Persuasion

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  • 1. PERSUASION “Thaw with her gentle persuasion is more powerful than Thor with his hammer. The one melts, the other breaks into pieces.” ~ Henry David Thoreau ~1 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 2. Slide Content 1. What is Persuasion? 2. Key Elements in Persuasion 3. Persuasion: Traditional Approach 4. Persuasion: Cognitive Response Analysis 5. The Paths to Persuasion: ELM (Central or Peripheral route?) 6. Types of Appeal in Persuasion 7. Tips to Successful Persuasion 8. Self Reflection on Persuasion & Q and A Session2 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 3. What is Persuasion?  The act of persuading or seeking to persuade; The state or fact of being persuaded or convinced ~ Dictionary.com.  "...A symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice.“ ~ Perloff (2003, p.8).  ‘The art of getting someone to do something they wouldnt ordinarily do if you didnt ask’ ~ Aristotle.3 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 4. Key Elements in Persuasion 1. The Source - The person who sends a communication. 2. The Receiver - The target of a persuasive message. 3. The Message - The content of a piece of communication. 4. The Channel - The medium used to send the message.4 Eg. Newspapers, television, the Internet, verbal DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012 & non verbal communication (body
  • 5. Persuasion: Traditional Approach  Asks ‘Who says what to whom and with what effect?’  Provides a wealth of information about the when and how of persuasion. Research findings:  Experts are more persuasive than non-experts.  Messages that do not appear to be designed to change our attitudes are often more successful than ones that seem intended to manipulate us in their fashion.  Individuals relatively low in self-esteem are often easier to persuade than those who are high in self- esteem (audiences self-esteem).5 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 6. Persuasion: Cognitive Response Analysis  A theory that attempts to understand how people acquire and change their attitude in response to persuasive communication.  It is How and What you think about a persuasive information.  A cognitive response is a thought generated in response to persuasive communication (Petty, 1981) and therefore, triggers an attitude change.  People do not passively accept persuasive message, they actively think about them. This thinking are thought results either in attitude6 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology change. Original message change or resistance to Monday, October 29, 2012 often elaborated with ideas and arguments.
  • 7. The Paths To Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) 1. Central route happens when:  When we motivated & pay attention  Logical & conscious thinking  Can leads to permanent change in our attitude 2. Peripheral route happens when:  When we do not pay attention but sway with what we see  Change is temporary7 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 8. The Paths To Persuasion  Central Route is effective when:  people find message personally relevant and involving .  people are high in the need for cognition.  people are in a neutral or mildly negative mood .  communicator speaks at normal speed.  Eg. after hearing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you found the candidates views and arguments very convincing.8 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 9. The Paths To Persuasion  Peripheral Route is effective when:  people find message irrelevant and non-involving .  people are low in need for cognition .  people are in a positive mood .  communicator speaks rapidly.  Eg. after reading a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you like the sound of the persons voice, or the person went to the same university as you did.9 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 10. Types of Appeal in Persuasion  Appeal 1: Logical - An argument based on facts, statistics & research or expert opinion.  Appeal 2: Emotional - Getting an emotional response is another way to convince.  Appeal 3: Moral – The last way to convince is to appeal to people’s morals….for them to do the ‘right’ thing…10 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 11. Tips to Successful Persuasion  Focus on the needs of the other party.  Argue your case with logic.  Use positive rather than negative language.  Subtly compliment the other party.  Mirroring the other persons mannerisms (e.g. hand and body movements).  Try to remember the names of everyone you meet.11 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 12. Self Reflection on Persuasion & Q & A Session  Persuasion is a powerful tool for someone who really master it.  Women are far better persuader than men but are more easily influenced than men.  Persuasion can either be for positive or negative purpose.  Persuasion is more effective if you know when is the right time, the right tone of voice to use, when you know the person.  Can either use direct or indirect persuasion / different layer of persuasion.12 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012
  • 13. References  Module 3 – Introduction to Social Psychology.  Samsuddin A. Rahim(1997). Komunikasi Asas. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.  Experimental Psychology With Advanced Experiments (in 2 Vols.) Author, M. Rajamanickam. Publisher, Concept Publishing Company, 2004.  Central Route and Peripheral Route to Persuasion. Retrieved 11 October, 2012 from http://www.psychologyandsociety.com/routestopersuasion.html  Persuasion and Influence. Retrieved 11 October, 2012 from http://www.dougmccormick.ca/reclaiming-reality/40/55-influence-13 DC 203 - Introduction To Social Psychology Monday, October 29, 2012 and-persuasion.html