NEW MEDIA IN TOURISMCOMMUNICATION & ETOURISMDr. Alessandro InversiniSchool of Tourism, Bournemouth Universityainversini@bournemouth.ac.ukbeanbol.com
Dr. Alessandro Inversini Functions: Project Manager, Program Assistant, PhD student, Lecturer. 2010: Executive Director webatelier.net Webatelier.net management 10+ people / 5+ projects. Event Organizer (ex. ENTER2010 – responsible for implementation).Function: Managing Director (Jan. 2011)New Media in Tourism - Regional Competence Center6+ people, 6 public stakeholders + commercial clientsBlogger & Social Media SpecialistGood Results BUT need to move forward September 2012 http://blogs.bournemouth.ac.uk/etourismlab/
Dr. Alessandro Inversini Tourism and the Technological (r)evolution Day to DaySheldon, 1997; Poon, 1993; Gretzel et al., 2000 Operations Information Intense Stock and Manage Info. ICTs Tourism ICTs “[…] information is the lifeblood of tourism and so technology is fundamental for the ability of the industry to operate.” Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert, Fyall and Wanhill (2008:628)
Dr. Alessandro Inversini eTourism (I)(Buhalis, 2003)
Dr. Alessandro InversinieTourism (II)The digital revolution introduced by the internet, intranets and extranetsprovides unprecedented and unforeseen opportunities for productivityimprovements, interactive management and dynamic marketing (Buhalis 2003).As a result, organisations and governments are now, for example, able to:• accelerate knowledge and information distribution;• apply knowledge management at the widest possible coverage;• increase their efficiency and productivity;• improve and shorten the decision making process;• enhance their communication and co-ordination efficiency;• reduce their transportation, postage and communication costs; and• support their interactivity with all stakeholders.
Dr. Alessandro InversinieTourism (III)• eMarketing or eCommerce?• Destination Managers are understanding that if well managed technologis can bring a tremendous added value to their business. (Inversini et al., 2009)• The «internet revolution» brings: • New way of marketing and selling the destination • New business model • …
Dr. Alessandro Inversini Example Ihttp://estonianfreepress.com
Dr. Alessandro Inversinihttp://www.stregissingapore.com
Dr. Alessandro InversiniManagement & ExperienceTechnology is crucial for the management of tourism releted information. (Buhalis, 2003) BUTTourism is an experience which involves travelers. Modern travelers are exploiting technologies in all the different stages of the tourism goods consumption. (Gretzel et al., 2006)Modern traveler is sophisticated and in constant need of information. (Buhalis and Law, 2008)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniWhen technologies get involved? Gretzel et al., 2006 (Gretzel et al., 2006)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniWhen technologies get involved? (Gretzel et al., 2006)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniWebsite Communication ModelLet’s take a «services oriented» vision…
Dr. Alessandro InversiniThen what is a website?• “a cluster of pages” which is composed of “a unique node on the web”(O’Neill, 1998)• “hobby for Information System people”(Van der Geest, 2001) “a set of contents and services (pillar1), created by a group of people (pillar 3) and made available to a given group of end users (pillar 4) thanks to a collection of technical instruments (pillar 2), and it is situated within a given relevant market (5 element)”. (Cantoni and Tardini, 2006)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniWhat’s the goal of a website?• This is due to the fact that once a company enters the online information market as a player (i.e. creating an online presence/website), it could have three main core objectives: (Cantoni and Di Blas, 2002) • To be there: most companies today have a website, and not being listed by the search engines could mean forfeiting potential clients only because the company address or telephone numbers is not in the internet. • To operate: companies can choose to create online services to somehow operate in a B2B or B2C form in order to sell their product or to market it with prospective clients. • To integrate: companies can exploit the internet both operating and integrating. In this case, to integrate means allowing the website to support some business process of the companies. One example of integration could be an extranet for travelling workers.
Dr. Alessandro InversiniIs the web a competitive environemnt?
Dr. Alessandro InversiniWhat is the shape of the web?• Is it possible to represent the tourism online network of the island? Is it possible to study the topology of the online network (n= 468 elements)? (Baggio et al., 2007)• The network is a virtual space where the operators can meet, exchange information and experiences, develop common projects and build partnerships with the objective of reducing risk, distribution efforts, and financial costs.• Moreover, promoting a common project through interlinked websites provides increased visibility because a search engines recognizes and values the importance of the interlinking among websites (Brin & Page, 1998)
Elba Network Analysis (I) (Baggio et al., 2007) Dr. Alessandro Inversini
Dr. Alessandro Inversini Elba Network Analysis (II) • Low Connectivity • Low Modularity • Poor degree of technological collaborationLow propensity to reference the external world could find afoundation on the strong independent way to conduct thefamily run enterprises and on the high rate of loyalty guestswhich produce a good word-of mouth promotion. (Baggio et al., 2007)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniTourism Online Domain Xiang et al., 2008
Dr. Alessandro InversiniSearch Engine – Example (I)
Dr. Alessandro InversiniTOD (I)• 30 destination is US • 10 most popualr • 10 national fame • 10 regional fame• 65,961,000 pages• 969 (mean) Real indexed pages• Visibility ratio 0.032 Xiang et al., 2008
Dr. Alessandro InversiniTOD (II)Few unique results (same domain); most of the duplicates are: (I) portals andinformation aggregators such as chicagotraveler.com, citysearch.com, Yahoo!Travel, and Chicago Tribune Online; (II) destination marketing organizations’websites such as choosechicago.com; and,(III) government websites such ascityofchicago.org. Xiang et al., 2008
Dr. Alessandro InversiniTOD (III)• The so-called “thin” interface effect in that search engines are facing challenges in representing a complex domain like tourism.• Online tourism is, comprised of heterogeneous business and non-business facets that potentially contribute to the consumption of travel.• Although search engines have become dominant in the online search market, they may not be capable of providing access to a culturally rich domain like tourism. Xiang et al., 2008
Dr. Alessandro Inversini Are Websites suited for communicationpurposes “during” the tourism experience?
Dr. Alessandro InversinimTourimsDesktop navigation and destination websites can serve the pre-consumption and post-consumption phase, but the consumption phase itself is in need of new tools and applications to serve user needs effectively. (Inversini and Violi, Forthcoming)• A relatively new trend is Mobile Tourism where tourism information is disseminated through mobile applications (mTourism – Kenteris et al., 2010)