and reproduce (called Fitness ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness results from adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin reasoned that adaptations result from natural selection and result in evolution </li></ul>Evolution Evolution is the process by which living things change and diversify over time
  6. 6. Development of Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>These ideas were widely challenged until a tremendous amount of evidence was gathered to support evolution! </li></ul><ul><li>Now…The Theory of Evolution is the Cornerstone of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the Evolution Revolution </li></ul>Evolution
  7. 7. Natural Selection and Speciation
  8. 8. Charles Darwin <ul><li>Studied Medicine and Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Excelled in Geology and Biology </li></ul><ul><li>In 1831 Darwin joined the H.M.S. Beagle on a trip around the world to make maps </li></ul><ul><li>He was the ship’s naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s Diary </li></ul>
  9. 9. Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle <ul><li>Collecting fossils and other specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Making detailed observations of animal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Making detailed drawings of the organisms he encountered </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin traveled South America & Galapagos Islands </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Voyage of the Beagle: Ports of Call Noted that populations of organisms were slightly different from place to place Each group was modified to their specific environment
  11. 11. The Galapagos Archipelago
  12. 12. Land Iguana Marine Iguana The Galapagos Iguanas
  13. 13. The Galapagos Tortoises
  14. 14. The Galapagos Tortoises
  15. 15. The Galapagos Finches
  16. 16. The Galapagos Finches The Origin of Species Interactive Exploration
  17. 17. Charles Lyell Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Author of “ Principles of Geology” This book helped Darwin realize that the earth is old and changes slowly over time.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Malthus wrote “Essay on the Principles of Population” </li></ul><ul><li>Populations will always grow larger than the food supply, creating hunger, disease and struggle/competition. Some people live, others die. </li></ul>Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Thomas Malthus 18th Century Economist
  19. 19. <ul><li>Darwin coined the term Artificial Selection - the process of modification of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of certain traits over others. </li></ul>Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle http://www.esp.org/books/darwin/variation/facsimile/title3.html
  20. 20. What Darwin Learned from Artificial Selection <ul><li>When chosen organisms are mated, desired characteristics are formed (Darwin didn’t know about DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in the wild who possess characteristics that make it more likely for them to reproduce will pass along these characteristics to their offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Desirable&quot; characteristics, in the wild , would be those which enhance survivability , NOT those which specifically satisfy human needs. Nature does the selecting . </li></ul>Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle
  21. 21. Lamarck’s View of Evolution <ul><li>Stated that acquired characteristics can be passed on to offspring. </li></ul>Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle
  22. 22. Darwin’s View of Evolution Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Those giraffes with longer necks got more food and were better able to survive to reproduce, passing on the long-neck genes to their offspring. Over time, giraffes evolved longer necks.
  23. 23. “ Of course, long before you mature, most of you will be eaten.” 4 Key Ideas of Natural Selection
  24. 24. Evolution Through Natural Selection <ul><li>There is variation in populations caused by genetics (Praying Mantis Camouflage) </li></ul><ul><li>Many more offspring are produced than can survive. Many die through predation or starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Some variations are favorable and help organisms compete to survive and reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the organisms with favorable variations become plentiful. The ones without favorable variations become rare or extinct </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctantly published On the Origin of Species in 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  25. 25. 4 Main Points of Natural Selection <ul><li>Variation (genetic) is present in the population and this variation is inherited (genetically passed to offspring). </li></ul><ul><li>Living things Overproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for Limited Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the “Fittest” </li></ul>Natural Selection
  26. 26. Fitness Defined <ul><li>Organisms who better survive to produce larger numbers of offspring are considered more fit than others who do not. </li></ul>The Fittest Survive
  27. 27. Darwin Today… Natural Selection in action … causes a frequency of certain alleles in a population to increase or decrease over time!
  28. 30. Click the Link Below to Access the Cartoon <ul><li>http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/sneakermales_01 </li></ul><ul><li>Read the cartoon carefully and answer the discussion questions on a separate sheet of paper. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Speciation results in Biodiversity
  30. 32. Speciation <ul><li>Natural Selection modifies populations. Some evolutionary changes are so great that some organisms can no longer interbreed with the original population </li></ul><ul><li>A new species results </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interbreeding population of organisms that can produce healthy, fertile offspring </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Reproductive Barriers and Speciation <ul><li>Prezygotic: gametes never meet and fuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic isolation ( allopatric speciation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral isolation (lacewing songs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postzygotic: genetic differences manifest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid inviability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid sterility ( tigons and ligers) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Geographic Isolation <ul><li>2 populations separated by geographic barriers (rivers, mountains, bodies of water) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abert Squirrel vs. Kaibab Squirrel </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Temporal Isolation (Seasonal) <ul><li>Species reproduce at different times </li></ul>
  34. 37. Behavioral Isolation <ul><li>Differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs of birds </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Behavioral Isolation
  36. 39. Mechanical Isolation <ul><li>Mating/Pollination is often impossible between different animal/plant species because of the incompatible shape and size of the reproductive structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Size Does Matter! </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Black and White Sage Plants </li></ul>
  37. 41. Black sage and white sage plants invite different pollinators <ul><li>White sage flowers have large landing platforms for large pollinators causing the large pollinators to brush against the stamens, but the small ones usually don’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Black sage flowers have small landing platform for small pollinators. Therefore, the small pollinators cannot spread pollen to the white sage flowers therefore cross pollination is no longer possible. </li></ul>
  38. 42. Two populations live in different habitats and mating occurs in those habitats, thus their own gene pool. Land Iguana Marine Iguana Ecological Isolation
  39. 43. After Mating Genetic Differences Occur <ul><li>Hybrid sterility ( tigons and ligers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Horse and a donkey = mule – sterile) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. Patterns in Evolution <ul><li>Adaptive Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of numerous new species from a common ancestor in diverse environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin’s Finches (Origin of Species Activity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gradualism </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium </li></ul>
  41. 45. Evolution Evidence to Support Evolution
  42. 46. <ul><li>The Origin of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>The Fossil Record </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Embryology </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory? </li></ul>Scientists from many disciplines including biology, chemistry, physics, geology, and paleontology have contributed to the case for evolution! Evidence to Support Evolution
  43. 47. The Origin of Life <ul><li>Origin of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bang ( animation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution Starts Up: Chemical Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotroph Hypothesis: Molecules of life arose from inorganic building blocks </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  44. 48. The Miller-Urey Experiment <ul><li>Studied Molecules Present at Time of Early Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Methane, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Molecules in Reaction Chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked with Electricity to Simulate Lightning </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed Mixture to UV Radiation to Simulate Cosmic Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Produced Basic Amino Acids and Organic Molecules </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  45. 49. Miller-Urey Apparatus Evidence to Support Evolution
  46. 50. Biological Evolution <ul><li>RNA as a information molecule and catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally free living prokaryotic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both have own DNA and ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined together to cooperate </li></ul></ul>
  47. 51. Geology <ul><li>The Study of the Earth and Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Early Ideas About Earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People believed Earth was only a few thousand years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People believed that rocks and geological features were shaped by catastrophic events and rarely changed </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  48. 52. Geology <ul><li>In the 18 th and 19 th Century Scientists Studied Geology in Great Detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over millions of years 1 original continent Pangea drifted apart to make our modern continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental drift is gradual “gradualism” </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  49. 53. Geology <ul><li>Hutton and Lyell: Earth is Changed by Weather and Natural Processes like Volcanoes and Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a Very Long Time! </li></ul>
  50. 54. Geology <ul><li>These ideas refute the idea that the Earth is only a few thousand years old </li></ul><ul><li>Backed up by radiometric dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth is approximately 4.6 Billion Years Old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,600,000,000 years is a long time! </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  51. 55. Direct Evidence of Evolution
  52. 56. The Fossil Record <ul><li>Fossils are the preserved remains of ancient organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information about past organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows that many diverse organisms lived at different times in Earth’s History </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution                                     
  53. 57. <ul><li>Preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>The Fossil Record
  54. 58. The Fossil Record <ul><li>Provide a record of past species </li></ul><ul><li>Important source of information for determining ancestry and patterns of evolution </li></ul>Fossil Archaeopteryx
  55. 59. What does the fossil record tell us? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/3/quicktime/l_043_01.html <ul><ul><li>What past life looked like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What past habitats were like and changes that have occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That diverse organisms lived on earth at different times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New species evolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species became extinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest life forms were aquatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest life forms were simple in structure </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. The Fossil Record <ul><li>Taphonomy: The Formation of Fossils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils form in sedimentary rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead organisms covered by sand and silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediments are passed into bone by pressure from above (fossils form in sedimentary rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  57. 61. Determining the Age of Fossils <ul><li>Relative Dating: Technique used by scientists to determine the age of fossils relative to fossils in other layers of rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different layers represent different geologic periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older fossils found in lower layers, newer fossils found in upper layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot determine the actual age of the fossil! </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  58. 62. Relative Dating of Fossils
  59. 64. Determining the Age of Fossils <ul><li>Radioactive Dating: Process by which traces of radioactive elements are analyzed to calculate the actual age of a fossil </li></ul><ul><li>Many radioactive elements can be used as geologic clocks. Each radioactive element decays at its own nearly constant rate. Once this rate is known, geologists can estimate the length of time over which decay has been occurring by measuring the amount of radioactive parent element and the amount of stable daughter elements </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  60. 65. Radioactive/Radiometric Dating <ul><li>How it Works: </li></ul><ul><li>- radioactive elements (uranium, </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon14) break down/decay a specific rates = half life </li></ul><ul><li>- these rates are nearly constant </li></ul><ul><li> - the amount of radioactive decay that has taken place in a rock/fossil determines its age </li></ul>
  61. 66. Scientist Measure the Age of the Earth <ul><li>Radiometric Dating : way of estimating the age of the Earth! </li></ul>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/3/quicktime/l_033_01.html
  62. 67. Carbon-14 Dating - Determines the age of fossils of a biological origin up to approx. 50,000 years old. - used in dating things such as bone, cloth, wood, plant fibers, etc. 5,700 year is C 14 half-life
  63. 69. Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years
  64. 70. Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years 22,920 11,460 28,650 17,190
  65. 71. Radiometric Dating Evidence to Support Evolution Radioactive Parent Stable Daughter Half life Potassium 40 Argon 40 1.25 billion yrs Rubidium 87 Strontium 87 48.8 billion yrs Thorium 232 Lead 208 14 billion years Uranium 235 Lead 207 704 million years Uranium 238 Lead 206 4.47 billion years Carbon 14 Nitrogen 14 5730 years
  66. 72. The Geologic Time Scale <ul><li>Based on fossil and geologic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>A record of the Earth’s past </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into Era, Period, and Epoch </li></ul><ul><li>Shows that life on Earth followed geologic change on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep Time Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Time Scale </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  67. 73. Comparative Embryology <ul><li>Embryos are organisms at early stages of development </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  68. 74. Comparative Embryology <ul><li>All vertebrate embryos, including humans, share features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye spot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Evolution of the Human Eye) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gill pouches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shows similar genetic ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  69. 75. Comparative Biochemistry <ul><li>All life is based on organic chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon based compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All life uses same molecule as blueprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria, algae, and plants all do photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar organisms have similar genetic code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans and chimpanzees share nearly identical genes (98.4% identical gene sequences) Video </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  70. 76. Anatomy and Comparative Anatomy <ul><li>Vestigial Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs inherited but not used by modern organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present but greatly reduced in modern organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hip bone in python </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix in human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail bone (cocyx) in human </li></ul></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  71. 77. Anatomy: Homologous Structures <ul><li>Similar parts of different organisms, often quite dissimilar in purpose, that developed from the same ancestral body parts (Video) </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent evolution </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  72. 78. Anatomy: Analogous Structures <ul><li>Similar in purpose, but not inherited from a recent common ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Environment selected for trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings of birds and insects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  73. 79. Summary <ul><li>There is overwhelming evidence to support the Theory of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence comes from disciplines as varied as biology, geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, and paleontology </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution has produced the great beauty and diversity of life on Earth over the last 4 billion years </li></ul>Evidence to Support Evolution
  74. 80. Evolution Produces Diversity <ul><li>All living things are classified by characteristics into 5 kingdoms of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monera: bacteria, unicellular prokaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protista: single celled eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi: multicellular, eukaryotic, nonmotile, heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantae: multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animalia: multicellular, eukaryotic, motile, heterotropohs </li></ul></ul>
  75. 81. Linnean Taxonomy <ul><li>Example: human classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom animalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum chordata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class mammalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order primate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family hominid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus homo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species sapiens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binomial nomenclature uses genus and species to make the scientific name </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Classification activity </li></ul>
  76. 82. Human Evolution                          
  77. 83. Explore Human Evolution <ul><li>View the Becoming Human broadband documentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As you view each segment, visit the related exhibits to further explore this topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Go to the Learning Center and select the “Calculating Cousins” activity </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the Learning Center and select the “Chromosome Connection” activity </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the Learning Center and select the “Building Bodies” activity </li></ul>
  78. 84. The Order Primate <ul><li>Characteristics of Primates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong hands and opposable thumbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-moving shoulder joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence/larger brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social complexity </li></ul></ul>
  79. 85. What Characteristics do Humans Have? <ul><li>All of those of primates, plus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upright posture and bipedal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of tools and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex communication and speech </li></ul></ul>
  80. 86. The Steps to Human Evolution <ul><li>Terrestrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Bipedal (Walking on all two’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Brain Size </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Take a look at the Human family tree </li></ul>
  81. 87. The Hominid Family <ul><li>Each year new fossils are found to add to the Hominid family tree </li></ul><ul><li>Most fossils of early humans are found in Africa and lower Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Most well understood members include genus Australopithecus (extinct) and genus Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Solve the Riddle of the Bones </li></ul>
  82. 88. Genus Australopithecus <ul><li>First human ancestor to live on the ground and walk on two legs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As evidenced by the Laetoli footprints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ape-like jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Small brain </li></ul><ul><li>Short stature </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in South and East Africa </li></ul>
  83. 89. The Australopithecines <ul><li>A. anamesis 4 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>A. afarensis 3.2 MYA ( Finding “Lucy”) </li></ul><ul><li>A. africanus 2.5 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>A. robustus 2 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>A. boisei 2 MYA </li></ul>
  84. 90. Genus Homo <ul><li>More modern hominids that exhibited major evolutionary steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased brain size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language and civilization </li></ul></ul>
  85. 91. Homo habilis “The Tool Man” <ul><li>Approx. 2.5 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>Brain ½ size of modern human </li></ul><ul><li>First to make and use stone tools and weapons </li></ul>
  86. 92. Homo erectus “The Upright Man” <ul><li>Direct ancestor of modern humans </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread in Africa and Asia by 1 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of use of shelter and fire </li></ul>
  87. 93. Homo sapiens “The Wise Man” <ul><li>Most likely evolved from H. erectus as early as 400,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly increased brain size </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of 2 groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neanderthal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnon/modern H. sapiens </li></ul></ul>
  88. 94. Neanderthals <ul><li>Found in Neander Valley in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils found throughout Europe, Middle East, and Asia from 150,000-30,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Large bodies and brains </li></ul><ul><li>Evidenced painting, religion, complex social structure </li></ul><ul><li>“Cave man” </li></ul>
  89. 95. Cro Magnons and Fully Modern Humans <ul><li>First early modern H. sapiens appear about 130,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner bones, smaller jaws, higher skull with little or no brow ridge, and larger brains </li></ul><ul><li>Cave art shows complex religion and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Lived alongside Neanderthal for several thousand years, but eventually out-competed them </li></ul>
  90. 96.                                                           
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