Inuse seminar Nov 20, 2012 Salovaara
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  • 1. Crea%ve  technology  use  —    cogni%ve  and  behavioral  fundaments  An9  Salovaara,  Aalto  University  School  of  Business  INUSE  seminar  20  November  2012  
  • 2. Discovering  the  use  of  a  digital  camera  as  a  mirror:   an  example  of  “repurposive  appropria%on”  
  • 3. Repurposive  appropria%on:   Discovery  of  a  novel  purpose  of  use   By  an  individual  or  a  group     COMPARE  TO:  Integra%on  of  technology  into  prac%ce   Increased  mastery  of  a  tool   Learning  from  others  
  • 4. Appropria%on:  defini%ons  in  literature  Interpretation! Field of research / Framework!Invention of new purposes of use! Design! Cogni&ve  Science  Improvisation! CSCW / Ethnomethodology!Customisation and adaptation! End-user computing!Trying new features of technologies! Information Systems!Integration into existing practice! CSCW! —”—! Information Systems / Social construction of technology!Renewal of structures of work! Organisation studies / Structuration theory!Making the technology one’s own! Sociology of consumption / Domestication! —”—! End-user computing / Sensemaking! —”—! CSCW / Activity theory!
  • 5. IN-­‐SITU  OBSERVATION   IN-­‐SITU  OBSERVATION   CHI2006   CHI2007   !PERIODIC  INTERVIEWING   WEB  SURVEY   CHI2007   J  Am  Soc  Info  Sci  Tech  2012  
  • 6. Individuals  maZer     In  digital  camera  use,  over  50%  of  crea%ve  uses  are  discovered   alone  by  the  user    
  • 7. Previous  experience  (e.g.  on  cameras)   Everyday  problem  solving  Current     Technologies   Environment  solu%on     at  hand   and    aZempt   other  people  
  • 8. How  a  repurposive  appropria%on  can  take  place:   3  cogni%ve  explana%ons   Example:     How  the  camera-­‐as-­‐mirror  workaround     can  be  discovered?  
  • 9. 1.  Recogni%on  of  par%al  solu%on  in  the  environment   E.g.:   You  see  someone  taking  a  picture  of   another  person,  which  reminds  you  of   the  camera  phone  in  your  pocket  
  • 10. 1.  Recogni%on  of  par%al  solu%on  in  the  environment   2.  Solu%on  through  generaliza%on  of  problem   E.g.:   You  no%ce  that  mirroring  is  generally   related  to  seeing  yourself,  and  you  figure   out  other  ways  of  seeing  yourself  
  • 11. 1.  Recogni%on  of  par%al  solu%on  in  the  environment   2.  Solu%on  through  generaliza%on  of  problem   3.  No%cing  a  tool  with  analogical  effects   E.g.:   You  no%ce  that  camera  phones  also    
  • 12. Some  theore%cal  implica%ons  •  Importance  of  individual  cogni%ve  processes  •  Importance  of  technology  undersatnding  •  Repurposive  appropria%on  as  problem-­‐solving  •  Focus  on  breadth-­‐oriented  knowledge  •  Focus  on  problem  solving  tools  (analogies),   not  solu%on  strategies  (e.g.,  means-­‐ends)  
  • 13. Prac%%oner’s  take-­‐away   •  Design  for  crea%ve  users   •  Make  features  observable   •  Provide  hints  on  possible   effects  to  facilitate   interpreta%on   •  Provide  cross-­‐technology   connec%vity   •  Allow  experimenta%on   •  Support  both  old  and  new   ways  of  use  
  • 14. Ongoing  &  future  work                                   Crea%ve  Use  
  • 15. Call  for  PhD  students  @  Aalto  BIZ  •  Deadline  15  January  2013  •  Opportunity  for  a  funded  posi%on  •  More  info:  Google:  “Aalto  Applying  for  doctoral  studies”   or   hZps://into.aalto.fi/display/endoctoralbiz/   Applying+for+doctoral+studies      
  • 16. Propaga%on  of  crea%ve  uses  in   organiza%ons  •  Social  Network  Analysis:   –  “who  invents?”   –  “who  learns  from  whom?”  •  Iden%fica%ons  of  social  roles:   –  Inventors,  mediators,     normal  workers   –  Do  inventors  have  “courts”?  
  • 17. How  do  different  workers  differ?  •  Different  appropriators  in  organiza%ons:   –  Tinkerers,  programmers,  mediators,  normal   workers  (MacLean  et  al.,  CHI1990)   –  Worker  differences  have  not  been  studied   systema%cally  •  Use  SNA  results  to  iden%fy  different  workers   –  In-­‐depth  comparison  (ethnographic  +   psychometric)  
  • 18. Does  technology  understanding   increase  repurposive  appropria%on?   •  Our  web  survey*  found  that  technology  understanding  is   strongest  predictor  of  repurposive  appropria%on   –  But  regression  studies  are  correla%onal,  not  causal   •  Longitudinal  study:   Crea%ve  use   Crea%ve  use       Tech  understanding   Tech  understanding   Self-­‐efficacy   Self-­‐efficacy   Perceived  usefulness   Perceived  usefulness   Personal  innova%veness   Personal  innova%veness   Beginning     End  *  Salovaara,  Helfenstein,  Oulasvirta,  A.  (2011).  Everyday  appropria%ons  of  informa%on  technology:  A  study  of  crea%ve  uses  of  digital  cameras.  Journal  of  the  American  Society  for  Informa%on  Science  and  Technology    
  • 19. Empirical  refuta%on  of  TAM  •  Technology  acceptance  models  are  ambiguous   and  may  be  tautological   Perceived  usefulness  (PU):   1.  Using  the  system  in  my  job  would  enable  me  to  accomplish  tasks  more   quickly.   2.  Using  the  system  would  improve  my  job  performance.   U   3.  Using  the  system  in  my  job  would  increase  my  produc%vity.   4.  Using  the  system  would  enhance  my  effec%veness  on  the  job.   5.  Using  the  system  would  make  it  easier  to  do  my  job.   6.  I  would  find  the  system  useful  in  my  job.     PU     Use  (U):  Amount  or  frequency  of  use  
  • 20. Publica%ons  •  Salovaara,  A.,  Jacucci,  G.,  Oulasvirta,  A.,  Saari,  T.,  Kanerva,  P.,  Kurvinen,  E.,  and   TiiZa,  S.  (2006).  Collec%ve  crea%on  and  sense-­‐making  of  mobile  media.  CHI  2006.  •  Jacucci,  G.,  Oulasvirta,  A.,  Ilmonen,  T.,  Evans,  J.,  and  Salovaara,  A.  (2007).  CoMedia:   Mobile  group  media  for  ac%ve  spectatorship.  CHI2007.  •  Salovaara,  A.  (2007).  Appropria%on  of  a  MMS-­‐based  comic  creator:  From  system   func%onali%es  to  resources  for  ac%on.  CHI2007.  •  Salovaara,  A.  (2008).  Inven%ng  new  uses  for  tools:  A  cogni%ve  founda%on  for   studies  on  appropria%on.  Human  Technology.  •  Salovaara,  A.  and  Tamminen,  S.  (2009).  Acceptance  or  appropria%on?  A  design-­‐ oriented  cri%que  on  technology  acceptance  models.  In  Saariluoma,  P.  and  Isomäki,   H.  (eds.),  Future  Interac%on  Design  II,  Springer.  •  Salovaara,  A.,  Helfenstein,  S.,  and  Oulasvirta,  A.  (2011).  Everyday  appropria%ons  of   informa%on  technology:  A  study  of  crea%ve  uses  of  digi-­‐  tal  cameras.  Journal  of  the   American  Society  for  Informa%on  Science  and  Technology.  Available  in  PDF  from  people.aalto.fi/an9_salovaara