Rostovian take-off model
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The Rostovian take-off model is one of the major historical models of economic growth. It was
developed by W.W. Rostow. The model postulates that economic modernization occurs in five
basic stages, of varying length.
• Traditional society
• Preconditions for take-off
• Drive to maturity
• Age of High mass consumption
Rostow believes that countries go through each of these stages fairly linearly, and set out a
number of conditions that were likely to occur in investment, consumption and social trends at
each state. Not all of the conditions were certain to occur at each stage, and the stages and
transitions periods may occur at varying lengths from country to country, and even from region
Rostow's model is one of the more structuralist models of economic growth, particularly in
comparison with the 'backwardness' model developed by Alexander Gerschenkron. The two
models are not necessarily mutually exclusive, however, and many countries seem to follow both
models rather adequately.
Beyond the structured picture of growth itself, another important part of the model is that
economic take-off must initially be led by a few individual sectors. This belief echoes David
Ricardo’s comparative advantage thesis and criticizes Marxist revolutionaries push for economic
self-reliance in that it pushes for the 'initial' development of only one or two sectors over the
development of all sectors equally. This became one of the important concepts in the theory of
modernisation in the social evolutionism.
• 1 Theoretical Framework
• 2 Stages
o 2.1 Traditional Societies
o 2.2 Preconditions to Take-off
o 2.3 Take-off
o 2.4 Drive to Maturity
o 2.5 Age of High Mass Consumption
• 3 Criticism of the Model
• 4 References
Rostow's model is descendent from the liberal school of economics, emphasizing the efficacy of
modern concepts of free trade and the ideas of Adam Smith. It also denies Friedrich List’s
argument that countries reliant on exporting raw materials may get “locked in”, and be unable to
diversify, in that Rostow’s model states that countries may need to depend on a few raw material
exports to finance the development of manufacturing sectors which are not yet of superior
competitiveness in the early stages of take-off. In that way, Rostow’s model does not deny John
Maynard Keynes in that it allows for a degree of government control over domestic development
not generally accepted by some ardent free trade advocates. Although empirical at times, Rostow
is hardly free of normative discourse. As a basic assumption, Rostow believes that countries
want to modernize as he describes modernization, and that the society will ascent to the
materialistic norms of economic growth.
Traditional societies are marked by their pre-Newtonian understanding and use of technology.
These are societies which have pre-scientific understandings of gadgets, and believe that gods or
spirits facilitate the procurement of goods, rather than man and his own ingenuity. The norms of
economic growth are completely absent from these societies.
Preconditions to Take-off
The preconditions to take-off are, to Rostow, that the society begins committing itself to secular
education, that it enables a degree of capital mobilization, especially through the establishment
of banks and currency, that an entrepreneurial class form, and that the secular concept of
manufacturing develops, with only a few sectors developing at this point. This leads to a take off
in ten to fifty years.
Take-off then occurs when sector led growth becomes common and society is driven more by
economic processes than traditions. At this point, the norms of economic growth are well
established. In discussing the take-off, Rostow's is a noted early adopter of the term “transition”,
which is to describe the passage of a traditional to a modern economy. After take-off, a country
will take as long as fifty to one hundred years to reach maturity.
Drive to Maturity
The drive to maturity refers to the need for the economy itself to diversify. The sectors of the
economy which lead initially begin to level off, while other sectors begin to take off. This
diversity leads to greatly reduced rates of poverty and rising standards of living, as the society no
longer needs to sacrifice its comfort in order to strengthen certain sectors.
Age of High Mass Consumption
The age of high mass consumption refers to the period of contemporary comfort afforded many
western nations, wherein consumers concentrate on durable goods, and hardly remember the
subsistence concerns of previous stages. Rostow uses the Buddenbrooks dynamics metaphor to
describe this change in attitude. In Thomas Mann’s novel, Buddenbrooks, a family is chronicled
for three generations. The first generation is interested in economic development, the second in
its position in society. The third, already having money and prestige, concerns itself with the arts
and music, worrying little about those previous, earthly concerns. So too, in the age of high mass
consumption, a society is able to choose between concentrating on military and security issues,
on equality and welfare issues, or on developing great luxuries for its upper class. Each country
in this position chooses its own balance between these three goals.
Criticism of the Model
Rostow's thesis assumes a strong bias towards a western model of modernization. It de-
emphasizes any difference between how leading sectors develop in free and controlled markets.
However, Rostow’s consideration of non-western cases such as China shows that to some extent,
modernization can be achieved in different ways and through free market or controlled economic
means and still fit into his model. It is more at his description of the final age, the age of high
mass consumption, where controlled economies seem most to find no niche in Rostow’s work.
Even there, though, it could be said that the society seeks out economic equality at the complete
detriment of any luxury.
The most disabling assumption that Rostow is accused of is trying to fit economic progress into a
linear system. This charge is correct in that many countries make false starts, reach a degree of
transition and then slip back, or as is the case in contemporary Russia, slip back from high mass
consumption (or almost) to a country in transition. On the other hand, Rostow’s analysis seems
to emphasize success because it is trying to explain success. To Rostow, if a country can be a
disciplined, uncorrupt investor in itself, can establish certain norms into its society and polity,
and can identify sectors where it has some sort of advantage, it can enter into transition and
eventually reach modernity. Rostow would point to a failure in one of these conditions as a cause
Another problem that Rostow’s work has is that it considers mostly large countries: countries
with a large population (Japan), with natural resources available at just the right time in its
history (Coal in Northern European countries), or with a large land mass (Argentina). He has
little to say and indeed offers little hope for small countries, such as Rwanda, which do not have
such advantages. In my opinion, this lack cuts to the heart of his analysis. Neo-liberal economic
theory to Rostow, and many others, does offer hope to much of the world that economic maturity
is coming and the age of high mass consumption is high. But that does leave a sort of 'grim
meathook future' for the outliers, which do not have the resources, political will, or external
backing to become competitive. (See Dependency theory)
1. ^ "Grim Meathook Future" is a quote from new media writer Joshua Ellis .
• W. W. Rostow. The Stages of Economic Growth: A non-communist manifesto Cambridge
University Press (1960)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rostovian_take-off_model"
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Dependency theory is the body of social science theories by various intellectuals, both from the
Third World and the First World, that create a worldview which suggests that the wealthy
nations of the world need a peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy.
Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they
are not integrated into the world system, or not 'fully' integrated as is often argued by free market
economists, but because of how they are integrated into the system.
The premises of dependency theory are:
• Poor nations provide natural
resources, cheap labor, a
destination for obsolete
technology, and markets to
the wealthy nations, without
which they could not have
the standard of living they
• First World nations actively,
but not necessarily
consciously, perpetuate a
state of dependency through
various policies and
initiatives. This state of
dependency is multifaceted,
involving economics, media
control, politics, banking
and finance, education, sport
and all aspects of human
• Any attempt by the
dependent nations to resist
the influences of
dependency will result in
economic sanctions and/or
military invasion and
control. This is very rare,
however, and dependency is
enforced far more by the
wealthy nations setting the
rules of international trade
Dependency theory first emerged in the 1950s, advocated by Raul Prebisch whose research
found that the wealth of poor nations tended to decrease when the wealth of rich nations
increased. The theory quickly divided into diverse schools. Some, most notably Andre Gunder
Frank, adapted it to Marxism. "Standard" dependency theory differs sharply from Marxism,
however, arguing against internationalism and any hope of progress in less developed nations
towards industrialization and a liberating revolution. Former Brazilian President Fernando
Henrique Cardoso wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile. The
American sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein refined the Marxist aspect of the theory, and called
it the "world system."
• 1 Spread of theory
• 2 Implications
• 3 Practical Failure
• 4 See also
• 5 External link
Spread of theory
Dependency theory became popular in the 1960s and 1970s as a criticism of standard
development theory that seemed to be failing due to the continued widespread poverty of large
parts of the world. With the seeming growth of the East Asian economies and India in the last
few years, however, the theory has fallen somewhat out of favour. It disagrees sharply with
classical and free-market economics. It is far more accepted in other disciplines such as history
and anthropology, which can count for or against it.
The system of dependency was said to be created with the industrial revolution and the
expansion of European empires around the world due to their superior power and wealth. Some
argue that before this expansion, the exploitation was internal, with the major economic centres
dominating the rest of the country (for example southeast England dominating the British Isles,
or the Northeast United States dominating the south and east). Establishing global trade patterns
in the nineteenth century allowed this system to spread to a global level. That had the benefit of
further isolating the wealthy from both the dangers of peasant revolts and rebellions by the poor.
Rather than turn on their oppressors as in the American Civil War or in communist revolutions,
the poor could no longer reach the wealthy and thus the less developed nations became engulfed
in regular civil wars. Once the superiority of rich nations was established, it could not be shaken
off. This control ensures that all profits in less developed countries are taken by the better
developed nations, preventing reinvestment and thus growth.
While there are many different and conflicting ideas on how developing countries can avoid the
negative consequences of such a world system, several of the following practices were adopted
at one time or another by such countries:
• Promotion of domestic
industry. By subsidizing and
protecting industries within
the periphery nation, these
third-world countries can
produce their own products
rather than simply export
• Import limitations. By
limiting the importation of
both luxury goods and
manufactured goods that can
be produced within the
country, supposedly, the
country can avoid having its
capital and resources
• Forbidding foreign
governments took steps to
keep foreign companies and
individuals from owning or
operating property that
draws on the resources of
• Nationalization. Some
governments have gone so
far as to forcibly take over
on behalf of the state, in
order to keep profits within
While dependency theory as a purely theoretical approach to global economics still exists, to
date, all attempts to use the theory to find a practical solution within its framework have failed.
The reasons include, but are not limited to:
• Corruption. State-owned
industries tend to have a
much higher rate of
corruption than privately-
• Lack of competition. By
industries and preventing
outside imports, these
companies have no
incentive to improve their
products, to try and become
more efficient in their
processes, to please
customers, or to research
Proponents of dependency theory claim that the theory of comparative advantage breaks down
when capital - including both physical capital like machines and financial capital - is highly
mobile as it is under the conditions of globalization. For this reason, the theories of dependency
theory may offer many new insights in a world of highly mobile multinational corporations.
Market economists have any variety of case studies to point to in order to discredit dependency
theory; the improvement of India's economy after it moved from state-controlled business to
open trade is by far one of the most cited examples (see also economy of India, Commanding
Heights). Also, India's example seemingly contradicts dependency theorists' aforementioned
claims about comparative advantage and mobility, as much as its economic growth came as the
result of such movements as outsourcing, one of the most mobile forms of capital transfer.
• Sociocultural evolution
• An introduction to
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependency_theory"
Dependency Theory: An Introduction
Vincent Ferraro, Mount Holyoke College
South Hadley, MA
Dependency Theory developed in the late 1950s under the guidance of the Director of the United
Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, Raul Prebisch. Prebisch and his colleagues
were troubled by the fact that economic growth in the advanced industrialized countries did not
necessarily lead to growth in the poorer countries. Indeed, their studies suggested that economic
activity in the richer countries often led to serious economic problems in the poorer countries.
Such a possibility was not predicted by neoclassical theory, which had assumed that economic
growth was beneficial to all (Pareto optimal) even if the benefits were not always equally shared.
Prebisch's initial explanation for the phenomenon was very straightforward: poor countries
exported primary commodities to the rich countries who then manufactured products out of those
commodities and sold them back to the poorer countries. The "Value Added" by manufacturing a
usable product always cost more than the primary products used to create those products.
Therefore, poorer countries would never be earning enough from their export earnings to pay for
Prebisch's solution was similarly straightforward: poorer countries should embark on programs
of import substitution so that they need not purchase the manufactured products from the richer
countries. The poorer countries would still sell their primary products on the world market, but
their foreign exchange reserves would not be used to purchase their manufactures from abroad.
Three issues made this policy difficult to follow. The first is that the internal markets of the
poorer countries were not large enough to support the economies of scale used by the richer
countries to keep their prices low. The second issue concerned the political will of the poorer
countries as to whether a transformation from being primary products producers was possible or
desirable. The final issue revolved around the extent to which the poorer countries actually had
control of their primary products, particularly in the area of selling those products abroad. These
obstacles to the import substitution policy led others to think a little more creatively and
historically at the relationship between rich and poor countries.
At this point dependency theory was viewed as a possible way of explaining the persistent
poverty of the poorer countries. The traditional neoclassical approach said virtually nothing on
this question except to assert that the poorer countries were late in coming to solid economic
practices and that as soon as they learned the techniques of modern economics, then the poverty
would begin to subside. However, Marxists theorists viewed the persistent poverty as a
consequence of capitalist exploitation. And a new body of thought, called the world systems
approach, argued that the poverty was a direct consequence of the evolution of the international
political economy into a fairly rigid division of labor which favored the rich and penalized the
How Can One Define Dependency Theory?
The debates among the liberal reformers (Prebisch), the Marxists (Andre Gunder Frank), and the
world systems theorists (Wallerstein) was vigorous and intellectually quite challenging. There
are still points of serious disagreements among the various strains of dependency theorists and it
is a mistake to think that there is only one unified theory of dependency. Nonetheless, there are
some core propositions which seem to underlie the analyses of most dependency theorists.
Dependency can be defined as an explanation of the economic development of a state in terms of
the external influences--political, economic, and cultural--on national development policies
(Osvaldo Sunkel, "National Development Policy and External Dependence in Latin America," The Journal of
Development Studies, Vol. 6, no. 1, October 1969, p. 23). Theotonio Dos Santos emphasizes the historical
dimension of the dependency relationships in his definition:
[Dependency is]...an historical condition which shapes a certain structure of the world economy
such that it favors some countries to the detriment of others and limits the development
possibilities of the subordinate economics...a situation in which the economy of a certain group
of countries is conditioned by the development and expansion of another economy, to which
their own is subjected.
(Theotonio Dos Santos, "The Structure of Dependence," in K.T. Fann and Donald C. Hodges, eds., Readings in U.S.
Imperialism. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971, p. 226)
There are three common features to these definitions which most dependency theorists share.
First, dependency characterizes the international system as comprised of two sets of states,
variously described as dominant/dependent, center/periphery or metropolitan/satellite. The
dominant states are the advanced industiral nations in the Organization of Economic Co-
operation and Development (OECD). The dependent states are those states of Latin America,
Asia, and Africa which have low per capita GNPs and which rely heavily on the export of a
single commodity for foreign exchange earnings.
Second, both definitions have in common the assumption that external forces are of singular
importance to the economic activities within the dependent states. These external forces include
multinational corporations, international commodity markets, foreign assistance,
communications, and any other means by which the advanced industrialized countries can
represent their economic interests abroad.
Third, the definitions of dependency all indicate that the relations between dominant and
dependent states are dynamic because the interactions between the two sets of states tend to not
only reinforce but also intensify the unequal patterns. Moreover, dependency is a very deep-
seated historical process, rooted in the internationalization of capitalism. Dependency is an
Latin America is today, and has been since the sixteenth century, part of an international system
dominated by the now-developed nations.... Latin underdevelopment is the outcome of a
particular series of relationships to the international system.
Susanne Bodenheimer, "Dependency and Imperialism: The Roots of Latin American Underdevelopment," in Fann
and Hodges, Readings, op. cit., p. 157.
In short, dependency theory attempts to explain the present underdeveloped state of many
nations in the world by examining the patterns of interactions among nations and by arguing that
inequality among nations is an intrinsic part of those interactions.
The Structural Context of Dependency: Is it Capitalism or is it Power?
Most dependency theorists regard international capitalism as the motive force behind
dependency relationships. Andre Gunder Frank, one of the earliest dependency theorists, is quite
clear on this point:
...historical research demonstrates that contemporary underdevelopment is in large part the
historical product of past and continuing eonomic and other relations between the satellite
underdeveloped and the now developed metropolitan countries. Furthermore, these relations are
an essential part of the capitalist system on a world scale as a whole.
Andre Gunder Frank, "The Development of Underdevelopment," in James D. Cockcroft, Andre Gunder Frank, and
Dale Johnson, eds., Dependence and Underdevelopment. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1972, p. 3.
According to this view, the capitalist system has enforced a rigid international division of labor
which is responsible for the underdevelopment of many areas of the world. The dependent states
supply cheap minerals, agricultural commodities, and cheap labor, and also serve as the
repositories of surplus capital, obsolescent technologies, and manufactured goods. These
functions orient the economies of the dependent states toward the outside: money, goods, and
services do flow into dependent states, but the allocation of these resources are determined by
the economic interests of the dominant states, and not by the economic interests of the dependent
state. This division of labor is ultimately the explanation for poverty and there is little question
but that capitalism regards the division of labor as a necessary condition for the efficient
allocation of resources. The most explicit manifestation of this characteristic is in the doctrine of
Moreover, to a large extent the dependency models rest upon the assumption that economic and
political power are heavily concentrated and centralized in the industrialized countries, an
assumption shared with Marxist theories of imperialism. If this assumption is valid, then any
distinction between economic and political power is spurious: governments will take whatever
steps are necessary to protect private economic interests, such as those held by multinational
Not all dependency theorists, however, are Marxist and one should clearly distinguish between
dependency and a theory of imperialism. The Marxist theory of imperialism explains dominant
state expansion while the dependency theory explains underdevelopment. Stated another way,
Marxist theories explain the reasons why imperialism occurs, while dependency theories explain
the consequences of imperialism. The difference is significant. In many respects, imperialism is,
for a Marxist, part of the process by which the world is transformed and is therefore a process
which accelerates the communist revolution. Marx spoke approvingly of British colonialism in
England has to fulfil a double mission in India: one destructive, the other regenerating--the
annihilation of old Asiatic society, and the laying of the material foundations of Western society
Karl Marx, "The Future Results of the British Rule in India," New York Daily Tribune, No. 3840, August 8, 1853.
For the dependency theorists, underdevelopment is a wholly negative condition which offers no
possibility of sustained and autonomous economic activity in a dependent state.
Additionally, the Marxist theory of imperialism is self-liquidating, while the dependent
relationship is self-perpetuating. The end of imperialism in the Leninist framework comes about
as the dominant powers go to war over a rapidly shrinking number of exploitable opportunities.
World War I was, for Lenin, the classic proof of this proposition. After the war was over, Britain
and France took over the former German colonies. A dependency theorist rejects this
proposition. A dependent relationship exists irrespective of the specific identity of the dominant
state. That the dominant states may fight over the disposition of dependent territories is not in
and of itself a pertinent bit of information (except that periods of fighting among dominant states
affords opportunities for the dependent states to break their dependent relationships). To a
dependency theorist, the central characteristic of the global economy is the persistence of
poverty throughout the entire modern period in virtually the same areas of the world, regardless
of what state was in control.
Finally, there are some dependency theorists who do not identify capitalism as the motor force
behind a dependent relationship. The relationship is maintained by a system of power first and it
does not seem as if power is only supported by capitalism. For example, the relationship between
the former dependent states in the socialist bloc (the Eastern European states and Cuba, for
example) closely paralleled the relationships between poor states and the advanced capitalist
states. The possibility that dependency is more closely linked to disparities of power rather than
to the particular characteristics of a given economic system is intriguing and consistent with the
more traditional analyses of international relations, such as realism.
The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory
There are a number of propositions, all of which are contestable, which form the core of
dependency theory. These propositions include:
1. Underdevelopment is a condition fundamentally different from undevelopment. The latter term
simply refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European
colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the land was not actively
cultivated on a scale consistent with its potential. Underdevelopment refers to a situation in
which resources are being actively used, but used in a way which benefits dominant states and
not the poorer states in which the resources are found.
2. The distinction between underdevelopment and undevelopment places the poorer countries of
the world is a profoundly different historical context. These countries are not "behind" or
"catching up" to the richer countries of the world. They are not poor because they lagged behind
the scientific transformations or the Enlightenment values of the European states. They are poor
because they were coercively integrated into the European economic system only as producers of
raw materials or to serve as repositories of cheap labor, and were denied the opportunity to
market their resources in any way that competed with dominant states.
3. Dependency theory suggests that alternative uses of resources are preferable to the resource
usage patterns imposed by dominant states. There is no clear definition of what these preferred
patterns might be, but some criteria are invoked. For example, one of the dominant state
practices most often criticized by dependency theorists is export agriculture. The criticism is that
many poor economies experience rather high rates of malnutrition even though they produce
great amounts of food for export. Many dependency theorists would argue that those agricultural
lands should be used for domestic food production in order to reduce the rates of malnutrition.
4. The preceding proposition can be amplified: dependency theorists rely upon a belief that there
exists a clear "national" economic interest which can and should be articulated for each country.
In this respect, dependency theory actually shares a similar theoretical concern with realism.
What distinguishes the dependency perspective is that its proponents believe that this national
interest can only be satisfied by addressing the needs of the poor within a society, rather than
through the satisfaction of corporate or governmental needs. Trying to determine what is "best"
for the poor is a difficult analytical problem over the long run. Dependency theorists have not yet
articulated an operational definition of the national economic interest.
5. The diversion of resources over time (and one must remember that dependent relationships
have persisted since the European expansion beginning in the fifteenth century) is maintained not
only by the power of dominant states, but also through the power of elites in the dependent
states. Dependency theorists argue that these elites maintain a dependent relationship because
their own private interests coincide with the interests of the dominant states. These elites are
typically trained in the dominant states and share similar values and culture with the elites in
dominant states. Thus, in a very real sense, a dependency relationship is a "voluntary"
relationship. One need not argue that the elites in a dependent state are consciously betraying the
interests of their poor; the elites sincerely believe that the key to economic development lies in
following the prescriptions of liberal economic doctrine.
The Policy Implications of Dependency Analysis
If one accepts the analysis of dependency theory, then the questions of how poor economies
develop become quite different from the traditional questions concerning comparative advantage,
capital accumulation, and import/export strategies. Some of the most important new issues
1. The success of the advanced industrial economies does not serve as a model for the currently
developing economies. When economic development became a focused area of study, the
analytical strategy (and ideological preference) was quite clear: all nations need to emulate the
patterns used by the rich countries. Indeed, in the 1950s and 1960s there was a paradigmatic
consensus that growth strategies were universally applicable, a consensus best articulated by
Walt Rostow in his book, The Stages of Economic Growth. Dependency theory suggests that the
success of the richer countries was a highly contingent and specific episode in global economic
history, one dominated by the highly exploitative colonial relationships of the European powers.
A repeat of those relationships is not now highly likely for the poor countries of the world.
2. Dependency theory repudiates the central distributive mechanism of the neoclassical model,
what is usually called "trickle-down" economics. The neoclassical model of economic growth
pays relatively little attention to the question of distribution of wealth. Its primary concern is on
efficient production and assumes that the market will allocate the rewards of efficient production
in a rational and unbiased manner. This assumption may be valid for a well-integrated,
economically fluid economy where people can quickly adjust to economic changes and where
consumption patterns are not distorted by non-economic forces such as racial, ethnic, or gender
bias. These conditions are not pervasive in the developing economies, and dependency theorists
argue that economic activity is not easily disseminated in poor economies. For these structural
reasons, dependency theorists argue that the market alone is not a sufficient distributive
3. Since the market only rewards productivity, dependency theorists discount aggregate measures
of economic growth such as the GDP or trade indices. Dependency theorists do not deny that
economic activity occurs within a dependent state. They do make a very important distinction,
however, between economic growth and economic development. For example, there is a greater
concern within the dependency framework for whether the economic activity is actually
benefitting the nation as a whole. Therefore, far greater attention is paid to indices such as life
expectancy, literacy, infant mortality, education, and the like. Dependency theorists clearly
emphasize social indicators far more than economic indicators.
4. Dependent states, therefore, should attempt to pursue policies of self-reliance. Contrary to the
neo-classical models endorsed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, greater
integration into the global economy is not necessarily a good choice for poor countries. Often
this policy perspective is viewed as an endorsement of a policy of autarky, and there have been
some experiments with such a policy such as China's Great Leap Forward or Tanzania's policy of
Ujamaa. The failures of these policies are clear, and the failures suggest that autarky is not a
good choice. Rather a policy of self-reliance should be interpreted as endorsing a policy of
controlled interactions with the world economy: ppor countries should only endorse interactions
on terms that promise to improve the social and economic welfare of the larger citizenry.