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Childhood Obesity and Iowa Schools
 

Childhood Obesity and Iowa Schools

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Presentation given by Ruth Litchfield, ISU Extension to Regional School Work Group in January 2009.

Presentation given by Ruth Litchfield, ISU Extension to Regional School Work Group in January 2009.

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Childhood Obesity and Iowa Schools Childhood Obesity and Iowa Schools Presentation Transcript

  • Weighty Issues: Why and How Schools Should Be Involved
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  • (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002 Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Iowa No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% Source: http://www.cdc.gov/
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ Iowa
  • Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ Iowa
  • Source: http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/
  • Source: http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/
  • What About NE Iowa? Source: http://facits.idph.state.ia.us/facits/ Iowa Allamakee Clayton Fayette Howard Winneshiek Overweight 37.3% 38.2 38.1 37.8 38.2 35.9 Obese 22.5% 23.2 23.2 22.8 23.0 21.5
  • Children and Weight One in two children (ages 6-19) in the U.S. is overweight (obese) or at risk of overweight (overweight)
  • Overweight/Obese Trends Percentage JAMA 2002, 2004, 2006
  • What About Iowa Youth? Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2007 National Iowa Obese Females 9.6% 8.8% Overweight Females 15.1% 10.6% Obese Males 16.3% 13.7% Overweight Males 16.4% 16.2% Obese Total 13.0% 11.3% Overweight Total 15.8% 13.5%
  • What about NE Iowa? Source: Iowa WIC program http://www.idph.state.ia.us/wic/common/pdf/2007_pednss_county.pdf Iowa Allamakee Clayton Fayette Overweight 85-95% 17.5% 15.7% 19.8% 23.4% Obese >95% 14.9% 15.7% 14.9% 12.9%
  • Weighty Costs
    • $40 billion spent on health clubs, diet soda, diet books and videos, artificial sweetener, weight loss centers and liquid diets
    • Medical expenditures related to obesity
      • United States - $75 billion
      • Iowa - $783 million
    • Weight-associated hospital costs for children more than tripled between 1979 and 1999
  • Excessive weight gain in childhood precedes adult obesity and related problems. Overweight children are 43.5 times more likely to have at least 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Source: Nicklas (2001) Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(6): 599-608 HEALTH HAZARDS AHEAD
  • Children’s Eating Habits
    • 2% of kids meet all Food Guide Pyramid Recommendations
      • 16% do not meet any recommendations
      • 40% meet only one or none
    • More than
      • 84% of kids eat too much fat
      • 91% eat too much saturated fat
    • Less than
      • 15% get enough fruits
      • 20% get enough vegetables
      • 30% get enough milk
    Source: Munoz et al. (1997) Pediatrics 100(3):323-329
  • Children’s Eating Habits
    • Over 50% of snacks eaten by American children are cookies, desserts, potato chips, salty snacks, candy and gum.
    • Only 16% of snacks are fruits -- and only 1% of snacks are veggies.
    • American children eat only half the recommended five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. (only about 1 in 5 kids get 5-A-Day)
    • The most common vegetables eaten by children are French fries, ketchup and pizza sauce. (of the vegetables eaten by 6-11 year olds approximately 55 to 60% come from potatoes or tomatoes)
    • Children have especially low intakes of nutrient rich dark green leafy and deep yellow veggies.
  • Media and marketing issues
    • $2 billion in marketing towards children annually
    • Average TV time = 526 commercials per day
    • Ronald McDonald is 2 nd only to Santa Claus in recognition
    • $ spent on fast food is greater than movies, books, magazines, newspapers, videos and recorded music combined
    Source: Food, Fun ‘n Fitness, Friesz 2002
  • Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Section 204 of P.L. 108-265 June 30, 2004
  • Wellness policies
    • Nutrition guidelines selected by the local educational agency for all food available on each school campus under the local educational agency during the school day with the objectives of promoting student health and reducing childhood obesity.
    • School meals guidelines meet the DGA, these nutrition guidelines are for foods available outside of the school meals programs .
  • Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value
    • Criteria for food sold outside of meals in the food service area during mealtimes
    • Restricts the sale of foods providing less than 5% of the RDI for eight specified nutrients
  • What’s in, what’s out?
    • Fruitaides
    • French fries
    • Ice cream candy bars
    • Cookies
    • Chips
    • Snack cakes
    • Doughnuts
    • Seltzer water
    • Caramel corn
    • Popsicles
    • Jelly beans
    • Chewing gum
    • Lollipops
    • Cotton candy
    • Breath mints
  • Legislative activity
    • Child Nutrition Promotion and School Lunch Protection Act (federal)
      • Updates Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value and establishes federal-level nutrition standards
    • Healthy Kids Act (state)
      • Establishes state-level nutrition standards
  • Institute of Medicine Nutrition Report
    • Standards for Foods in Schools
      • Congress directive
      • April 25, 2007
      • Foods should be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
  • IOM Report – Tier 1 foods
    • Available to all students throughout the day
    • Must provide 1 serving of fruit, vegetable, whole grain or nonfat/low-fat dairy
    • < 200 calories
    • < 35% total calories from fat
    • < 10% total calories from sat. fat
    • < 0.5 gm trans fat
    • < 35% calories from total sugars
    • < 200 mg sodium
  • IOM Report - Tier 2 foods
    • Available ONLY to high school students AFTER school
    • Do NOT provide a serving of fruit, vegetable, whole grain or nonfat/low-fat dairy
    • < 200 calories
    • Same fat, sugar, sodium criteria as Tier 1
  • School Foods Report Card
    • Iowa received an ‘F’
    • Based on food/beverage policy outside of the school lunch program
      • Beverage nutrition standards
      • Food nutrition standards
      • Grade level(s) impacted
      • Coverage of school day time
      • Location in school impacted
  • Institute of Medicine 9/14/06
    • School boards, administrators, and staff should elevate the priority that is placed on creating and sustaining a healthy school environment and advance school policies and program that support this priority.
    • Schools and school districts should conduct self-assessments to enhance and sustain a healthy school environment, and mechanisms for examining links between changes in the school environment and behavioral and health outcomes should be explored.
  • Should schools be in the health business?
  • Mean scale scores in English–language arts by fitness standards achieved.
  • Mean scale scores in mathematics by fitness standards achieved.
  • Nutrition: Breakfast Studies
    • Iowa Breakfast Study (1960’s)
    • Maryland Breakfast Study (2001)
    • Minnesota (1998)
      • Tardiness and absences 
      • Suspensions 
      • Test Scores 
      • Attention and Behavior 
  • Nutrition: Florida (1990)
    • 12 weeks
    • Students were required to:
      • Eat a nutritious breakfast each morning
      • Limit sugar intake
      • Eat nutritious snacks
      • Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole-grain and protein-rich foods
      • Attend nutrition education classes 2 to 3 times/week
  • Nutrition Outcomes (Florida 1990) Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) scores  Classroom behavior  Nutrition quiz scores 
  • Making it Happen
    • ↓ Lunchroom discipline problems (183 vs 36)
    • ↓ After-lunch referrals to the principal
    • (96 vs 22)
    • ↑ Attentiveness/behavior after lunch ↑ 10 minutes of instruction time (30 hours per year)
    • 12 of 13 reporting fiscal impact reported improved or same bottom line
  • Success Stories
      • Establish nutrition standards for competitive foods
      • Influence food and beverage contracts
      • Make more healthful foods and beverages available
      • Adopt marketing techniques to promote healthful choices
      • Limit student access to competitive foods
      • Use fundraising activities and rewards that support student health
    • . . . and justice for all
    • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Many materials can be made available in alternative formats for ADA clients. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call 202-720-5964.
    • Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Stanley R. Johnson, director, Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa.
    • Prepared by:
    • Ruth Litchfield, Nutrition Extension Specialist, ISU
    • Contributions by:
    • Barbara Anderson, Extension Field Specialist, Wapello Co.
    • Pat Anderson, Extension Field Specialist, West Pottawattamie Co.
    • Patricia Steiner, Extension Field Specialist, Des Moines Co.