M0364065070

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International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI) is an international journal intended for professionals and researchers in all fields of Humanities and Social Science. IJHSSI publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field Humanities and Social Science, new teaching methods, assessment, validation and the impact of new technologies and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. The publications of papers are selected through double peer reviewed to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online.

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M0364065070

  1. 1. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 7714 www.ijhssi.org Volume 3 Issue 6ǁ June. 2014ǁ PP.65-70 www.ijhssi.org 65 | P a g e Perception of Secondary School Teachers Towards Total Quality Management In Education Iftikhaar Ahmad Wani ABSTRACT:The aim of the present study was to present the perception of secondary school teachers in Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir with regard to TQM in education. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary in demographic variables such as, gender and subject specialization (Science and Arts). For the present study Descriptive survey method was used. Participants were randomly selected from secondary schools of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. The sample size of the present study was 80 secondary school teachers who were selected from 10 secondary schools of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. For the collection of data ‘Perception towards TQM Scale’ was used. Mean, SD and t’ test of the scores was calculated to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that there is no difference between the opinion of male and female and between science and arts secondary school teachers about TQM in education. Thus both hypotheses i.e. ‘there is no significant difference between male and female secondary school teachers regarding TQM in education’ and ‘there is no significant difference between science and arts secondary school teachers regarding TQM in education’ stand accepted. So it is concluded that male and female teachers, science and arts teachers of secondary schools of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir do not differ in their perception with regard to TQM in education. I. THEORETICAL ORIENTATION OF THE PROBLEM Quality means degree of excellence. It means peculiar and essential character that makes something unique and the best of its kind. It means a characteristic or a feature that something has and can be noticed as a part of it. It means how good and useful something is. It is a utilitarian and contributive feature of the product. Quality is the inspiration for transcendence. It is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to standard that is required. Many consider that quality need not be conformance to requirements but should be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition it should also keep constancy of purpose. There are a number of researchers with this concept who formulated frameworks for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), Strategic Quality Management (SQM) or now the latest Total Quality Management (TQM). Even though there might be some differences among these approaches, TQM is considered to be more general to capture essence of quality improvements. Total quality refers not only to product but also to the way the product is presented to the customer. It is continuous improvement plan, with an effort to bring out the best. It is a concept which has been viewed as a customer focused process, which needs for continuous improvement and meeting customer‟s perceptions. For good understanding of the concept Witcher (1990) defines the term by breaking the phrase into three parts whereby “Total” implies every person is involved (including customers and suppliers), “Quality” implies customer requirements are met exactly and “Management”, implies senior executives are committed. TQM has been viewed as a customer focused process, which seeks for continuous improvement. It is a concept rather than a simple program or method which has many dimensions like planning, effective communication etc. by which every aspect can be improved and made effective. TQM emphasizes that it is important for all elements to fit together to turn raw materials into the products and deliverables that satisfy clients. Customer satisfaction is the result most addressed by TQM (describe the basic tenets of TQM which are as follows: “long-term perspective, customer focus, and top management commitment, systems thinking, training and tools in quality, increased employee participation, development of a measurement and reporting system, improved communication between management and labor, and continuous improvement”. It can be seen that TQM describes two main notions: 1. Continuous improvement and 2. The tools and techniques/methods used. In general, TQM encompasses many management and business philosophies and its focus gets shifted, based on the scenario where TQM is applied. Whether it is in industry or higher education, TQM philosophy revolves around the customer.
  2. 2. Perception of Secondary School Teachers… www.ijhssi.org 66 | P a g e A basic concept of TQM is that quality is measurable commodity and in order to improve we need to know where we are and we to have some idea or where we are going TQM not only represents a specific method or set of methods, but it represents a theory for transformation of organization. The definition of the term “quality” is subject to change over the years. This change has been from meeting learners‟ specification to satisfying the learners to meeting and exceeding future expectations. Total Quality Management used together is usually meant to recognize that real quality requires all elements of the institution to work together toward achieving the end. Those adopting TQM in education have varying perspectives on the approach. Some see TQM as a management system with customer or student satisfaction as the crucial element. Others see TQM as a philosophy fostering change in an organization or the educational institutions. Academic institutions have used both the approaches in applying TQM in higher education settings. Quality of education takes into account external environment in which institutions operate: internal environment where teaching learning takes place and home environment of learners. The systems approach to education comprises of inputs, processes and outputs, all encompassed in an arbitrary boundary, and the environment. Inputs from its environment cross the boundary into the system: these are acted on within the transformation/production process and finally released from the system back into the environment as outputs. The direction of flow from the inputs, through transformation/production process to the output indicates the flow of energy, information etc. Inputs are human, physical and financial resources, (students, faculty, administrators and organizational culture) Process is a series of actions or operations concluding to an end. A process transforms measurable inputs into measurable outputs under a value adding operation. Educational process is a series of actions or operations leading to an educational end learning, training, and scholarly activity. Transformation process for an educational institution consists of activities performed to disseminate knowledge, to conduct research and to provide community services. Process in the education system include teaching, learning, research, administrative activities and knowledge transformation outputs are tangible outcomes, value addition (through examination results, employment, earnings and satisfaction), intangible outcomes (educated people, research findings and service to community). Then there is feedback i.e. the outputs of information about the system which, when fed back into the system as inputs, are able to modify the system while the process is in progress, thus making the system more responsive to the needs of the components in the environment and thus making the system flexible. The output so released should satisfy the components in the environment in the form of customers/stakeholders: else the inputs would cease and further transformation /production ceases too. Each TQM initiative is unique, there are some common features. On the large canvas, TQM provides a direction and framework for morality in education. It considers and reward the effort of those directly involved, both inside and outside the organization. Successful TQM models tend to embody concepts of integrity, honesty, commitment, participation and ownership. By applying the various principles of TQM, the present school education can be improved and goal of quality education in schools can be achieved. There are a number of studies conducted in education which show the positive response of TQM in education in achieving the quality education. For quality school education, total quality must be the highest priority of the school. Everything should be quality focused. In educational institutions, highest priority should be given to quality education so that qualified learners can be produced. Quality definition should be clear. Any definition of quality must include satisfying the agreed learners need expectations.To satisfy the educational needs of students, continuous improvement efforts need to be directed to curriculum and delivery services. From such a perspective, various root causes of quality system, failure in education have been identified. These include poor inputs, poor delivery services, lack of attention paid to performance standards and measurements, unmotivated staff and neglect of student‟s skill, Ali and Zairi (2005). Some of the reasons include pressures from industry for continuous upgrading of academic standards with changing technology; government schemes with allocation of funds, which encourage research and teaching in the field of quality; increasing competition between various private and government academic institutions and reduction in the pool of funds for research and teaching, implying that only reputable institutions will have a likely chance of giving access to various funds. According to Crosby (1984) unless strategy is focused on the quality of the teaching system and improvement, goal of TQM cannot be fulfilled. TQM in education cannot be accomplished without everyone in the organization from top to bottom being committed to achieve results a passion for quality and decisions based on performance data, Kaufman, (1992). According to Corrigam (1995), unless an organization builds a customer driven, learning organization dedicated to total customer satisfaction TQM cannot be successful. “A set of fundamental core values forming building blocks of proposed TQM framework is leadership and quality cultures continuous improvement and innovation in educational process; employee participation; and development; fast response and management of information customer-driven quality and partnership development; both internally externally”, Juran and Gryna (1980).
  3. 3. Perception of Secondary School Teachers… www.ijhssi.org 67 | P a g e For the successful implementation of TQM in education quality circles are to be formed. A quality circle consists of small groups of people that meet on a regular basis to discuss problems to seek solutions and to cooperate with management in the implementation of those solutions. Quality circles utilize organized approaches to problem solving operate on the principle that employee participation in decision making and problem solving improves the quality of work. In education quality deals with monitoring and identifying the areas that affect the levels of teachings.TQM is a philosophy which insists on the improvement, enhancement, betterment and change, of all the services provided to the students in education, the improvement, betterment, enhancement and change of every aspect of an organization or field. It needs to bring efficiency to every dimension whether it is teaching learning, curriculum or infrastructure. There is a need of amelioration, augmentation of every aspect, from management through infrastructure to classroom teaching. Weinstein (2009) also suggests that administrators should investigate the benefits of implementing a comprehensive total quality management program in their institutions. Kristensen (2010) also argues that a better balance must be found between internal and external quality assurance and quality improvement. She therefore, finds it most stimulating that the European Standards and Guidelines underline that external evaluations largely depend for their full effectiveness on there being an explicit internal quality assurance strategy, with specific objectives and on the use, within institutions, of mechanisms and methods aimed at achieving those objectives. Toremen et al (2009) reveal the need for an effective change management, educating staff and utilizing human resources to attain a system-wide quality improvement, to implement the principles of TQM. Quality improvement is a continual process that should be taken up from the operational level to senior management. Primary schools, as the basic subsystem of educational super-system, affect upper level schools with their outcomes. So TQM efforts at primary schools are fundamentally important to achieve a high quality education system. Total Quality management will require consistent performance of high standards in all areas of school, thus measurement, assessment and auditing are common TQM activities the aim of TQM is to use resources better, to achieve greater success, financial or otherwise. The success of TQM results are, in improved employee involvement, improved communication and increased enrolment of learners improved quality and improved competitive advantage. The duty of top management should be to create awareness about TQM concepts and the individual role in achieving TQM in education. In TQM management commitment to quality is fundamental. Commitment to quality means an understanding quality and the importance of learner and appreciation of employees‟ contribution to promote a holistic approach so that it will become every one‟s responsibility. Management should create teamwork among employees. Total involvement of employees will boost morale of the employees. It will generate a sense of authority and responsibility among employees. The employees contribution and aids must receive serious considerations and be placed into operation whenever recommendations are sound and relevant. Schmidt (1998) discusses how the four Total Quality Management (TQM) principles, customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, empowerment, and teamwork can help teachers and students increase their efficiency and effectiveness in the classroom. Farooq et al. (2007) insists that the basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the questions of quality in business as well as in the field of education. He insisted on the need of every individual who is working in an organization should participate in the continuous improvement plan to make total quality possible. Quality culture, customer focus and good relationship in the organization are to be improved to execute the TQM to stand and survive in the times of competition. Riccardi (2009) indicated that the presidents perceived at their colleges relationships existed between product/service quality and customer focus, financial effectiveness and the other variables, operational efficiency and continuous improvement, public responsibility and the other variables, customer satisfaction and employee fulfillment, cooperation, customer focus, and public responsibility, and between employee satisfaction and the other variables. This study adds to the field of research by allowing CQI(continuous quality improvement) practitioners to focus on those TQM variables that support each other. Implications for future study include the evaluation of leadership during a CQI process, how accepting or resistant individuals are to change, and an exploration of how integral TQM may be within institutions, whether identified or labelled as such. Mehra and Munsung (2004) reported that to enhance the educational learning through some TQM principles, cooperative learning is a tool to enhance classroom learning and proposed to use specific TQM principles to enhance the learning process by adopting team work and empowerment. Ehlers (2009) also insist on the foundation for a comprehensive understanding and analysis of quality culture in organizations, focusing on higher education. While this understanding of quality as part of the organizational culture seems to gain more importance there is still a lack of fundamental research and conceptual understanding of the phenomenon in itself. Quality development in higher education is often limited to bureaucratic documentation, and disregards the development of quality as an organization's holistic culture.
  4. 4. Perception of Secondary School Teachers… www.ijhssi.org 68 | P a g e However, there is a need to focus on promoting a quality culture which is enabling individual actors to continuously improve their educational practice. II. OBJECTIVES To study the level of perception of teachers in Kulgam district about TQM in education.To study the difference between male and female secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education.To study the difference between rural and urban secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education. HYPOTHESES There is no significant difference between male and female secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education. There is no significant difference between rural and urban secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education. METHOD In the present study descriptive research method was used. Awareness, viewpoint or opinion about TQM among the secondary school teachers of district Kulgam of Jammu and Kashmir will be measured by the investigator with the help of self constructed Perception towards TQM survey scale. SAMPLING The sampling frame of the study comprises of all the teachers teaching in secondary schools of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. The investigator used the simple random sampling technique to collect the data for the study. A total of 80 teachers were selected from 10 secondary schools in Kulgam randomly. A sample of 10 secondary schools was selected randomly out of 21 secondary schools of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. From the 10 selected secondary schools, 8 teachers were selected from each secondary school. The sample was divided on the basis of gender (i.e. 40 male, 40 female) and further on the bases of specialization of subjects (i.e. 40 Science, 40 arts). The division of the sample is given below. TOOL USED In order to seek the perception of Secondary teachers regarding TQM in education, a self constructed Perception towards TQM scale was used. A brief description of the construction of perception scale is given below: (a) Preliminary Draft: In order to construct Perception towards Total Quality Management scale, investigator consulted sources like internet, journals, encyclopedias, books, magazines etc. Try out: For the try out purpose, a sample of 20 teachers was taken from the different schools. Primarily it was conducted to see the relevance of items and to note language difficulties if any, faced by the teachers in attempting the items. (b) Preparation of the Final Draft: after incorporating the suggestions of teachers, investigator proposed the final draft of perception scale for seeking the perception of secondary school teachers regarding TQM in education. Final draft consists of 40 items. Instructions were given at the cover page to explain the way of giving responses. This is five-point rating scale. Teachers have to give response to each and every statement, i.e. totally agree (5), agree (4), neutral (3), disagree (2), totally disagree (1). (c) Scoring: the chief aim of the Perception towards TQM Scale prepared by the investigator was to elicit responses from the teachers regarding their perception towards TQM in education. For this purpose investigator prepared wide range of items. Teachers were asked to assign weightage 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 to the responses depending upon the intensity of their liking of various responses in the scale. Different responses under these components were summed up later on to have a composite view of data. PROCEDURE List of schools was got from the Chief Education Officers office by the investigator. In order to get the data investigator personally visited the schools and contacted teachers of Kulgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. Selected teachers were met individually for explaining the purpose of the study. The teachers were instructed how to respond to the TQM scale and further clarifications were made to them to get appropriate data. The teachers were ensured that their response will be kept confidential and will be used only for research purpose.
  5. 5. Perception of Secondary School Teachers… www.ijhssi.org 69 | P a g e STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES For analyzing the data following statistical techniques were used:  Descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation  Percentage was calculated  t‟ test was applied to find out the difference between mean scores  Bar graph were plotted to have pictorial view of the data. III. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Results indicates that 23% of teachers are totally agree, 34.58% of teachers are agree, 23.33% of teachers are neutral, 15.86% of teachers are disagree, 2.75% of teachers are totally disagree about TQM in education. That is in aggregate more than 50% of teachers show high level of perception, 23% of teachers neither agree nor disagree and less than 20% of teachers show low level of perception regarding TQM in education.The mean scores of responses totally agree and agree is higher than the mean scores of disagree and totally disagree, which indicates that majority of the secondary school teachers have favorable perception with regard to total quality management in education. Results depict that majority of the teachers show positive viewpoint, belief and judgment about Total Quality Management in education. In other words we can say that majority of the teachers are aware about the concept that is being recommended by educationists to use and implement it wholly and solely for getting excellent results in education system. Percentage of teachers with favorable perception is higher than the teachers having unfavorable perception regarding Total Quality Management in education. It manifests that teachers may be more enthusiastic for performing their duty. It needs to encourage those teachers who are already aware about the concept and are ready to work towards its implementation. Those teachers, who are less aware about the TQM, are to be made aware about the benefits of total quality management in education, through seminars, symposiums and conferences, so that concept can be embedded in the education field. The knowledge explosion, quick means of dissemination of information like print, electronic media may be responsible for the awareness of secondary school teachers regarding TQM in education. These days it is very easy to get information about latest concepts through television, radio, newspapers, magazines, journals and internet, that is why majority of the secondary school teachers show favorable perception regarding total quality management in education Hypothesis I: There is no significant difference between male and female secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education. A careful glance at the results clearly reveals that mean score of female teachers (203.60) is higher than the mean score of male teachers (196.72). Higher mean score of female teachers indicates that female teachers have higher level of perception regarding TQM in education than male teachers. Further t‟ value of the magnitude 0.07 is smaller than table value (t=2.64) at 0.05 level, which shows that t‟ value is statistically insignificant, which indicates that male and female teachers do not differ significantly in the level of perception with regard to TQM in education. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. There may be many reasons for the results, these days all the individuals get education equally. There is now no discrimination on the basis of gender in getting education which made results to come so. It is also true that all individuals are equal in terms of duties, rights and responsibilities. All teachers are equally responsible in the school whether it is male or female, or it is science or arts teacher. Both male and female teachers have equal access to the means of knowledge and equal responsibilities have been shouldered by both males and females in every field especially in education. From the study it is also evident that whether it is male or female both can manage the affairs well. The results are in consonance with the studies conducted by Thaker et al. (2006) and Temponi (2005). Hypothesis II: There is no significant difference between science and arts secondary school teachers in the level of perception regarding TQM in education. A careful scrutiny at the results inserted reveals that mean score of arts teachers (199.9) is higher than the mean score of male teachers (198.5). Higher mean score of arts teachers indicates that arts teachers have higher level of perception regarding TQM in education than science teachers. Further t‟ value of the magnitude 0.01 is smaller than table value (t=2.64) at 0.05 level, which shows that t‟ value is statistically insignificant, which indicates that science and arts secondary school teachers do not differ significantly in the level of perception with regard to TQM in education. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.Whether it is science or arts it depends upon the belief of an individual, how he/she takes things. It depicts that no matter whether it is science or arts teacher or male or female it cannot have any effect on the perception about total quality in education and other aspects. Quality is quality for everyone; it cannot have two faces all individuals may have uniform opinion and responsibility about it. From the results it is found that there is no significant difference between science and
  6. 6. Perception of Secondary School Teachers… www.ijhssi.org 70 | P a g e arts secondary school teachers regarding TQM in education. The results are in tune with the findings of the study conducted by Pour and Yashodhara (2009). IV. CONCLUSIONS  According to the study majority of secondary school teachers show high level of perception about total quality management in education. Thus it may be concluded that majority of the secondary school teachers are aware about the concept of TQM. Most of the teachers in the secondary schools are willing to work towards total quality in the education system. Though a few teachers seem to have less awareness about the concept but, that cannot create any problem in the implementation of the concept.  There is no difference of perception between male and female secondary school teachers with regard to total quality management in education. Thus it may be concluded that the gender has no impact on the perceptions of secondary school teachers. Individual‟s sex has nothing to do with the viewpoint, opinion and awareness about anything.  There is no difference between science and arts secondary school teachers in perception towards total quality management in education. It is held that subject specialization has no impact on the perception of individuals. It has nothing to do with the attitude opinion and awareness of the individuals. Subject specialization has no relation with the tastes, perception and views of the individuals. V. RECOMMENDATIONS  The seminars, debates and symposiums should be organized at state and national level to bring awareness among teachers of all levels primary, secondary and tertiary so that education system can become dynamic and vibrant.  All the educational institutions should be provided sophisticated infrastructure, well qualified teaching staff, well qualified management to make TQM implementation success.  Not only government aided institutions but privately managed educational institutions should be insisted to adopt the philosophy of TQM.  There should be autonomous bodies for all the levels primary, secondary and university which can inspect the educational institutions after every one and two years, so that implementation of TQM can be ensured.  The concept should be applied wholly and solely to change education system which would be according to changing times.  TQM should be applied in other organizations for better performance. REFERENCES [1]. Ali, N. A. and Zairi, M. (2009). Service Quality in Higher Education. Bradford: Bradford University School of Management. [2]. Bensimon, E. and Neumann, A. (1993). Redesigning Collegiate Leadership. Baltimore: John Hopkins Baltimore. [3]. Best, J. W. and Kahn, J. V. (2003). Research in Education. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India. [4]. Guzman, D. and Torres (2004). The University of Santo Tomas Viewed from the Lens of Total Quality Management: Implications to Total Quality Education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(1), 88-99. [5]. Garrett, H. E. (1971). Statistics in Psychology and Education. Bombay: Vakils, Feffer and Simon [6]. Grumdahl, C. R. (2010). How Schools can Effectively Plan to Meet the Goal of Improving Student Learning. ProQuest, LLC, D. Ed. Dessertation, University of Mannesota. [7]. Hertzler, E. (1994). TQM in Higher Education: What does the literature say? New Directions for Student Services, 66, 81-87. [8]. Juran, J. M. and Gryna, F. M. (1980). Quality Planning and Analysis. New York: McGraw Hill. [9]. Kaufman, R. (1992). The Challenge of Total Quality Management in Education. International Journal of Education Reform, 1(2), 149-65. [10]. Kristensen, B. (2010). Has External Quality Assurance Actually Improved Quality in Higher Education Over the Course of 20 Years of the „Quality Revolution‟. Quality in Higher Education, 16(2) 153-157. [11]. Mannivannan, M., Premila, K.S. (2009). Application of Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Teacher Education Institutions. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 6(6), 77-88. [12]. Mukhopadhyay, M. (2005). Total Quality Management in Education, New Delhi: Sage Publications. [13]. Riccardi, M. T. (2009). Perceptions of Community Colleges Presidents: Total Quality Management Performance Measures at their Colleges. Colorade: Colorade State University. [14]. Schmidt, K. (1998). Applying the Four Principles of Total Quality Management to the classroom. Tech Directions, 58(1), 16-18. [15]. Toremen, F. (2009). Total Quality Management practices in Turkish Primary schools. Quality Assurance in Education, 17 (1), 30-44. [16]. Witcher, B. J. (1990). Total Marketing: Total Quality and Marketing Concept. The Quarterly Review of Marketing Winter, 12(5), 55-61.

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