Marketing analysis of telecom companies of uk

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Background of the UK telecommunication industry,

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    I'm working on a project in this sector could you plz mail me this report with complete details i want to reference it.
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  • Hi Nazish, I am conducting an MBA project within this sector and would appreciate a copy of your report with your full name and date of creation so that I can reference it.



    Email is arthur_regan@hotmail.com



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Marketing analysis of telecom companies of uk

  1. 1. MARKET ANALYSIS OF THE TELECOM COMPANIES IN THE UK
  2. 2. ContentsIntroduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4Aims and Objectives................................................................................................................................ 4Industry Definition .................................................................................................................................. 5Background of the UK telecommunication industry............................................................................... 5Characteristics of the UK Telecommunication Industry ......................................................................... 6Industry Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Level of Competition in the Market .................................................................................................... 6Segmentation Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 8 Market Demographics ........................................................................................................................ 8 New Trends ......................................................................................................................................... 9Marketing Audit .................................................................................................................................... 10 PESTEL Analysis of the Industry ........................................................................................................ 10 Political factors.............................................................................................................................. 10 Economic factors........................................................................................................................... 11 Social factors ................................................................................................................................. 11 Technological factors .................................................................................................................... 12 Environmental factors................................................................................................................... 13 Legal factors .................................................................................................................................. 13 Porter 5 Forces Analysis .................................................................................................................... 14 The threat of the entry of new competitors ................................................................................. 14 The threat of substitute products or services ............................................................................... 14 The bargaining power of customers ............................................................................................. 14 The bargaining power of suppliers ............................................................................................... 15 The intensity of competitive rivalry .............................................................................................. 15Customer Decision Making Process and the Role of CRM .................................................................... 15Evaluation of Product Range................................................................................................................. 16 O2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Vodafone........................................................................................................................................... 17 T-Mobile ............................................................................................................................................ 17Pay-as-you-go vs. Long-Term Contracts ............................................................................................... 17Role of Promotion Strategies in Building Long-Term Customer Relationship ...................................... 19Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 20Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 21
  3. 3. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 24 Research Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 24
  4. 4. IntroductionThis report is intended to conduct market analysis of telecom companies operating in the UKwith the focus on their customer relationship. It will take into account different companies’strategies to influence customers in order to retain them for long-run. In addition to this, thisreport will also examine market factors which bear influence on companies’ strategic andtactical choices. The importance of telecom sector for UK economy can be gauged from thefact that it is increasingly becoming chief and essential feature of manufacturing sector.Therefore, it is essential that competing firms come up with new and innovative productrange which allows them to develop a close and long-term relationship with customers. Inaddition to this, it is also pertinent that other fields make use of telecommunicationtechnology to derive advantages and benefits for themselves. However, it is also true thatthere are number of trends and regulations which cast deep shadow on the nature of thisindustry. International regulations determine the industry standards which are required foreach firm to follow. In addition to this, multimedia content and speed are becoming newfactors which determine the attractiveness of service providers (Engelhardt, 2005). Aims and ObjectivesFollowing are the primary aims and objectives of this report: 1. To determine different market segments of the UK telecom industry. 2. To conduct marketing audit of this industry. 3. To determine different factors affecting macro-environment of the industry. 4. To determine factors influencing customer buying pattern. 5. To determine relative value of different companies and their products. 6. To analyse customer’s attitudes in context of customer relationship
  5. 5. 7. To determine those factors which allow companies to build long-term relationship with their customers. 8. To analyse the performance of different firms operating in the market. 9. To determine the critical success factors of the industry. 10. To identify the factors that determines the relationship between customer loyalty and provision of service. Industry DefinitionUK telecom sector not only represents the telephone services of different companies but italso include all types of access to different networks such as internet. This definition coversdissemination of all type of information which can take shape of sound, pictures, etc. Themediums are also several. Transmission medium can include cables, radio waves, relay orsatellite networks. Telecommunication industry is not limited to cellular technology but italso takes into account telegraph and telex communication (Gallacci, 2006). Background of the UK telecommunication industryTelecommunication sector traces its roots from the development of telephone exchange in thecountry. However, growth was witnessed in this sector during late 90s which completelychanged the outlook of the industry. Then in the succeeding years, deregulation andprivatization further improved efficiency and brought new competition in the market.Recently, the UK telecom sector has experienced increased competition which has forcedcompetitors to focus on both price and non-price competition. Moreover, EU regulatoryframework has also brought changes in the UK telecom industry. However, there are numberof constraints which have limited the growth of this sector. One such constraint is thedifference between expected and actual demand of telecomm services. However, on overallperformance, UK telecomm sector is among the four big markets of the Europe. At the same
  6. 6. time, it also the second largest telecommunication industry as far as the value-addition isconcerned (Gallacci, 2006). Characteristics of the UK Telecommunication IndustryThis industry can be characterized as a mixture of monopolistic competition and oligopoly.Liberalization allowed induction of new competition which introduced new and differentiatedproducts and services. In addition to this, the market can be categorized as mass due topresence of large number of customers. Moreover, industry structure demands capital andintensive approach which means a lot of money is required to enter this market. This also actsas a barrier to new entrants. Service is loosely based on infrastructure e.g. 3G, EDGE, etc.Another characteristic which provides benefit to present firms is large economies of scalewhich put them in cost-advantage against new competition. Industry AnalysisThe UK telecommunication sector has experienced phenomenal growth in last few years. In2007, it was able to generate revenues of £61.5bn which made it one of the largest industriesin the country. There are many firms competing in the industry but there are only few whichcan be characterized as major players. Among these players, British Telecom is the oldestplayer but lately has been losing its market share from new vibrant competitors. Other thanBT, the major players in UK telecommunication industry are Orange, Vodafone, T-Mobile,O2 and Virgin (Gallacci, 2006).Level of Competition in the MarketThe competition is high in the industry which has forced competitors to indulge in both priceand non-price competition. Mobile retail is the leading factor in industry’s revenue stream.New technologies such as 3G are also gaining popularity which has further stepped up the
  7. 7. competition. Voice and data-related revenues have reached figure of £15.1 billion. In similarfashion, revenues form SMS has also seen an increase of 28%. The figures relating to theindustry paint a very healthy picture (Ofcom, 2010). Following table shows some of the datarelating to the industry:Subscriptions 3.7 million new subscriptions3G connections increase of 60%SMS 59 billion SMS in 2007 alone (an increase by 28%)MMS 59.1 billionRevenue revenues rose by 4% in 2007SMS revenue per connection 17% increase Adopted from: (Ofcom, 2010)O2 is currently the market leader as it took the number one position in 2007. It enjoys finerun as it shares keep on increasing in comparison to other competitors. The position of O2can be measured from the fact that it generated revenue of about £4.1 billion whereas T-Mobile and Virgin Mobile generated revenue pf£2.7 billion. Following table showssubscriptions of each major player (Ofcom, 2010):
  8. 8. Vodafone 16.5 million subscriptionsO2 20.0 million subscriptionsT-Mobile 17.3 million subscriptionsOrange 15.7 million subscriptions3UK 4.0 million subscriptions Adopted from: (Ofcom, 2010) Segmentation AnalysisMarket DemographicsUnited Kingdom has total population of 60 million. Around 48 million people use mobilephones which not only show consumer inclination towards cellular technology but also makevisible the potential of growth. Moreover, around 70 million people have active connectionswhich show consumers’ preference for multiple connections (Ofcom, 2010).Around 57% of the mobile users belong to male gender whereas rest are female users. It alsoindicates that advertisement targeted towards male members of the society is more effectivethan their counterparts. In addition to this, mobile are mostly used by population under theage of 34. Around 59% of mobile usage is done by market of age 34 and below. On the otherhand, people above age of 65 represent the smallest segment for mobile companies. This canbe seen from the fact that this segment makes only 7% of total calls while their contributiontowards SMS stands at 5% (Ofcom, 2010).Mobile internet has been very popular in public and has fuelled the demand of not onlymobiles but also service providers. In 2007, there was increase of 7.8 million 3G connectionswhich only substantiates the popularity of new technology in public.
  9. 9. New TrendsMobile advertisement is one of new trends which have gripped the UK telecommunicationindustry. This trend has taken birth from the explosion of mobile internet and new devicessuch as IPhone and Google Android phone which are more internet friendly than othermobile devices. These mobile devices are more supportive to multimedia content such asYouTube which are very popular among general public. Resultantly, mobile advertisementhas increased manifolds. It is estimated that there have been an increase of 300% in thissegment. It is also estimated that mobile advertisement segment will stand at £187m by theend of 2011. Similarly, mobile devices have also witnessed different trends. As technologyintensive field, it has seen many new innovations which have completely reshaped thelandscape of the cellular technology. Apple iPhone and the iPhone 3G have completelyrevolutionized the market. Similarly, O2 has also changed the market dynamics with theintroduction of unlimited bandwidth utility. However, there is still potential of growth ininternet mobile market. Only 11% of mobile users use mobile for the purpose of accessinginternet. This market segment is leveraged by mobile companies through introduction of pay-as-you-go models which makes around 22% of the mobile broadband connections. Followingare some of the other new trends that have recently emerged in the mobile market of theUnited Kingdom (Trauth & Pitt, 1992). Around 37% of mobile users have used their mobile devices for the purpose of recording videos. Around 50% of the consumers give preference to Bluetooth enabled mobile sets when making buying decision regarding new mobiles. More than 20% of mobile users also use mobile for downloading audio content such as latest music tracks.
  10. 10. Internet usage stands at 50% which means that half of mobile owners in UK use internet feature of their mobile devices. Usage of mobile for downloading and uploading video and pictorial content stands at 25%. GPS is gaining popularity but it currently used by 20% of mobile population. Video streaming is done by almost 18% of the population. The application of e-commerce through cellular technology is still low as only 9% of the mobile users use it to either make purchases or pay utility bills. Marketing AuditMarketing audit is done to determine and understand the influence and impact of variablesoperating in the internal and external environment of the industry. There are number of toolswhich can be used to conduct marketing audit. As we are more interested in the macro-environment of the industry, we will be making use of PESTEL analysis (Grant, 2005).PESTEL Analysis of the IndustryPESTEL analysis allows clear and comprehensive understanding of macro-environmentwhich regulates the telecom industry in United Kingdom. Following is the breakdown ofPESTEL analysis:Political factorsThe current political conditions in the country promote the environment of deregulation.Resultantly, new competition has emerged in the market which has increased the choices forbuyers. Similarly, as a result of deregulation from EU front, UK mobile market is expected toface new competition in its market from the rest of the Europe (Bichta, 2001).
  11. 11. Economic factorsGlobal economic meltdown has put the UK economy into deep recession. The globaleconomic crisis has greatly influenced the public finances in UK and has left no visible pathto get out of it. The deficit ratio on GDP has reached 13% in UK arousing more fear on theinvestors and policy makers. The official reports on the national debt rate states that it isabout 68% of GDP and is accelerating at continuous rate. This national debt ratio was 38%only three years back and it now seems that it will exceed to 100% in the coming three years(Global Economic Crisis, 2010). Numerous jobs have been lost which has decreased thepurchasing power of general population. Such economic scenario plays its role in hamperinggrowth of mobile market in the country (G.Jayalakshmi, 2009).Social factorsSocio-cultural factors have deep influence on this sector. The emergence of social networkingplatforms such as Facebook and Twitter has provided especially the young population withanother medium to interact. The analysis of culture of UK by the Hofstede (2011) dimensionsleads to the understanding that the people of United Kingdom scored low at Power DistanceIndex (PDI), the rate of Individualism (IDV) is high among the people, the culture of UK ismale dominated and masculinity driven which means it scored high on Masculinity (MAS),the people in UK are not superstitious to anything and the people are not very religious innature this leads to the understanding that the people of UK scored low at UncertaintyAvoidance Index (UAI) and finally due to high rate of individualism, people do not seek longterm commitments which means the people score low at Long-term Orientation (LTO).
  12. 12. Source: Hofstede, 2011: Cultural Dimensions of UKVarious cultural studies noted that the culture has significant impact on the buying behaviourof the consumers. The culture is the driving force that influences their decisions, acceptabilityof technology and adoption of technology (Hofstede, 1991). This has brought significantsocial and cultural change in not only United Kingdom but also in other developedeconomies. Such happening has brought a change in the lifestyle of young urban population.Such change has led to increase in demand of internet mobile devices as well as newtechnologies such as 3G especially in younger segment of the market (Ivy Thesis, 2011).Technological factorsTelecommunication industry is technology dependent and technology intensive industry.Therefore, the emergence of new technologies has profound effect on the overall outlook ofthe industry. Resultantly, cellular companies and service providers make use of newinnovations to gain competitive advantage. One such example is of iPhone by Apple. IPhonerevolutionized the landscape of mobile devices in the whole world as it introduced newandroid technology in the market. Similarly, 3G technology has been very popular amongmobile users due to its advanced feature and high speed. 3K has the privilege of being marketleader in this market segment. It is essential for mobile companies to be proactive inanticipating technology changes in order to survive in the market. The decline of British
  13. 13. Telecom can be attributed to their inability to anticipate and react to technology changes. It isanticipated that number of radical changes in technology will occur in this sector which willcompletely revolutionized this sector. These changes will be in form high internet speedsavailable on internet and new technologies such as android which will make mobile interfacefor user more friendly and convenient (Liao et al., 2009).Environmental factorsTelecom is least affected by environmental factors as unlike transportation or petroleumsector, it does not directly or indirectly affect or alter environment. Gruber (2003) suggestedthat the telecommunications industry is a fast paced industry that has become one of themajor contributors in the mobile phones industry. There are various trends in the industry thataffect the performance of the companies. In general, the environment of the mobilecompanies is gravitating towards the global operations. The mobile firms like O2 face certainchallenges in the production and provision of new and better products at low costs andcompetitive prices.Moreover, the globalization is another trend that widely influence the way these firms areoperating in the domestic and international markets. The global operations allow thecompanies to devise strategies in such a way that ensures the large scoop of profits from theirmarkets. Jonash (2000) noted that such environments are monitored by the firms via effectiveinformation technology systems and internet to understand and identify these trends and theirimpacts on the companies at large.Legal factorsLegal influence exists in form of deregulation measures adopted by country’s legislative bodyor organization like European Union. Such measures directly affect governing rules of this
  14. 14. sector. In addition to this, it also determines the level of competition in the industry. Telecomsector is expected to witness more deregulation in the coming years (Gallacci, 2006).Another effective tool to conduct marketing audit is Porter 5 forces model. This frameworkallows comprehension of different variables operating in the external environment of theindustry (Porter, 1980).Porter 5 Forces AnalysisThe threat of the entry of new competitorsThreat of new entrants in UK telecom sector is significant. This is due to that fact that there isstill potential of growth in this sector. However, following are some of the factors whichreduce the level of this threat (Bichta, 2001). Huge capital investment required to setup telecom operations. Economies of scale enjoyed by companies currently present in the market. Customer loyalty of present brands.The threat of substitute products or servicesThe threat of substitution is very high due to presence of similar products and service, lowswitching costs and ease of access to product’s information. However, companies make useof new and innovative technologies to gain competitive advantage over their competitors(Trauth & Pitt, 1992).The bargaining power of customersCustomers are the king of UK telecom sector as they enjoy significant bargaining power. Dueto regulated nature of the industry, there is cut-throat competition between rival firms. Such
  15. 15. competition only benefits customers who are offered different products and services atrelative prices (Porter, 1980).The bargaining power of suppliersThe suppliers mostly consist in form of companies which provide mobile operators withtechnology infrastructure needed to setup mobile operations in the country. In addition tothis, mobile manufacturers are also the suppliers for this industry. Due to presence of largenumber of suppliers, the bargaining power of suppliers is only moderate.The intensity of competitive rivalryThe intensity of competition is very high in this industry. Rival firms make use of both priceand non-price strategies to gain competitive advantage over their rival firms. Anotherindicator of intense competition is the level of budgetary allocation for marketing andadvertisement purposes. Another indicator is the expenditure on research and development inorder to develop new technologies which could allow companies to gain advantage over theirrivals (Gallacci, 2006). Customer Decision Making Process and the Role of CRMCustomer Relationship Management is defined as enterprise-level system intended to conductcustomers’ interactions with the organization in most efficient manner. Therefore, it isessential for any organization to make use of CRM systems to improve their relationship withcustomers. For telecom sector, which is entirely dependent on IT infrastructure, CRM holdsa central position. As a result, companies like O2 and T-Mobile are increasingly cognizant ofits significance and are making use of it to develop long-term relationship with consumers(G.Jayalakshmi, 2009).
  16. 16. CRM enables organization to take a complete and holistic view of customer decision makingprocess. It provides it with real-time information which enables it to react to customer needsin most appropriate and timely manner. CRM allows telecom companies to interact with theircustomers in order to entertain their queries, orders, suggestions and complaints. CRM alsoassist companies’ sales force in identifying and prospecting new leads. It identifies problemareas as well as performance gaps in the provision of goods and services. Telecom companiescan use CRM in following ways to improve their services and hence build long-termrelationship with their customers (Fendelman, 2010). 1. To provide their sales force with real-time and relevant information which could allow them to respond to customer needs and demands in face-to-face contact. 2. CRM system can be integrated with call centre operations in order to collect customer data relating to consumer needs and wants. Later, this information can be used to extract trends through application of tools such as data mining. 3. CRM can be used to identify information which is mostly enquired by customers. This information can then be provided on internet for the convenience and ease of customers.In addition to this, CRM system can allow any telecom company to determine buying patternof their customers. For instance, T-Mobile can use CRM system to determine thedemographics of their users which mostly conduct international calls. Such data will allowthem to respond to this market segment in most personalized manner. Customization ofservice allows firms to build a sustainable completive advantage (Kotler, 1988). Evaluation of Product RangeO2
  17. 17. It is known for offering simple pay-as-you-go packages. However, it is bit expensive incomparison to other operators and has poor signal range in some parts of the country. Itsgeographic coverage does not include whole country and its 3G signals are not up to mark.Nevertheless, it offers best customer service in the industry (Telecoms Market Research,2008).VodafoneVodafone was the first mobile company to enter UK telecom sector. It is currently the worldlargest telecommunication group. In United Kingdom, it offers comprehensive coverageencompassing almost all of the country. It is also known for its pay-as-you-go service andoffers one of the best customer service which can be substantiated from it large customerbase (Telecoms Market Research, 2008).T-MobileIt offers service in relatively higher prices to other operators. Their customer service is alsoreported to be very poor. It also offers good network coverage with strong signal strength. Italso intends to offer greater 3G service in the country (Telecoms Market Research, 2008).The recent merger among T-Mobile and Orange in their UK operations has made it thelargest mobile phone operator in UK with more than 28.4 million customers and increasedmarket shares above 37%. This merger has become the competitive advantage for both of thecompanies (Wray, 2009). Pay-as-you-go vs. Long-Term ContractsThe introduction of pay-as-you-go has revolutionized the competitive setting of UK telecomindustry. It has liberated consumers from suffering agonizing post-paid service and its related
  18. 18. charges (Fendelman, 2010). However, there is still a market segment which prefers long-termcontracts due to their personal and business considerations. The popularity of pay-as-you-gocan be gauged from the fact that some people prefer to use pay-as-you-go pricing even whenusing long-term contracts. Following are some of the factors which determine the choice ofthe consumer to either use pay-as-you-go or long-term contract (Fendelman, 2010). 1. The financial ability of consumer. A person with regular and stable income stream will most likely to go for long-term contract. 2. Age is another important factor. Young segment of the market will most likely to go with pay-as-you-go packages as they usually are limited by financial constraints. 3. Usage. Customers with repetitive and routine usage will most likely to go for the long-term contracts. 4. Tariff. Pay-as-you-go usually offers more choices of pricings than long-term contract. 5. Packages offered by different operators are also one of the factors which influence the decision of consumer.Usually, pay-as-you-go packages are considered more cost-effective than long-termcontracts. This can be substantiated from the fact that it is gaining more popularity than latter.Following table shows tariff rates for pay-as-you-go package for O2. O2 Pay-as-you-goPrice Minutes Messages7.50 0 unlimited10.5 100 50015.5 300 unlimited Adopted from: (Fendelman, 2010)
  19. 19. Role of Promotion Strategies in Building Long-Term Customer RelationshipPromotion is done to increase the awareness of the product as well as to persuade consumerto give preference to a specific brand in his decision making process. There are number ofpromotional tools which are available to manager which can be used for the purpose ofinfluencing and altering consumer behaviour. Following are some of the tools which can beused by manager to build long-term relationship. 1. Advertising. It is defined as paid presentation of a brand where sponsor can be clearly identified. The primary benefit of advertisement is that it can make use of different media. Similarly, it has large market reach than other promotion tools. Telecom companies excessively make use of advertising to promote their products and services. For this purpose, they allocate a large amount of resources in their budget (Assael, 1998). 2. Sales Promotion. It is another effective way to promote one’s product. Using sales promotion, companies can induce customer to make purchase. This is quite relevant in telecom sector as it can be used to make sales of complementary products and packages. Sales promotion is used by companies to increase sales in short-term (Liao et al., 2009). 3. Personal Selling. Sales force is responsible to conduct personal selling. CRM can play essential role in personal selling. It can provide salesmen with the relevant information which can be used to close the deals. As personal selling entails direct interaction and communication between consumers and sellers, CRM can enable organizations and their sales force to provide customized and personal service. Such service goes long way in building sustainable relationship with customers (Liao et al., 2009).
  20. 20. 4. Publicity. Publicity is the below the line promotional methodology which is directed on the consumers without letting them know about it (Kotler, 2009). Publicity is mostly free of charge and it is a part of public relations maintained by the company to obtain the favourable reviews of the customers, employees, stockholders, government officials, and society in general (Berkowitz et al, 2000). Once publicity is done, it cannot be repeated. It is an unconventional method of promoting products and service. It is usually non-paid communication using different mediums but organization indirectly incurs publicity costs. However, it can create both negative and positive perception about the brand (Trauth & Pitt, 1992).It is pertinent to note that managers and their organization do not make use of single method.Instead, they develop promotion mix which makes use of each above-mentioned toolaccording to their efficiency and efficacy. ConclusionAfter conducting market analysis of the UK telecom industry, we can deduce following keyfindings: 1. There is potential of growth in this sector as there are number of niches present in the market such as internet, mobile commerce, etc. which can easily be identified by organizations. Focusing on such segments will allow telecom companies to establish their foothold which could eventually result in increased profitability. 2. CRM plays significant role in developing long-term customer relationship. It is on the basis of efficient and effective CRM system that O2 was able to achieve status of market leadership. 3. Different factors influence the consumer choice in selecting either the pay-as-you-go or long-term contract.
  21. 21. 4. Different promotion strategy is required for each of the above-mentioned options. 5. New trends such mobile internet, advertisement are rapidly changing the competitive landscape of the industry. 6. Technological changes have profound effect on the competitiveness of the industry. BibliographyAssael, H., 1998. Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action.Berkowitz et al., 2000. Marketing, 4th edition, Canada: McGraw HillBichta, C., 2001. The UK telecommunications industry 2001. The University of Bath.Engelhardt, A., 2005. Customer equity and market value in the UK mobile industry. CYBAEAJournal.Feldmann, V., 2002. Competitive strategy for media companies in the mobile internet.Schmalenbach Business Review.Fendelman, A., 2010. Prepaid Cell Phones: Analysis of pay as You Go vs. monthly contractplans. [Online] Available at:http://cellphones.about.com/od/serviceplananalysis/a/payasyougo.htm [Accessed 17 June2011].G.Jayalakshmi, 2009. Crm and the telecom sector. [Online] Available at:http://www.articlesbase.com/marketing-articles/crm-and-the-telecom-sector-821599[Accessed 17 June 2011].Gallacci, L., 2006. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY REPORT.Garnham, N., 1990. Telecommunications in the UK: A policy for the1990s.
  22. 22. Global Economic Crisis, 2010. UK Economic and Debt Crisis Approaches DangerousTipping Point, [online] available at http://www.globaleconomiccrisis.com/blog/archives/983[Accessed July 5, 2011]Grant, R.M., 2005. Contemporary strategy analysis.Gruber, H. 2003. The Economics of Telecommunications. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.Hofstede, G. 1991. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, New York: McGrawHillHofstede, G. 2011. Cultural Dimensions: UK, [online] available at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_kingdom.shtml [accessed July 5, 2011]Ivy Thesis, 2011. the Critical factors of the telecommunication industry in the UK– A casedissertation of 02.Jonash, R. 2000. Product Innovation: Staying Ahead of the Competition. USA Today, Vol:128 issue 2656, p. 24.Kotler, P., 1988. Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning. In Implementation andControl.Kotler, P., 2009. Marketing Management, India: Pearson EducationLiao, S.-L., Shen, Y.-C. & Chu , C.-H., 2009. The effects of sales promotion strategy, productappeal and consumer traits on reminder impulse buying behaviour. International Journal ofConsumer Studies.Ofcom, 2010. The communications market.Porter, M.E., 1980. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries andcompetitors.Siau, K. & Shen, Z., 2003. Building customer trust in mobile commerce. Communications ofthe ACM.
  23. 23. Telecoms market Research, 2008. UK mobile operator subscriber data, statistics and marketshare 4Q 2006 - 1Q 2008. [Online] Available at:http://www.telecomsmarketresearch.com/resources/UK_Mobile_Operator_Subscriber_Statistics.shtml [Accessed 17 JUne 2011].Trauth, E.M. & Pitt, D., 1992. Competition in the Telecommunication Industry:A new globalparadigm and its limits. Journal of Information Technology.Wray, R. 2009. Orange and T-Mobile to create UKs largest mobile phone company, [online]available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/sep/08/orange-tmobile-merger[Accessed July 5, 2011]Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L. & Parasuraman, A., 1996. The behavioral consequences oforganizational performance. Journal of Marketing.
  24. 24. AppendixResearch MethodologySecondary data was to use to conduct this analysis. This secondary data was mostly in formof books, article journals and research papers. The studies relating to customer loyalty androle of CRM in telecom sector was given preference and priority. The information derivedfrom these studies and research paper was used to conduct thorough analysis after whichconclusion and recommendation were given.

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