The tree of life

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The tree of life

  1. 1. Ingrida Olendraitė Molecular biologist University of Vilnius2012
  2. 2.  Key terms The great battle for life Roots of classification Phylogenetic branches
  3. 3. We will become acquainted with some of the methods by which we can infer phylogenetic relationships and we will see how our understanding of those relationships is reflected in the classification of organisms.
  4. 4.  is a method of taxonomy used to group and categorize organisms into groups such as genus or species. it took on an entirely different significance (compared with 17-18’s) after The Origin of Species was published in 1859.
  5. 5.  is the study of evolutionary relation among groups of organisms, which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices.
  6. 6. “ All species, extant and extinct form a great “Tree of Life” orphylogenetic tree.It is the great battle for life”
  7. 7.  Phylogenetic analysis is the study of relationships among species Carolus Linnaeus and BINOMAL NOMENCLATURE
  8. 8.  external and internal morphological features differences in behaviour, cell structure, biochemistry and chromosome structure. DNA sequences
  9. 9. Persimony holds that the bestphylogenetic hypothesis is the one that requires us to postulate the fewest homoplasious changes.
  10. 10.  The chief way of confirming a phylogenetic hypothesis is to see if it agrees with independent data
  11. 11. Sites 123 456 789 10 11 12 13 14 15Haplotype3 ATA CTA TAT GTT GCC2 ATA CTA CAT GTT GCC1 ATA CTA CAC GTT GCC4 ATA CTA CAC GTT ACC5 ATA CTA CAC GTT ACT6 ATA CTG CAC GTT ACT7 ATG CTG CAC GTT ACT
  12. 12. 7 6 5 4 1 2 3
  13. 13.  The evolution of Serine protease II
  14. 14.  A phylogeny is the history by which species or other taxa have successively originated from common ancestors. A phylogenetic tree is a statement about evolutionary relationships and like all scientific statements it is a hypothesis Phylogenetic trees, estimated from the characteristics of the taxa, represent evolutionary relationships and provide a framework for analyzing many aspects of evolution. Both morphological and molecular data are used in phylogenetic analysis.
  15. 15.  “Evolution”, Douglas J. Futuyma, 2005 http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/phylo genetics_01 http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum/
  16. 16. Questions?

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