"Start-up dynamics of TCP's Congestion Control and Avoidance Schemes"

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Janie Hoe. …

Janie Hoe.
Master Thesis 1995.
This master thesis is really interesting since Janie Hoe was the first who introduced some basic concepts which could be found few times later in many algorithms which deal with recovery from multiple losses inside a window a data.

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  • 17. t& r ™ ¦¨ ¤   ” ™” ¤ “ “ “– ¤ ” ™  ˜• ¢ r ™ 7›“y˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ˜ Y Ÿšyw˜š˜š›˜—V‡yy‘ §› B¤¢8$‘˜‰’ X ¤ ™   yW §›AD§š” h  )—¥    ¨ ˜“ ¤   ”   ™    ™   “  ’  ™ ™ –  • ¦ –    • • ¦Ÿ • ’ “ % ¢ 0 ” ¢  ‡i7§’ W §š@›§‘§ $'—‡‘AS¤¤§§—§›B›™ §¥CÌU¥Ÿ # 0 @Uc8¤— #  " r $ ©“ • U! & ˜ •  ˜ ˜ h™ W ¤ ˜ ¨ ˜ •   • ™ ¨Ÿ h  ˜ ¤Ÿ ’ ˜ • ™ ¡   ˜ ™ Ÿ ™ “  “ ˜   ˜ ™ ˜ ¨  ¤›™ yBpš˜ iX ’ ¤f—›™ ¦ ‘ ¡ ›C4…§¨ ‡’ W ¥¤ W ’ x‡’ Y ̤›5§ƒ‘‡’ ¦ š˜ ’ š—wŸ ¦ ‘¤¨ ‡’ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ q ” v   ™ q ”   h™ “  ˜ 0 ˜ – 6Ÿ  • ” ˜ ™ ¦      ˜ ™ ’  Ÿ ’ av ™ ˜ q ” ’ a ’ • “ ˜ ›y˜ ¦ y›u‚§’ W ‘¸v ‚‡’ W ¢phC¨ š“ )& —©4¤¤‘y›—xŸ W ›BT‘‰8‡£pš§‚§£f“ • Y —yk$ # " r ™• Ÿ v˜ X h  Ÿ h  “˜¦ ” ˜ ™ “ “’ ”˜ ˜ “ ˜ “ œ r ¤˜¨ – '•D§¥¦A˜¤§  DW )¤¨ x…@‡¥ ›Ÿ“™ym¤§y‚—•y˜§–›˜©š¤¨ ˜ ¦ ¤‘•›”‚—›•™ % › sž¡B©“ X ¥’š¤t8›ŸA™ ¨ ¤‡‘    h  ˜  ’¡    ˜ ˜“ ¢ ¢ Ÿ‰  Ÿ  ˜ •™ ¡  ˜ ¦’ ’ ˜ •™ ’ •™ ˜™’˜ Bp™ X ˜ Y †¹F“ y†“ • …£6 ¦ – ¦ yx’ ¦ ¨ ‡’ ¦ – ¦ CwŸ ¦ —›c‡km§‰˜ Y k—‡—†©›‡–›$¦   “ ¢ ¢ 6 ™  ˜   – ” ˜ • ™ ¡Ÿ ˜ ˜   ™ “ q ” ˜ • • ™Ÿ    ¦¤ ’  ¡ ” h  !  ¦  wŸ …hy‘Bšƒ—¦wƒy“ ‘‚y‚y—‘” 0 ¦ ›x›$mw‡Q0 & ’ “ • ™ §›©B)‘…`¨ ‡’ —’ s # " r ¢ ¢ 6 ˜ X ¨˜ Ÿ¨   ™˜  ˜ Ÿ ¦ Ÿ  ™–  “ X ¡   W – ˜ X e…£¤›•™ DW 7¤4¨Ÿ Y CtAq¢ph—k—›•™ wƒ—xC¨ ‡‘’™›“¤§Uy‘˜™ DW ‡˜ u¦ D‚¤›•™ DW ¨˜3˜¨ Ÿ ˜ “ Ÿ ™ Ÿ ™–•¦– • ¢ r™ ¦ “ ˜ X ¨ “’ ”˜¨   Ÿ “ ™ 7¤¤©¤‡w“U˜ ¦ ¤‘•›”¦¥“C›•ƒw8¤CB§—§› B¢8hD˜ ¦ š›˜…—‡  DW 7˜§–›˜©š¤‡¥“Ÿ h C¨ w…h % w™Ÿ¤‡‰’ƒwŸ ’ h ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜  ¤   ˜ • ¨ ˜Ÿ • ” ’ ™ –  • ¦ –    • ˜ • ™ ¡¤ ’ •v ˜     ’ • ™ “ “ ˜¤ “Ÿ ˜ ”  ˜  ˜ ˆŸ “§¢eDš˜ ¦ š›u¤§  X ¤§  —…h 7˜ Y ¥C‘§k¤CB§—§›B›™ —›hx‡—¸—§r‡—›U›š¥wuy¤š‘98C¨ ˜ • ™ ¡œ r  ˜¤¤ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜    “ ’   Ÿ h ˜ • ™  ˜ • h ™ –  • ¦ –    • ™ ˜ • ™   ¨ ˜  ’   ” “ ¤›Sžrh¥x‡’ ¦ ÌDš˜ ¦ y—§ƒ§¢h h C¨ w…u¤›š—…€¤¤B§¤§‘B—›r›™ 7›— ¦ yu¥Ÿ –  • ¦ –    • ¨ ˜Ÿ • ” ’ ˜ • ™ ¨  ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜  ” Ÿ “Ÿ ˜ Ÿ h   Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ ¢ ™C¤B§—‡‘B™ ©˜ Y ¥¤‘§r—›2B‡’ % Dš˜ ¦ yr—§  DW 7§–›©—xˆwiyG “ )¤¨ x…"—›™ % …h6    Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    ¦ Ÿ • ” ’      ’ “Ÿ q    h™ ˜ ˜ • ™ ™ ’ •   Ÿ ™ ’ ”Ÿ   “ ˜ ™ ’ ¦ Ÿ  ˜ X ©˜ Y  r §¥y§—§y” ¤w¤‘§m‘BBx¥2A$Bpš— —›—›™ §¥‡–wC¨ wŸ ’ §’ ›‡‰ —xC¨ ›“   ˜ • ™ ¡ ¦ Ÿ  ˜ ™ ™ ’ ˜ • ¦ Ÿ “  ¨ ˜ “ “ ˜ • ” vŸ  ¢ ¡    ” h    ¤›…§  —w¤‘‡—¥ ¤›™ ¤w¤– §  ©›§’ W ¥Ÿ X ˜ ¦ ¤‘›“ ¥ 8ƒ“ • ™ ‡‘©B)‘…! ¨ ‡’ —’ s # % "  ¦  r™ Ÿ  ¤ ™  – ’ “ ™ Ÿ “ ’ ™ “ ¨  7Dw§' ’ ¦ ›Ÿ¤$…›“w™Ÿ ¨ ¤§› …š‘˜‡¥’w¤w¤›”m  ¨ ‡Dš˜ ¦ “™—%–$’ X ©˜ Y ˜ ¦ Ÿ  – ¨ “ ˜ ¦  ’ • ”   Ÿ h ˜ • ˜   ¡ ˜  ˜ • r ˜ Ÿ“ ™  ¦ ˜ ¤w›§C€šm—‡—‘gh C¨ w…f—›™ % ‘¼š‘—¢¢ yG “uD˜ ¦ š›“ ¦ – ¦ yx’ ¦ —§  DW 7§–›©—xk¥Ÿ Ÿ‰ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜  ” Ÿ “ ˜ Ÿ h   Ÿ h ˜ • ˜ “Ÿ h  ˜ • r • ™ • ¦Ÿ ˜  X ¨ ˜ “ ’ ˜  ” ˜ ¨ “ ˜ Ÿ h   ¨ Ÿ h ˜ • Ÿ ™Ÿ “   šG ““ )¤¨ w…t—™ % ¥…©—™ X '›D§wš˜ —§  DW ©›§y‘©š¤f¥Ÿ yG “ )¤Bw…t—›™ % ˜ Y ›xm' “Ÿ e ¢ ¢ ¨¤ w‚W…h6 i‡  v …h6 y‘Bš¹©)šG ““ h C¨ w…i§v šG ““ h C¨ w…„D‘A§štyš—@›B —†žœ ¢ ¢ ™  ˜   – ”b e ˜ Ÿ   Ÿ h ¨¤   ˜ Ÿ   Ÿ h ™  ˜   – ”b ™ ” – ¨    ˜ • ™ ¡ re ¢ ¢ ¤˜ ¨ v  –    ˜ ˜”   ¨ “ ¨’ Ÿ ˜ h  Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ r   ™˜  †W…h6 b “ X ’ šC"8›ŸA¸™¨ ¤‡‘  Bph™ X ©˜ Y Ïy—‡r7›˜™—%–w“ÏšG “Ÿ“ )¤¨ w…—¢S–Aq$Bphš¤‚w”›Ÿ“™¥“Ÿ v  ™˜ ’  ¡ ˜ h  Ÿ ™ ¤ Ÿ” “ ’ ¡  ™ ˜¨ ¤’ ¤’ ’ ’   ¨ “ §wŸ ¦ ‘˜šC¨ $¼ ‚yG “Ÿ“ )¤¨ x…h ¦ – ¦ ›Ÿ¤$  X x¤‡’ @ fh§  §¥ Ÿ‡’ Y ›Ÿ¤‡y¥”›Ÿ™ X ‡—‡r‡r‡r7˜§’ W “ •”’    ’¤ Ÿ  ™v  –   ¦ Ÿ “ ˜ ”  ’ ¨Ÿ &   Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    b & Ÿ ’ wŸ ‘‡©‘B§’ X & e X ¥š˜  8›A¸¨ ¤‡U6 —w“—– y—‡¤i§  Y 4§¥šm—§¢! F 6 ¡! “ • w‡©" # "
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  • 19. ( )& Ç·° ¶­ ¾ ½ Ä­ (­  ° ¶­Ã­ ¬ ¿ Æ µ ¿ Ä ± (­ ­² ® ·­ ¬Ã ¿ Æ ¿ ­· ¯ ·­ ¾­ ¬Ã· µ ¿ ¯­ ¯ ¢ ­ ¬ ty¢pyw±2™cš›%›¹² tÁ°c†™À¶yA(š¦£¹šc™A¸w°ct· Á¶›¹pc›¢™A¸…™Á¶p™–£™c« ¤ r  ™” “ ¦ Ÿ h ¤ ¡ ˜ Ÿ’ ” '§w ›Ÿy›˜“ W –F¤w…)¥ x¤§¼ k—›•™ wŸ ¦ ¥“C‡—‘•y˜ ¦ ™  ’ ™   Ÿ “Ÿ •    • ” –   ™ s “Ÿ  ’ • ” ¦ Ÿ q ”  ¤ ”v¡¤ ˜ “ ˜ • ™  ˜      ¤ ’ ™  ’ ¨  D‡‰$9 ¦ Ï¥¤™ §‘—‡‘f˜ tr ¦ ¥¤‡—‘y˜ ¦ —xy‚y¥Aixš›f—›™ % X ›9$›Bf‡‰Dš˜ ¦ —B¤– ¡ ’ ¤   ”   ™     ˜ • ™   ™ Ÿ “ ¨¤Ÿ  Ÿ¤ ˜ ’ ™ ’ ¨ ˜ Ÿ¤ ˜  ™  ˜¤ Ÿ   ™ $ & ¡   ˜ “ a ! §yy‘§›B9—›ˆ‘DwS¤ix¤– W X ©˜ Y w¤¨ ‘‡—9¥¤ W ’ w‘cDš˜ ¦ w¤ ¦ f›“ • U! T§u—– “ • dW¢ “  ™ ™ ¤ Ÿ ˜ ™ Ÿ  “˜¦  ” ¡   ™’ Ÿ Ÿ ’ “ ¨ “ – r©—§¥ Ÿ‡‰’D˜ ¦ ¥˜¤ ¦ ¤›•x§¥ Ÿ™šm—§ša§É‡¥ ›Ÿ–¥”@¨ w†§’ 7˜—˜ W ‡y¢›“§¥ …š§‚q§— †—D›•™ ’” “ ¤ ™˜ ”’ ’ “ –  Ÿ ”˜  ™ ™’ ¨˜  ¨ ˜ “’ ™˜ ”’ ’ ™’ ™ “ ™˜ ”’  ¨ ’ % ‘•›”w™…h“ ‚qš—šw˜›¤›™‡  W ’ ‡i7'B$› §šš˜ W §—• m‚q§— ‡—›•S›“§¥ ¤ m‚q§—f’ ¦ ‘  U©¼˜CwŸ ¡  ¡ ’ ˜ & “ ˜ “ “  ¤ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ˜ • ™ ¤¤ ’ ¡    ’ • ™ “ “ ˜¤ • ” b ˜  ’  “ ˜  –¤Ÿ ’¡ ™ “ ˜ – “ q ” ˜ • ‡y” Bh % e # $& " y›m¥¢šm‚‡— ——w‡c§  ¡& ‡—›Byw‘—– ¦ €›‰R¥Ÿ % ‘Bxw‡¹By›™ ¦ “@‚š—‘” Ÿ “ ™¤ – “ ˜  • ”Ÿ • ™Ÿ “  ’  ™ ¦ Ÿ  – ¨   Ÿ ™  –     ” ’ ™ ’ X ¨ ˜ “ – ’ ” “ “  ¤ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ™ ’ • ™   Ÿ ™ – “ “ x£‘x¤š‘„‘w¤…h % w“—‡‰—x›B@V§¥¤BA$š‰—¨ DW 7—‡ysm¥¦m‚§— ‡—u§w›¤ ¦ §’ ˜ • ™    ¨ ˜ “ ’ ” ¨ ˜      ¨ ˜  ’ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ “ ˜ • ” ™Ÿ h“ ˜ • ™ Ÿ       ˜ ˆ “ ˜ “ – ’ ” “   Ÿ ™ ” ˜     ¤›ˆ§Ì7›‡†Rr 7'B$›§c‘x¢›šm‚‡— % y—‘›w…wU¤›ƒw2h ¤¥ ©˜ Y 8©'B– W y›¤‡–8—§w›y—¤‡y” ˜¤ Ÿ ™¤   ¡ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ¡   ¦ Ÿ – ˜ – 6 ˜ ™ ’ ¦ ˜  ¦ ¦ ˜ • ™  ˜ s “ ˜ • ” “ ¦ Ÿ – ˜ – 6 ™ –  v ™ “  v  ¥¤8›x¤– ¦ ¦ ‘ ›š§‚§— §É—x¤š¤D5›‡©š‘$m‡’ ¤›i—• ‡r 7 y˜ ¦ ¤‘›ˆ—w¤—©W¤§ž›B3 wŸ wv™›“Bf˜—– X w¤‡‘’©—mF‘•w”¤…h % š—‘•‘”x™…higaœ DW 7‘˜™$'—‡‘’Ac¥“…‰’k‡–Aq$Bphš—8—•U› uš¤›•‚¨ ‡’ 3 “ ¤ ˜ ˜¦ Ÿ• “˜ Ÿ “ X ¨   “  ™ Ÿ ™’  r   ™˜  ˜ ™ ™ ˜ ™  a ! ¢ ¨ “’  Ÿ “  ˜ ˜   “  ™’ ¤ ¡ ™’  ™” Ÿ ’ œ ˜ dWf› ™ ©›˜›“‡—d¥“…‘““™m—• ¨ šk¤›•™ §¢—‡¥ ›Ÿ–¥”xŸ¤B’ ¦ ‘  F‘’‡—¨ % ›˜B›–y›˜w™¤‘•›”2ga‚—•™ žœ rr ™ “e$›”š˜  ™”˜    h ¨ “ ¤ ™’ “  ™ ™’ h˜ ¨ “ r r b “  ™” ¦ Ÿ   “   % §¥ Ÿšš—¤§š” …)¤€›˜mw š” % ‘’‡—¨ w™Ÿ ¦ —‰’A‘˜ % ‰’‡—¨ ©¤ Bš›˜‚B¦ $¹˜„—‡¥ ›Ÿ§’ —xC¨ §'š‘˜Ay” ’ ™ a ! ¢ ™‰˜  ˜ ™ ˜  ™˜¨ ¨ “ – ¤’   ¨ ƒ‘˜‡‘’™“ dW‚y—Ï—›•Ï—wŸ ¦ ‘˜¤u› ™ ©›˜—ˆ› w“‡F›˜’ ¨ ‡’ X x™wŸx¤Ÿ W ‰’C©yš§4š¤›•™ X w¡Ÿ©˜ Y ‘ ™™˜””’ Ÿ˜  ¨ “– ’ ™ ¦ “ ˜ Ÿ “¦’  ™  ¡ Ÿ ˜ ™ ’  W – ™ ¦¨ ¤   ”  7˜—u›˜ϑ“Dš˜ ¦ y˜F—•™ wm‡—¥ ‡¥ ›Ÿ’ ¦ $¼ ¤w©—•§  ¨ ‡Ï‘“˜ u¦ Dky˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ¨ ‡’ ˜” ˜ – 6˜“ ˜ • ¨ Ÿ˜”˜ ˜’ “™  ¦˜“ ˜ r ™ –   Ÿ ’  ˜ ¡ ’ “ ™ “  ’  ™ ˜  a !  Ÿ¤ ˜ y——©7…—›™ % 7˜ Y yy›T‘xB›Dš˜ ¦ yÉ—• s 7¤§š˜ ¦ ›™ 8©›™ ‡8‘xŸ ¦ —‡‘Aš›`dW¢ % X ©˜ Y w¤¨ ˜ Ÿ¤ ˜  ˜  – “  ˜   ™ “  ¤ “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ˜ • ™ ˜ “ – ’ ” ˜ ” r   Ÿ““  ˜  ˜ •™  ¦  Ÿ ˜ ” ˜ ¥¤ W ’ w‘u›B¤ši›™ % mwf˜ W X ’ ¦ ›y˜ ¦ y›f—›f›—‡yy¢@'‡¥¥Ÿ ¦ 9 ©—›B– ¡ —wŸ Y yš‘ ˜   ¡ ™ “  ’   ’ ”  ˜ ¨  ˜ ˜ • ™ ™ ’ • ™ “ ™ ˜ ™ ”   ¡    W –  ¨ ˜ h  ¤¤ ’ ˜ • ™ “ ˜ ™ ’ ”Ÿ  ™œ  ˜ ›$¼š˜ W wŸ ¦ —‡‘A™ ‡y‚©¤Bš›“ —›‡—›U‘‘šy8§k˜ u¦ Di7B)¥wƒ—›Sy›‡–wC¨ xŸ žkr ¨ ›“  ’  ˜  ˜ “ ’ ’ ™ ’ ¨ ¡   ™  – ’ ˜ • ™ “ ˜ ™ ’ ™ ”Ÿ h   ¨ Ÿ h ˜ • ¢ r “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ¡ ˜ ¦  ’ • ” ‰ ˜ ˜ • X ‡y” ¤¨ šˆÌ‘‡—‡SyC§  ¦ u—…y‘‰šwC¨ )¤Bw…9—¢†©‘Dš˜ ¦ yh§  m—‡—‘C†‚—›™ DW ¨ ™’ Ÿ   Ÿ ™’ “  •  ˜˜ ™ ¨˜ “˜  ™”˜  ” ˜ ˜” ©‘˜‡y¥”¤C– ¦ ¦ y” w“f‰’‡¤¨ % ‘““™m—r¨ ˜ yBphš˜ W 7—“•¥“xŸ¤ W ‰’“™y¥“Ÿ §¥ Ÿšš—¤§šF—›•™ y— X 7S)¤¨ r“ h  v Ÿ h  $ b ™ ¦¨ ¤   ”  W – ˜”˜–6 §w…C¨ ’ % de“ • U! & f›“y˜ ¦ ¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ % ˜ F¦ yÌy¤š—©7˜“ % “ ¦ –y‚qy¤‘•—w“Ÿ—– DW §‘ y‡y” “ ”˜ ” ¦ “ X ¤ ™  h   v v  Ÿ ’ “ X ¤  ’ “˜  a! ¤  ™˜ ”’  ¤˜ )—¥ ¨ A˜› ž™¨ ˜ •w™…h ¦ –›˜A™É‘˜™ DW w˜¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜‘ƒš¤i¨Ÿ Y ‘ B dW¢ r X ¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜„‘“m‚q§— ©˜ Y wŸ¤¨  ™ ˜˜™ ’’ –    “˜q ¡¤ ˜ “ ™Ÿ a r ˜  – ™ ” ˜ ™Ÿ • ”  a œ ˜ • ™ ¡       “ ˜ ™ ’  ˜  a ! ›iy›y‰—‡¦ —Éšm’ ¦ w››w#gœ $‘§›šš‘x¤‘‘’ gr—k§  $›™ §š‘‡‘©'$  dW¢ Ÿ   ™’” Ÿ”˜ “ ¤ ” ™  ˜ ™ ¡  Ÿ ™  r ™’ ™˜ r # t & " xk‘˜’ §w ›Ÿ‡y—43y'c§š@› §‘ §9¤›•…§†¥“x¤‡‰’˜ R§‰’—¨ ym¦  – ¡  ™’ Ÿ¨ Ÿ  ¡ ™–  ¤ ™   “˜¦  ™’ ¨ ¡  ¤˜¨ ¨ ™’ ¤–  wvB8§  §w ›Ÿ‡y¥”CBwr¨ ‡’ W iv§ž v¤§  ¨ ’ % §› AD§y” ‡¥ ›Ÿ“™ym¤§y” % ‘’‡—…§  X ©˜ Y wŸ¤7›˜‡–w”wŸ¤B@¨ ¤– ˜  v ¤  ™’    ™ Ÿ  ™”˜   ¨˜¦¨ ¤   ”  Ÿ ¤ ‰ % ¤‚¨$ž §wŸ % w˜¤ W ¥’wŸš›˜ % §¥ Ÿ‡—xŸ ¦ ©‘˜™ ¨ ‡’ §w ›Ÿ‡¥’›Ÿw™CwŸ §w ›Ÿy—¤‡y” 7§¤7w˜…h ¤y‚q‡’ ¨ ‡’ w™¥”xŸ¤ ˜
  • 20. q '  ˜ • ™ ˜ ” Ÿ “ ™¤ – “ ˜    ™ ¤ Ÿ “ “ “ – ” “Ÿ ¨ ˜ h  ˜ • h  ˜ ™ ’¤ ˜ ” ’¡  – “ ˜ ¤¤Ÿ h “ ’ ˜ ¨Ÿ ˜ “ ˜ • ¢ r q    X —Fy—x“ % ›w¤“y› $›‡’ C– ¦ “ϐ—š¥CVBHš—…e‘‡¥Fy§¹Bš‘ wx…e§–¤4ƒ›y¤¢F–A$Bh ™˜  ˜ ™ ™– ’ Ÿ  ™  ¡ Ÿ  Ÿ ¦ ™      ™–  Ÿ ¤ Ÿ– wvš—¤›•F¤‡  W f¥˜¤ W ’ x¤‡’ Y ’ §w ›Ÿ‡’ ¦ $¼ CwÌ¥˜›¤™w™xŸ¤ X ˜ Y ›•x™…h % —x›Ÿ§y—•›“©˜ Y F¤§—•w™…h X D‚q¥”¤©6 Ÿ–6 ˜ ”’ ™ a !  ¡ ˜¦ ¤’ ˜ ”    “ ˜ ¦ – ¦ x–›Ÿ W wŸx¤¤©7˜ —•™ ‘•‡–‘˜ › É¥“Ÿ dW¢ $¼ im¤š¥˜x¤‡—‘•” —•™ % ‘•y'©˜ Bž–wv›™‘’™r¤›•™ —x›ŸB r  “˜¦ ” ¡  ˜” ¡ ˜ Ÿ “  ¤–  h  ™”˜ ” @ ™  “  '§w ›Ÿ™šm—§š£‡Ïš§¹’k—›•™ xS™—– W ‘ 5˜ W i¨C§¢@§w ›Ÿšš—¤§šf2˜ Y ›Ÿ‡’ Y ›˜—‡y”8 ’ •” ¨ ˜ ™ ” ˜ Ÿ  ’ ” ™ ˜ q ” ’ h ˜  ™ ’ • ™ ¤ ’  ¦Ÿ     ¦ ’ “ Ÿ ¦ ™ q    h™ ˜ ˜ • ™ ¡ ˜¤ “ ’ ‘—– ¥ r ©‘šš“PwϘ W ‡–km‚§— —ˆ’ ‡—…—§¥““ ¨ ymfkš˜ Y §UwŸ % A¢p— —™ ¥U§—•  ¨ Ÿ˜” ˜ “’ ™˜ ”’ ™’ ™ “ ™’ Ÿ $ & ’ ˜”   7˜ Y ššy‘˜ y˜ W §—• š§‚q§— ’ ‡—›•Sy›˜‡–w”C¨ xŸ U! ¥Fy¤wŸ“ % ¦ ¥“C‡—‘•y˜ ¦ —wD‚qy¥ šž”ivw¡›˜“ Ÿ’ ” ¦ Ÿ ” ¤ ¤ ˜ • ™   ™ ˜ ™ ’¤ ˜    ¢ r “ ’ ˜¤ ™ ˜ q ” ’  ¨¤  ’ ¤Ÿ ™  – q    h™ ˜ ˜ • ™   ™  ™ –   “Ÿ ™ ˜ q ” ’ h ˜  ¤›‘Ï‘‡¥š›y…Ï7š˜ Y –wkš§‚§—"4§  ‡£w›D¤iA$Bpš— —›É›DwŸ ¤C¤™ • wÏm‚§— —f’ ¡Ÿ @ Ÿ ™  ˜ “    ” “ –Ÿ Ÿ¤Ÿ – 6 ˜ Ÿ   Ÿ ™ ” ˜     ” xÉ3˜ Y ›’ Y ©—§y“8 wŸ ¦ x› W wwCD©ixr§w›šš—¤§šf’ %   ¥ 7w“—‡‰™ xˆ‘‡—‡§R)¤Bw…'wC– ˆ’ r ™Ÿ “  ’  Ÿ ’ ™ ’ ¨ ¡   h   ¨ Ÿ h ¤¤ ¡ • ™Ÿ ’ ™ “ ¦ Ÿ   –  “Ÿ ™Ÿ ¡ –Ÿ Ÿ¤Ÿ – 6 Ÿ   ™ ¨Ÿ ’ “ “Ÿ   Ÿ ™ ” ˜     & # & “ ™ ˜ q ” ’  ¡ w…h X ¤ W ‰u—w¤C¤›f¥¢xVwŸ ¦ w› W wx¤©7˜ x˜ W ‘É4‡‘B¥‡¥›y—C§y” Rr $& " @ ›šm‚‡—'§    Ÿ ™  ˜ “    ” ¡   ’ ˜ ¨      ” ’ ¡    ˜ ™  ˜ ” ˜ • ™ “ “Ÿ  ’ • ” §w›‡’ Y ©›¤§y8 ‡–¤4Ÿ “ • ‡›“ W š§©" §Ï©›Dšyu—›™ ’ ¥Ÿ ¦ w¤‡—‘š˜ ¦ —wD‚y¥šžiw›ƒ—¢¢ ¦ Ÿ q ”  ¤ ”v¡¤ ˜ “ ˜ • r“ “– Ÿ ©—§w Ÿ›“¤š›”w“C¨ ¨ Ÿ ™˜¨ ˜  ¡ ˜ ˆ  ™   Ÿ ˜ h ™ “˜  ™ ¤  ”  ¡ ˜ Ÿ Ÿ ™ Ÿ s r “˜ ™ Ÿ ©¥˜x¤‡‰’¤T—›•™B– 5©'$¢‡——w¤x¤…h B…¤– W % “y—‘˜¥˜¤ ¦ y5$¼ U—–“¥“8¥“¤•…›˜¥“‰’ ˜ P©¥“Ÿš—›•8¥“C›•™ ¡   ˜    ” “ ˜ • Ÿ • ™Ÿ    ™ ” ’¡ ™  ’ ” 3Ÿ  ¦Ÿ “ ’ ™    “Ÿ   Ÿ“ “ ˜    ”v $ §B9$š›B—›™ w¤w…h $‘§¹£D‡y—4¤‡¥U¦§¤…wF§¥“›š‘B ¦ yž¤U! & % §–” X ‡Ìž£7Dš¥“—‡‘A™ ˜“ ’  ’ œ r ™  ˜Ÿ“  ’    “   Ÿ™    ™“Ÿ ¨ ˜ • ˜¤ ’ ” “ Ÿ ™ ˜ ¦  ¤ ’  wŸ §¥›$›¥@€—™ % ¥‡y›k˜ ¦ ›km›’ ̂©˜ Y   % $' " ‡¥y›B ¦ yA¤U! 8$ɤwš‡—Ϙ ¦ ‘u¤›™ # p   Ÿ “ “ ˜    ”v $ &    ¦ Ÿ ” ’  “ ’ “ ˜ • • ™Ÿ h Ÿ   ’ ™      ¨ ™ ’ • ™ $ X   Ÿ ™    ™ “Ÿ ¨   ¨ ˜ ™ ” ˜ – “ “ “Ÿ  ’ • ” ˜ • ™ • ¦ –   • ™¤ w…W˜ Y A†§—uCT‡—›¢“ • U! & DW §¥›$›¥@€‘™ ©‘šš“ W “¢¥Ÿ ¦ ¥¤‡—‘y˜ ¦ —É§—‡—›x& q ¤ ”˜ ™ ˜ ™ ¦ Ÿ¨’  Ÿ ’” ˜¨ “ ˜ ™ ™  “ ˜ ™ ™’ ™˜ ”’  ™’ r–BwxŸi‚qy¤š¥˜¤›™§  W —•É—xC$©w ›¤©˜ Y   i¨§  Y ’ ‡y‚©¤Bš›˜ƒ¤›•u›˜‡‰’€˜ ¦ ›’F—›•‡Ï‘“š§‚q§—u‘’‡—¨ h˜  ¦ Ÿ  X ˜ ¦ Ÿ”’ “ “ ˜ Ÿ h ˜¨ “ ˜ ™ ’ $  Ÿ˜” ©—r¤wC¨ ›˜“ DW —›•™ % —w§—w˜ ¦ ‘’—•™ ›•x™…V©¤Bš›˜É—›•™ ‡’ ˜ Y ›Ÿ̓ • U! & “ • ˜ Y yš‘˜ ˜ • ™ ¡œ r • ™ ¨Ÿ h  q Ÿ¤ q ” ˜  ˜¤ ™ ™ ˜ • ™ ¡   ˜ ™ ’  ˜ • ™  ’ • ™  ˜ ™ “ ’¡     Ÿ ˜ ” ˜  ˜ • ™ ™ ’ Ÿ   ¤›až¦'›@i…§¨ ’ W Bwxf‚š—šw››‡  W ¤›a§›‡‰e¤›‡—›†‘‡¹F—…©˜ Y ššy›¤—›B‡k˜ Y ›’ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ ’ ™ ’  r ˜ ”  ’ ¨Ÿ ’   Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    ”    ¨ ˜ ™Ÿ  ¤  ‰ ‘m‚§— ‰k¤y—‡¤i§  Y r§¥šm—§š$¼¡ 7‘x§¥C†˜ ˜ W ‡y” ¦ ¥C‡—‘y˜ ¦ ¥¤™ % X w–¤pœ  ’ “Ÿ  ’ • ” “Ÿ • ¤¤ ’ ˜ ¨ # Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ    “ – Ÿ¨ ¨ Ÿ ™˜¨  r & & " x†¥“†¥“C›•™ §i‡¥ Ÿ“—š”¥“C2©¥˜x¤‡‰’¤5‘˜$  ¦ r q   h™ ˜  ˜ • • ¦ –   •™ ™ ˜  ’ ” “™ ˜ q” ’  ’™ ’ ¨  ’ •™  ˜™“ ’¡    ¨ ˜™ ’ ˜  ˜  ’ ” $ & –A$Bpš¤—™ §—§›B›Bšm¦ ‡y…‘m‚§—‰‡—y‡—›¢©‘“§¹u—©‘‡‘©—m¦ ˜ W ‡y…“ • U! & ˜ • ™ ˜ ” Ÿ ¦ Ÿ q ”  ¤ ”v¡¤ ˜ “ “Ÿ ¤   ”   ™     ˜ • “ – • ¢ r q    h™ ˜  ˜ • ™   ™ Ÿ “ ™ ˜ q ” ’ h ˜     ™ ¤›‚y—x“ % @ —wD‚y¥šžiw›8 ¥c‡yy‘§›B¤›™ % —D¢S–A$Bpš—‚—ˆ›yx‘m‚§— ©—‚˜ W ‘“   ™ ¤ ’  ¦Ÿ q ”  ¤ ” ’ “ ’ ¨ ˜ h ˜ ’” $ ›i@ ‡—§¥““ ‚y¥8 ̧2©¢¥Ÿ Y ˜ W –Ì“ • U! & —™ % ¤y¢¢ 9)¤¨ w…2—y—’ Y $’ X ¤›™ ˜ • “ – • r h   Ÿ h ˜ • ™ ˜ ”  ¨ ˜ • ˜“ –’”  ˜  ˜ “ ˜ •     – ™ ˜ ˜ •  ˜ • h “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ’ ™ ’ h ˜  ¡   ¦ Ÿ ¨  ˜ “ ˜ • ™  ˜ ¦ ¦Ÿ  —‡–š˜ W % ©¤¨ ›f—›™ ‘™ ›§›š› X —›™ š—…€›Dš˜ ¦ yi‰‡¤¨ —†§i—wCBš›f—›Ï©§m¥A™ $ & ˜ “ ˜ • ™  ¨ Ÿ ˜ ” ˜  “ ™  ¦ ˜ “ ’ ™ ’ ¨ “ ˜ ¦ ¨ ˜¤ h    q ” ’  Ÿ ˜ ” ˜ ˜ • a ! ¢ œ r   Ÿ ™ ” ˜ “ • U! 7›š—›Ì¨ ‡’ % ©˜ Y yš‘R‘Dš˜ ¦ yÏ‘‡—…ym¤©¥…)—D‚§¢©˜ Y ššy› —™ % dWɞh'§w›šš— v ”   ¦ Ÿ   ™’ ¨ ˜ ™ ¦ Ÿ˜˜q ™ ¤ ™ ’  ¡ Ÿ’ ” ¦ Ÿ ” ¤ ¤ “ a ! §yƒ’ §Ì—x…h ¤¥ ‘’‡—5—•ˆ¤w¤ym„› V‡‘’y˜ ¦ —¨ ¤– †w“Ÿ ¦ w“¤‡—‘•š˜ ¦ —wD‚qy¥ šž”ivw¡›˜U“ • dW¢ & ¤ '   %$ #  ©  ! "      © §¥£   ¨  3 7 !   ¨ ¦ ¤ ¢ 8 7 95   ¡§ § ©¨¦
  • 21. &   Ç E ¶ ¿°®° ¶­ ¾ Ä ½ ¿ ­ ¬°B · ¶ ¿°®° ¶­ ¾ Ä ½ ¿ °­ ¨ ­ ¬° ±° ² Å­² ­ Æ ¶ ± ° ¿ ± ½ ¿ ¬° ¾ ± ¦ p#yw±t•¸š›¢Á­™†Á¾h™¸¹® yw±t•ty›B›w­p¢À¾B“…©pt†¹V›­%th9p¥ ycyÁ¶šcÀ·™tQšt² §¥ r“ ™ ’ “ ™’ ¤’ ˜ ™ ¡  7š¥˜Ÿw™wŸx¤›Ÿ¤– ¨ ‡¢—§w ›Ÿ‡y¥”wŸCBϗ›•…§  X ‡’ ¦ ¨ ’ % š§¹’›¡‘˜DwÌ—wDq$¢ph—†$¼ †š—wŸ¤§› 'š—©me¤›•™ % ¥“§š@› §‘ Be¤›•hPCšf—xDAq$Bphš— ¤›•™  ˜”  ™ Ÿ ¦ Ÿ   ™˜   ¡ “˜ ™–  ¤˜ ˜q ˜ ¤ ” ™  ˜ ™ 9˜¨ ” ¦ Ÿ   ™˜ ˜ ¡   ¤¤ ’ Ÿ ’ ™    • ”Ÿ • “ ˜ “ ’ ˜¤ ˜  ˜   ” ˜ ”  –   “ ˜ ’¤Ÿ ¤ ”Ÿ –  ˜  ˜  – ¦ 3 ˜ • Ÿ ˜ ¨Ÿ “ ¡ ˜ §9w‡iw‡‘D§y” ‘¥¤…h % y›‡–¥‘5¤¨ yÏy›B§›¥¤ W ¥w‡’ Y ’ X šww¤ W ¤5‘’ ‘B‡—5—›™ wk¤4S™ ¥¤ ˜ • ™   h   • “ “ ˜ “ ’ ˜¤ ˜  ˜ • ¢ r    ˜   Ÿ ™ ’ ™  ˜¤ ¤›i‡  …)—y›‡–¥‘—¢…B—U6 % §w›‡‘y˜ ¦ ¥¤ ¦ Ÿ dW¢ …)—Dq ©››š˜ W —›s§—›S§’ a !  h   ˜™™ ˜ •™ ¡  ™’ •™ “   ’ “ ˜ • ¤¤ ’   Ÿ ™ ”  ¡ “Ÿ ˜ “ ’ ˜¤ ˜ ™ ™ ˜ — ˜ • Ÿ ˜   a ! ¢ ˜ • ˜  – ¦Ÿ 3 ˜ •   ˜ ˜ “ ˜ ¦ ›f—™ X w‡—‡¥›—¤– ‚¥Ì›§y¥‘ †šUy—™ xf¤¨ y” dWf—›™ % ›B§ws—™ xŸ šš›“ & “’ ¤ ”’˜ Ÿ h “  ™’ ¡ ¡ “  Ÿ¨¨’ ™   ¦ ™’ Ÿ “ “’ ¤ r$›˜‡–¥˜‘˜ ‘•§y›•w™…„š‘˜B–‡–¼˜S§  —§w ›Ÿw™@B$uy‰’›™9 ¦ Ÿ —wŸ‡–w”C¨ wŸ % y›˜‡–¥˜‘˜  ¥ €—§w ›Ÿ’ Y ” “–      ˜ • ™ ¡ ¦  ¤       • ” ’ Ÿ ˜ “ ’ ˜¤ ˜ ™ ™ ˜ — ˜ • “ ’ ¡ # # ¤›S§  X m¥‡—§‘§‘iQwɐ§–wš› †t—™ y˜ ¦ ‘ Ïe $ " ¦ › ¡ 7‘C—$tb r& i ‘B‡¥s3   ¨˜™ ’ ¨’ ˜  – ¦Ÿ r ¤ “  ˜ ™¡  “– Ÿ¨ ˜ ¨ “– Ÿ ™ “ ˜   ™ ™ ¤ 9‘“x™¤–š‘˜5—•s§  §w Ÿ›“¤š›”w“C9—›•™ xŸ ©›˜—k˜ W w¤x¤…h ›˜‚—•™ ¨ ’ % §¥ Ÿ‡‰’Dš˜ ¦ w˜¤ ¦ Ÿ ˜ • ™   ¨ ˜ ™ ¤ ˜ ¦  ¤     ˜ ™ ¡   ™ ˜ “ ’ ¡   ¦ Ÿ  ’ ™ “  ˜ ¨   ¨¤Ÿ ¤›ƒ‘™ 7›‡’ ‘ X mw§—xŸ ¦ ©‘a§U›ƒh‡ˆ¤wC¨ ‰›©¤B¤– ‡’ ix¤– W ˜ s 7—‡¥›’ ¤– ¦ SB‡  wŸ r “   Ÿ ™ ¤ Ÿ“  –    ¨ Ÿ “ £  ™ ™ ¤ Ÿ a ! ™™˜ — ˜ Ÿ “  ™’ ˜q “ “  “˜ ¨  ™” “ Ÿ • ©¥˜C¨ –™¢¤§¥ Ÿ‡‰’Dš˜ ¦ w˜¤ ¦ 2dW¢ †—•™ w…y›˜B›–‡y¼˜¡ X §9˜ ¦  Uš˜ W ›Ÿ›”yC‘‡¥ ›Ÿy˜Uw“¤¢¢   ¥ £ ¦¤   ¤ ¢  ¤ ISI¢ €RuW   ¨   ¢     I ¡e  © £  ¨¡   r˜”  ˜  a ! y—‡’ ¦ ¼ ›¡©'W“ • dW¢   ™ ¦ Ÿ ¦ ’ ¨ ˜  “¤¤ ˜   ¨ • ” –  ˜ h   ¨ ˜    ™“ ˜   ’ “Ÿ  ’ • ” ¦ Ÿ q ”  ¤ ”v¡¤ ˜ ›f—x§§’ ¦ —V‘x’ ¥xš'“ X §`‘—“ % ˜ Y ¢)'r 7›$‘“y‘„˜ W ‡y” ¦ w¤‡—‘š˜ ¦ —wD‚y¥šžiw›“ ˜ • ¨ ˜ ™ ” ˜ ™ ˜ “Ÿ “Ÿ • ˜ ” r  – ¨ ˜Ÿ  ¨ ¤Ÿ  ’    ˜ ™ “   Ÿ ™ ” ˜     ˜ • “ – • r ™ – ¤›™ % 7‘y›š¤¨ ¥fw¤›™ y— X B@ §27w›§8 X w‰9 ¦ ›f¥Ÿ ‡¥›y—C§y” —›™ % —D¢¢ 7¤§  ¨˜ ” ¤” ’” ™˜ ”’ h˜     ” ¦  ”  “ $ ¤ “  ’ “ & r  “˜¦   7§‚q@w šU˜ W ‡–¢‘“š§‚q§— — —ˆ¨ ‡’ % ‚q‡’ W —wŸ ¦ yÉ$‘ “™¢“ • U! & % w™¤“–y‘˜5†T'§w ›Ÿ“™ym—‡y” ˜  ¡ Ÿ ™ ¦  ¦ ’ ¦ “  ¡ ˜  “ ˜  —›•™B– ri¨‡  Y ’ ‘ ™ ›“y˜ ¦ y›˜“ ‘˜$  "X ‡f—x›Ÿ›™x™Ÿ ¦ —‡‘’A™ ¦ ‘  k¤¨ š˜F—•™ ‘ ™“ X w¤Ÿ‰’D˜ ¦   ¦ ™ ’ ˜ • ” “ ¤    ™    ”   Ÿ ™“ ˜ ¦    ” ˜ •   Ÿ ™ “ ˜ ¦    ” • ™Ÿ h ¨ ˜ ” ’¡  ˜ • ˜¤ ’ ‰ ˜    r “   Ÿ ™ ’ ‡y” ˜ ¦ —‘'‡‘AD§š§w›“ym—‡y¤›™ % §w›šm—§šw…u©y§¹—…h % w¤ ¦ ¤†¢—3 7—‡¥›‰™  ¤ a ! ¢ ˜ ™ ¡  “  ™’ ¡ ˜ ™ X ¨ ™ Ÿ v§˜ ¦ ¥˜¤ ¦ Ÿ dWF—›•¦§kš‘˜B–‡–¼˜©—•§  DW 7›˜¤B›–w¥“C¨ ¥“Ÿ ¦ w“¤‡—‘•š˜ ¦ —•™ š—…e—9§—• Ÿ’ ” ˜ ˜ • h “ ˜ ’   ™ ’ • ˜ ™ ’ ”Ÿ Ÿ “ ™¤ – “ ˜  ˜ •   Ÿ ™ ”  ™ “ ’  ™    œ q    h ™ “Ÿ  ’ • ” “Ÿ •   • —…h ›‡–wC¨ x¢‘x¤š‘¤—™ % r ri 0 ‡¥›y˜ ¥ wŸ % §‘AD§š” ž8r $B…‡’ ¦ w¤‡—‘š˜ ¦ ¥¤™ h ¤“ “ ™¤ –“ ˜   Ÿ ™ ’¤ Ÿ ˜ •   Ÿ™ ” œ a ! ¡ ˜ ”    ¡  ˜ ¨    Ÿ™ ’  ˜    ”Ÿ“ ›w¤“y› §w›‡¥¤– ¦ ““ —›™ % r& ri 0 §¥šš˜ ¥ ž…r dW¢ §  y¤‡’ ¦ $¼›9 B‡’ §¥‡‰9r¥“§’ W ˜ • ™   ™ ¤ ’Ÿ ™  ˜ “ “ ˜ “ “Ÿ  ’ • ” “Ÿ • ™ ™ ’ • ™ ˜ ™ ’  ™ “  ˜ ¨ ¤¤Ÿ h “ ™¤ – “ ˜    Ÿ ™ ’¤ Ÿ “  ¤›i›¢‡¥›Dš›yÏ¥Ÿ ¦ w¤‡—‘š˜ ¦ ¥C›u—›ˆ‘‡‘A¤§  ¦ ¤Rwx…€‘x¤š‘§w›‡¥¤– ¦ “FB– X r ™ ¤ “ ˜ ¨ “– ˜  ™ ™ ¤ 7$‘ ‡¥’¤– ¦ Ÿ‚—›•™ xŸ 7˜—‚¢h §¥ Ÿ‡‰’Dš˜ ¦ w˜¤ ¦ Ÿ a !  ¤– ’  ˜ ™ Ÿ ˜ “ ˜”’ Ÿ ¨’ ¤ ™   “˜¦ ” ˜ ™ ¡  “ ˜  dW¢ ¥’¤šw”›Ÿ™—€—•ixF˜ ¦ —‘•›”Fš—‡—4¨§  Y ’ B‡¦§› AD§š” §¥ Ÿ™šm—§šF—›•¦‡¥““Ÿ§’ W ¤›•™ ›˜’
  • 22. 4.1cBSD(1982) first release 4.2BSD(1983) first widely available release of TCP/IP 4.3BSD Tahoe(1988) slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit BSD Networking Software Release 1.0(1989): Net/1 4.3BSD Reno(1990) fast recovery, TCP header prediction, SLIP header compression, routing table changes BSD Networking Software Release 2.0(1991): Net/2 4.4BSD(1993) multicasting long fat pipe modifications 4.4BSD-Lite(1994) dWUy‰’›™9 ¦ Ÿ ¨ ‡y›˜‡–¥˜‘˜  ¥ R§  X $› ™¥“C• & 9 r& i ‘˜B§w¦s3 a ! ¢ ™   ’ “ “’ ¤ ”¡  Ÿ – Ÿ ‘§yiw…"©¤B$y›B›‡y¼¡ • ” ’ ˜ • ™Ÿ h ¨ ˜ ¨ ¨ ’ “ ˜  – ™ ’ ˜ r $$ " ¦ ‘  ¡ 7‘˜C—$Sw“Ÿ ¦ ‘’$§’ @¤¢B›˜§y¥˜‘˜ ## ¨ ™’¨’ ¦ Ÿ¨ ˜• ¢ r “’ ¤      
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  • 40. ¦ Y¢ ’aR™•fIQGHYTcRYSdRtH {l}rSWQxHUT”wvXqcFGS}bQI|g|i‡afYBR B Ds T D o g` i` S T S` Rqs H f S aPYBdT´RdIWtGq}It€asXDYSdD”rq€rSCaPYBaRC‘}XSIasdBdX’GDWtXq™EfdBfER‰dfI‰xHYTURGStpqaRQAdRI‘€cTWIcsdShCY@R ³Vsg T Ssq B D i i ig f F D Rg S R B Ds T T o BH ‚ Dg f SV D S U’8  dG trqdBcRcFdA EseXSYSWEiai€„uXucDYSdD”rqcRtG…tseIlY@†IQH w‚IcT”wvcTzC}YqeWtHES‰QrqdBCQsP u s S B D B ‚ S ‚ D t D i S FHP Dg R Vs q S q S¢g` R DV i s DsH ³ S FgA D qV B ‚ s Srs F S R DVsHP S S FHP S S r Br i qs FH Dg S lE4–G@Cˆ9uUTGSdRQ oH w‚CCEs|tEqYB•RXD”IQXq™Id@fCIQIdE4ecRtG…ts|dgcT”Uv‘IastCXVESw‚IlG…tjYSI‰HXFz` ’CCWtItYqCY@—cTItErCuYqˆas„YSQpH•iIQxHdTuagEiQXHrFYB‰|tYqCQeQIs XDˆCdDXDIUs”Ev•BYDcDGSt”QrDCd@µ’cTtcv„w‚i  RgP@rg T R S@ B@ R B R Ds R i RH f RgH Rq SqV S S TrrH B R S S q  ¡  u”EglG…EFCµ(YSt™cVrSaiC€zjGq} zEPCP Id@"ew‚rqEi‰cRtG…tsYgUT”UvkIastCcVrSw‚IlG…td”EgdilcsCEVˆv i Bg¨ Tq f iy S` R S B S R D iH S FHP S S r Br i qs FH’ R S B  XuYDcRtG…tsAƒ‚€XD”CcVrSw‚IlG…t‡EgaiQsYgURtH S FHP q R Sr i qs FH iH F & ' & ' ¤ t gTSvS ’ ¤ t VS g iS V @ B ‚ ’ s BRHR sS f i P B B @R B ’RS…FH P gTS vS DS r V i ‚q s …F (€YctcIcD f (¹X”rHcC¹YaRµwtrqdQxlU‡UrSC‰EfAEDCY€asCctGts{dc”Uic”CcrSwIlGtH UT”EvUBXScFGShId@"EokIYgdTirD€rDCd@™tHYScTI@ ™XucTtEvcBcSXFYShIY@¹l¶XV”avcBcSXFGS¶UsXSzuts}UR”G…tI™}QIY@R S T S R B S R B B R D S v S T S R g` S T S` DH@ S FHP H RH & ' XDGS‰HrFdIEsB (ndgcTtcv™‰sY@erDhcSIcsYScTz¢ WkIY@€tpqmQYqtXHGShIAuyXVtgpHciWkYSQ}D f (‚UsI‚ R BV ¤ t S S RH R B F S BV S R T o s D T S@ 9 u S SV TH ¤ t S@ & ' UTAw‚rq•i™rDB w‚CIas’QrqYB•RXD”CtXq†Id@et’trq•BIQsˆ54"QpHdBˆUsItzˆ54IY@zwCQGHt¥QGqYRQb†Id@|GqR S D qV B ‚ s Srs F S R oq s DsHP S i R SsqP S S R’@P Tr f Rq` S R •RtxHdTˆQXqF EsB CQGHt0QGq{IY@R Es·cscSYS‰u0XulcsYS€z’Yq‰YDlcs™tXrdS–cSGSCd@YDcT”trrYBdT·cV”EvUBXScFGST D Rs @P Tr P R S B D D t R D S` R R S f D T R Sr R S & ' YDˆUs‡QrXYSkAƒ‚Qpqo (™dgcTtcvhYqlU’8  u º WtrqdBcRXFˆA as‰cVIEs‰pHCˆ54etH ¥GDaTQsEs‡cV”CcVrSw‚IlG…tH R S f D q R T ¤ t S S D u s S B S B iP S D 6 BHP B Sr i qs F & ' YSTQ}YDˆUsS‡QXrYSD„† (¶XVtwgrHciCnY@aRy’cTtcv„w‚i  XulcsYSkb™GquYDˆUs‡QXrYSyQstEqYBERdCt€„ƒ‚iGDUT”r H R f ’ ¤ t S SV B ‚ S S q R D S` R R S f DiHs BVVH q R S ³ VsH f D Sr i qs F S & ' & ' QrrdBYTR‚IQhRlcsS™trXdS™¤ XD”CcVrSw‚IlG…tH cV”avcBXScFGST (’dgcT”UvS c’D f (xcV”gpHUiChCtId@ERB v ¤ t S ¤ t S SV Rgq time (secs) u uG Tg Bƒ B @P Tr P R S oq Pg i t uG Tg B ”¥¤ˆPGSCtEr—–Es€CQGHt¹tGq}Id@R t¹Cw‚EqC`  º ˆ¡GSCQrr—ƒ 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 cwnd (bytes)
  • 41. ¤¢ u Sr i qs FH S FHP S S B ‚ T ycV”CXVESw‚IlG…t™UR”G…tI{YgcTtcv–Y@aRYRQGHdRD w‚EqdiD QrHYBlcsIQbˆ54QrHEBai™QH ™YSt™jCY@R i R SsqP S T B f o Tq f S D q D @P T f Rq` S R VsH R S fr i qs FH S SV B ‚ T D D D q D @P T ew‚Id@¹C‰xHtr tGqdRtb}Id@¹CQ„X’GDlUs‡tWXVrSw‚IlG…tnXVtwgrHciC¹d@EReYRQGHdR'w‚rqdiiew‚Id@¹CQGHtr  P R S R SVq f T ³ D S R r TgV R S fr i qs FH S SV oq S uG Tg B tYqhCY@eRCˆ‡edRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•ikId@‰CEsYBWWuYDˆUs‡QCXVESq‚CˆG…QmXVtgpHciW"tiGDcRcFb¢ C dHGSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 time (secs) segment number 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 segment number
  • 42. º¢ & ' s B Ds T D o H ¤ t R iPgV T R sqP ¤ ¤ t R iPgV r B T T & ' QrqdBdDrD‰dfI‰xHYTURGS„dRtH hIc’D f (iGSQXHrFEBWCW™cSGSCd@|tz€¥XuD f (uGS‰HrFaBCCWhIEslEvUBXScFGSAYDYRQGHdRD s Sss F S R’ D  uG T S` R@ T S R R t D i DH R S f S B Ds T D tEqYBURXFICQXqhIY@ItcFYSY@¢dHGStpqUobltErYB™™EfYBefu•R”rqetA‚ Q I G lUs‡tcrdA uaR™•fIQxHdTcRYS€•Rt oH r Dg D i S FHP ir D H f o r S T i F D s Sss F S R D q D uG Tg B IasdBI…YD”EqcRtG…ts„EStIasdBu©tGqpT™CEsYBUT”wvXqcFGSkEgEiWpgdoYDcDXScFIdgtEqYBURXFICQXqfId@"ew‚Id@iG d§GSCtEr—ƒ ­­¡ ¢ Ÿ£¨ §° ¯ ˜ ˜ C‡£—A„1¶2 •}Y©i% Gš€" e¡ us B T RsH T F oq Pg i` S R S B fH S S ‚’ i o RH R Ds D B wtrqQXrGSlQQUvrSciYSnG@tXHS QnCw‚EqC}IY@™Ias™‰CE4jAˆjq‚EqEitpqeQIY@ItEqdBYDCcgYFEDWV S R Tqƒ R S S RsH T S R S` i VsH Ds R R S S R D q D u Tg B ƒ o CY@htI¶XuYDˆUs”UvhlQQcvESciYS™Id@jEDcizQpH’IQ‘cTpSdoCQxHdT™GSaTYBlcs™IY@keq‚Cd@n@¢dG GSWtrr—¹u   tq Ds BVs F S R RH f R Tq S iH B Tq S R sq DH` B S FHP S S Sr i qs FH ItrqdBERWCtXq†Id@‚G@GFQ‡{Gq}YRQb5¢—‰sEstErYBtId@¶t’XVYSQs™rDjcRtG…ts¶dgcT”Uv”CXVESw‚IlG…t¹GqR cSrFtCG@uIAuUR”G…tI™dgcT”Uvu”WXVrSw‚IlG…thGqeCˆXq€IY@‡cV”IQIG@‡IQu¥¤ˆG tEqYBcRcFdA Es™cVba`YBUTYFD Bq F S@ 9 S FHP S S Sr i qs FH R SV F S R SrsH F VsH u s S B S ³ CtYqcRtH ™CY@eGSQsas™afEBUi}AWytrqdBcRXFdSrDCd@R tedRcDGS™Id@{Es{XVESWIYg•R„CtrqdBQpHChEfdB}CY@ftIƒ SV T F o S R RH B S S ‚’s D B oq T S R B BV D Ds R ig D S R Tq u S…qv B i o B B Ds T D o H B@ ‚ B D F RH …q i iH S u ³Vsg T Ss yXVtt”las™agciYSEDQH frDaR™•fIQGHYTcRYSdRtH †nG@rFC€EseXDdStHe‰|tˆrq†dqrDQh˜v wEPdBYTR dICtYq}Itq rCEsYBWWXDdSYD”EqcR”G…QsrSCaPYBERW‘e8 º 6 IQdD”rqUR”G…tIirSQIEs•B8 $¤¥!XDcSIQGHdR™CcgYFETcB„ƒ‚fcTWICg TgV D i S FHP i ig f VsH D i S FHP ir D 6 Fs D f F q R SVs XVtt”las|IEsUBb` dfrDWQsG@XF™†IY@™dDIcgdFrDW„ywtEqYBcRcFYS}EDCY@‚´s€ C¢ u º W tEqYBURXFdA as’cVYSYDCcgYFEDWV S…qv B r S BsH S f S R D BV S ‚’s D B R u u s S B D B g T` B BsH S f S@ 9 u BsH S f B Ds T D o S R D BV S ‚’s D B R C£ESYBCerD¤•frDC‰sG@XF™hIA–dfEDCQsG@cF‡eaR™•fIQxHdTcRYSi•RtH kId@uYDCcgYFEDWh„swtrqdBcRcFYSerDCd@m´s€   ¥ ¨¦ U”Ž  „e™Œ  “–” £  ” ¶  “ ¡ ¢‡ {  u Tq ‚ T R ooq THP H DH S B B R S i S ‚ R B Ds F S „Y…t„}GSCdgCpg…teYRQI†€thI•gYDEDfrDCd@htwvXHrS}„C’lEsQGHYT•RItXqu‡afYBR oq Dg S u Dq F D S¢g` S R R S D D S` H f i T B R RH R Rqs S t™YSIQXHXFA@ wcsdS”IG@‰XSE¸dB‘UTbCC™Id@–Yq™”avYBaRdBIUsYS‰b¶g‡kaRCdgcDGSjrDCd@kQIY@™YStI‰xv cuYDXDCcs”avdBdDXDGSQ”thIY@—teERWdgXDYS‘iQ™GDUR”G…tI™GSt™fXDdS”rq†YqEDQH S S TrrH S R oq i T H DH S FHP Tq f D i i cTWIcsdS™Id@—X’cTGS•RtH ’Y…t„ƒ‚cRI‰IY@€GqlaskGDlUs‡tcrYSx™CW–GqkIlY@˜CQ‘UTGS•Rt oH w‚CIEs’tEqYBR SV D S R D o Tq Ss S R R B R S f D P fgP R Dg R VsH D qV B ‚ s ³ XD”CtXq™CY@{C|UsbQ‘GqfUTCIUsYS™Id@ew‚EqEiQ€UR”G…ts™YgUT”cvhIEstWXVrSw‚IlG…t{tItId@ER€tGSUTI@ Srs F S R Pg SPq R SV D S R D iH S FHP S S r Br i qs FH @rgq i t u S ¢qS VHTR S @R SRq s S v uDSDD i RS…FH P ¦ V sH DR gqS BR B fD sHTRST fq o VSTS ¢ gD B SF B RXCQxYIY„GtIx—XXdY”Eq"ctGtsiv¢ IQ—GCQX™EfY…ER‰dCQxdcGeG QGpT‘XYczd—ER„XIasdD ’QXFdSD » u º ¤ tˆGq}cTpS•oIQGHYT‘™QGH†Id@—X’cT”UvAw‚€  udRQxH•R©w‚rq•iAQeQpHdBˆUsItzˆ54†Id@¶Es©w‚CCEs‚ …q R Ds R S f D S R S S q T D D oq i R SsqP S S R B qV B s Srs F S R oq s DsHP g S D Tq f D iH S FHP S S r Br i qs FH ’VsH tEqYB•RXD”IQXq|Id@et§trq•BIQsˆE4S WXVcSb•P‡YSt‡hew‚rqEi‰‡UR”G…tI~YgUT”cv¶CEstCcVrSw‚IlG…teyCQs@ S Rq S R # TUIY@Q™Id@˜s cuXDdSYD”EqhcRtG…tsP Q eCQjGDCQXq™EfYB}aR™•fIQGHYTcRYS€ XVXSCcsrSdBcTzˆ54xCQ‘CCtXqcFYSD D i S FH ¤ VsH Rg S R B Ds T F SP S VsH DVs & ' º tˆGqUTpSdoI‰xHYT}YSˆl– ¤ IY@Cc’D f (€XVtwgrHciC†CEsdBCdtcSIQ‡YftpqdocTz™IY@€GSQI™tcq…9 ¤ …q R D s R Rg` S R ¤ t S SV r Dg’ FsH T SP S R THP f F q
  • 43.  Y¢ ! GDlcstcvelQQcvESciYSfGDER€IQf8 tGqURt oH R S S RsH T B VsH T F  S R r RH B S VsH S FHP S S r Br i qs F Ds R Rg` s t uG Tg B CY@hIasYBQIEs‰EfEBUinI‰}cRtG…ts¹YgUT”cv™IEsQCXVESq‚CˆG…QH 6 UTpSdoI‰xHYThGSll–(U³¤ i„@¢dHGSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 6 4 2 retransmit to a timeout 200 False fast losses leading Multiple packet 400 600 retransmit by fast 800 loss recovered Single packet 1000 segment number
  • 44. ¢ v¢ u•R”rqfED¹CQicTzC` D i B VsH S¢g S R D q S q Fq S RH R r TgV R D S FHP S Rq S S¢g` S R B TV R i`H  CY@}ew‚I UT”wv¶G@ˆbUP™Qsd@™IasYBCdjˆUsYS}UR”G…tI™cTId@t–YgcTtv uUTbWkId@nEs‰xHW|YqhESCQurDB G@GFaRd‚Id@™G@EFCQ‡XVXSzdPCY@XSEFƒ‚Q‰Y…t„ƒ‚cRCeCY@™GqlasYDcR”G…QsIY@I‰CCecTWIcsdS€CY@R B D S R B@ ‚ RH S D S R B R RH Tq Ss S R R B S FHP S R DP fgP SV D S cSIEs•BCX’ew‚IcTtqv„cTzCeId@ˆwG@YFER•‚G…XFIUsrSYidRtz€Id@„fe„Y…QAƒ‚URI€CY@jGqlEsGDcRtG…ts‡cVXStIdPD F D D q S q S¢g` S R’ B D S Rq` S R R t u Tq Ss S R R B S FHP FH EgUiYS”EqciwtfdRGDWCk„eq‚EqEiQ™XFYShI W¦ GStpqUobltrrdB€™EfdBAQH w‚CCEs|tEqYB•RXD”IQXq€”GrQrHuId@dtYSCg D Foq Tg` H D iH D u T S` R@ T S R R qV B ‚ s Srs F S T i S R’ T ³QIfId@‘Es‰cscSYS"it dI d©YSCtEr—‰EsfdStH—QpHWcgrFdBYRQIAIt0q‚Cd@f˜…XuCtcq‡afYB‘tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGST ry S R B D D u uG Tg B ƒ B D F T i THP Ssq q D S v Rg S R s B Ds H T o BH ‚ Dg f s Sss F S R Dg R VsH’ BsH S f B Ds T D o S R g` i` S AtpqERQAA•RI‘|tEqYBURXFICQXquCY@AIld@‡IQˆ–dfrDWQsG@XF™ER‰dfIQGHYTURGSA•RtH iCY@lurSC‰xHcTtwvXqF ³ GSbktI¶g‡xEPdBYTR dICtYq‰CtnIasYBCdhXDdSYD”Eq‘rSCaPYBaRC‘hQsY@1w‚I•@|A…wtEqYBcRcFYShrDCd@~´s€ T S` Rqs H f ³Vsg T Ssq r TgV D i i ig f RH R q D S ‚’s D B R ­­­ ¡ Ÿ£ ¨ § ¯ § "WW‡¢ …Az ¶2 djd®I•Ÿj¦ ¤ ˜ ˜ €" e¡ u BsH S f r B F D H DH R S fr i qs F n•frDC‰sG@XF™‘IEslG…ˆrqUiƒFr³EoUiYS†€tiGDlcs™tCcVrSw‚IlG…tH S R r D ¦ ¤ 9 oq s R Dsq SV Vqqr H B S S B@ 9 u Dgqg Rs F B r B f F T CY@nIasdBIg §¥et˜tEqYBQGHYTdRCt‡UfCxˆˆ”–krD‘URXFz£¢krDCA¹”agdiIQIlEsYBltcq~as¹Ias™QXq‡YSQH & ' D f (uId@‡IQ‡XVrSaiCkCEscBzerDIEsaBcizEPC€IY@etIQXFdSD º WcUTGSpRQ„ItEqˆlt„YDcDrSAcD‡tcqXFzAURXFz£¢S ¤ t S R VsH iy r S` B S S BP S R DH’ ua oH Dg Bv`q i S f S` S   r BPg T B@ 9 usq D VsH’ RHP T B D H B Rgq R D S` R S FH oq Pg Tr R S IEsWCtGqQdr rDCAewQ‰dq€IQswdscTGSdRQseQrHEi‰EfdB†¹asCt€lcsYSjz‘Gq€cRtG…tsP t¹CtYqt€dE4Is S R r Sr ’ RHPT B D H B FH S f F ¤ t S R Sr R D uG VsH u & ' CY@AIasYBUT””rrdBYTqRwYsUTGSdRQssQpHai™afdBhEsuG…ts` ™tXqeYqR D f (IY@zGDcTt”rrdBYTXFdSea dHIQcFYSD º G dG cscSAƒ‚URb™lUsYSuYDlcs™tXrdSt¶CQGqtkIY@€Qsd@ntEqYBQQYvUTYSIQhId@htQ|kAIWa dG GSCtEr—‚´s€ S S` R D R S f D oq Pg Tr S R RH R s RH D`q S R S…H f S ‚’ u Tg B ƒ u BsH S f S –dfrDWQsG@XF™€YgUT”wvXqcFGST •RtH ™Id@…QeERC•gXDGSheQ}Cˆ‡™cSIQIEVt”vH dtrqdBdRXDtItXq}CY@GDUTGSlcs€cTWIcsdS}IY@{IQ„w•@XDYSCY@•RYDD D o S Roq i T H DH SVq f FsH Bq ³s Srs F S R R S SV D S R VsH’ T Yq'XVYScRtGHYTURGS‚b` Gq|8 CEVdBmUT”avcBXScFGS‚IY@€QnGDlcs™tcrYSD cVIG@tH–tpq¹lCtXqcFtH YqR 6 w‚CCEs‚ R F T S R S D S T S R RH R S f S F F T o Rsg F qV B s Srs F RH B S R Dg F ¤ t B@ u S & ' tEqYB•RXD”IQXqhXVGS‰sEsId@—cDYSIQXH0 (…rDCA9 yXVtEvcBcSXFYST EDwB’ Q I lcs™tXrdSIEsWCEgciCEsQc’GDlcs™tcrYSD G R S f D r BV F B R S f & ' ot€cTz‘Cl™”YrQpH†itpq© (–QbQXFdS‰a dHGStpqUobeltErYB™™EfYBeffcuGDlcs™tcrYSD U‚InIUsYS¹IQH q S` fgs S T i H T o ¤ t sH’ D uG T S` R@ T S R R t R S f Ss V D Vs r BVs Rgq R S f D Tq f S H@ R i`H B s Sss F S R’ SPq R Sg Rs qV B IasWIQGHdRYDCtAYDlcs™tXrdSiYSt‡i”vshYq€ESCQ„rD|tEqYBURXFICQXquCY@dycszthYqAXDIlasYBltXqF w‚CCEs‚ s Srs F S R D t u  " 7 #  tEqYB•RXD”IQXq‘Id@uuu„   £¥CEgQQhId@‡GqmcVIcsztirD5w‚CIEs¶QrqYB•RXD”CtXq‘CY@u‰sY@‘cSYSD ¢  S iHv S R R S SPq B qV B ‚ s Srs F S R RH R S ‚ ’ u S R R S FHP Ssq g` S SPq B qV B s Srs F S R B Ds „ftcFYSD º G dG ™EfYB™ft XucR”G…Qs–IQ·l0cVIcszt‰rD¤w‚CIas‚ tEqYBdRcD”ItcqnId@„X’ER‰dfIQGHYTURGST & ' R•tH }IY@UTGSpRQ¹as™‡QXqGqXDCˆasYBltcqeQsY@R (™GSQXHrFaBCCW–G@tH¹d@ERQsd@hcSYSj„WwCQGHtr D o S R oH B S f F R Sg Rs F RH ¤ t R iPgV F S B ‚ RH R D S ‚’@P T f Rq` S ur BVs Rgq TH R S f   # $V  ¢  ’ T S VsH ’ tGqdRtzmIY@R ´s€ CIasWIQGHdRYDCt¶GS‰nYDˆUs‡QXrYSD   £¤tYStpqcoYScTId@R CQ™s   £¡gGHD   # $V ¢  cSr¸•Bht¥w‚CIEs‚ tEqYB•RXD”IQXqF ¹ts@ trqdBcRcFICtcq’CY@uycVGSdTCcgcFdq tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGS{dRQH ‚CY@R D oq qV B s Srs H DH s Sss F S R ’ T F s B Ds T D o S " YStpqcozultErB ycVXSIWcVGS€rDhcSr¸dBD w‚CIas¶trqdBdRcD”Itcq‘IY@mCQH yXVtt”lasirDB Q I Hlcs™tXrdSetq T S` R@ u Fg T B qV B ‚ s Srs F S R Vs ’ S…qv B G R S f D o
  • 45. G¢ uaR™•fIQxHdTcRYSdRtH h€UTGSpRQedD”rqecRtG…tsuEStIasdB†¬QGqpTeGDcTtwvXqXFYS–QrqYBURXFIWtXq}IAe G dG GSCtEr—ƒ B Ds T D o H oH D i S FHP ir D H f o S T s Sss F S@ 9 u Tg B time (secs) 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 time (secs) cwnd (bytes) 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 560 580 after three duplicate ACK’s Fast retransmit 600 620 640 660 segment number
  • 46. a Y¢ dD”rq€cRtG…tsuEStIEs•B‰{ˆ{cVGScTt”rrdBYTR D i S FHP ir D H g` Sr    ER‰dfIQGHYTURGS}dRQH {}cTGSpR‰™dStsC‚dgcT”wvcqXFGS‘CY@{IEsdBCWjURXFz£¢{ IasCCtYqtdr IA} adG GSCtEr—ƒ B Ds T D o H oH DH@P S T S R r TgV S S r BPg T S@ 9 u Tg B time (secs) 6.5 6 5.5 600 700 800 segment number
  • 47. I¢ u qV B ‚ s Srs F r BVsq T QXSr¸•BD w‚CIas–QrqYB•RXD”CtXqIasWItzdPcDGSYTQXqF S R D q @P T f Rq` S@ 9 Rg S R B Ds H T o BH ‚ R DH@ SV D S@ CY@new‚I•@D C‰xHtr tYqYRtz‚IA¬XuCtXq™EfdB€ER‰dfIQGHYTURGST nQpq–aRQf§Gq€ts–cTCCcsYS˜IA9 u S@ Tq ‚ Rqs BV B Ds T D o D i S FHP i ig f oq i T H D t uG Tg B QGSUTInd…tAutImrVd™ER‰dfCQxHdTcRGSudRtH yc’XDYSdD”rqjUR”G…tsjrSWEPYBaRC‘tjaRCdgcDGS‡}iu I dGSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 time (secs) cwnd (bytes) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 40 after three duplicate ACK’s 60 Fast retransmit 80 100 segment number
  • 48. »¢ g|—ER‘tCtIY@‰cstcvfYSQxH™CEsWIUsYS—GDER"cDYStXHGSUTIEshEgUi”Ev•BYDcDGSt”QcTCIUsYSfCY@”yEVtId@cDGSCd@htErCuH H f B @rgq R S S R T r BV D B D F B S TrrH SV D S R’ iq T R @ B@  a  a G@Idg‡Y@aRB v wtErCkˆGqrDµdG ©RG a z ¨§¦¥ t€IEgQQIQrHYBaRCEs†dgQxHdTERCd`Q™Id@™YSI‰HXFzdc’GDaRCdgcDGST F D u@ B@ q R B’ G ’§ © oq S iHvi B B T B TH S R Dg S` i S B Ty S@ 9 u FsH T SP S R Fg T i D TV B@ Rg S R s B Ds I•gYDED‘dRYDC|IA‚tcSIQ‡YftpqdocTz|IY@†cDXSIWcVGS¶agEiQXHrFYB•RtxHd§G@rFC‚ X’Ctcq‡afYB~tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGST S R T o BH ‚ Dg f SV D S R RH R B i T S@ 9 S FHP D i S R S T R S CY@€tpquaRQf€dRC‘™cTWIcsdShId@iQIY@iEDiaRCdgcDGShCA™XuYDcRtG…ts€dR”EqkId@™cTtqvcqXFYS™Gq–YgUT”wvXqcFGST VsH B Ds T D o oq T B o S R VsH D i S FHP i ig f R r BV i SVq I‰{ER‰dfCQxHdTcRGS‡dRtH jt–GSCagEiQH nCY@‰8 º 6 IQ€cDYSYDtrq€cRtG…ts€rSCaPYBERW‘~Gq’IEsWQHrS–Cd™f dRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•iu‰pHYBlUsItzdE4S as|GDcRtG…ts™Qm”GrWdg€”Gr‰pH˜‡Ctq G…ˆrqcixGq|UTCIcsdSnId@·cVAw‚rqaiQH T ³ D i R SsqP B S FHP oq S T D S T i H Rg F F R SV D S R S i  a   ai G@rFWzz ¨§¦¥ thCEgQQyQrHYBaRCEshCY@f8 D¤6 GSQ†WddqrDCUPiEDCY@tuXDI•gYDrD™IEslEgdicTCCChIA9 B@ ‚’§ © oq S iHvi B B S R TH SV B S B R oq S B r B SVsg S@ u D u S R RH T Fq iHsy B@ ‚ Rg S tcFYS†G ”¤ ‡afYBQ€GDWcgXFˆ|agEiQIC–G@EFCdX’Ctcq‡afYBR s B Ds T S R T o BH ‚ R B T Fq R s B Ds T T o H ‚ S Rq isq S@ 9 u QrqdBdDrD‰dfI‰xHYTURGShIY@etpq€ERQA™YqrDuWcgXFˆ‰Gq¹trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGS€tpq€gficTId@t{agCthCAeW©G R S f D B Ds T R Dg S` Rqss F s B Ds T D o Dg R VsH’ Sr R S` s lcs™tcrYSaR™•fIQxHdTcRYS‘Gq–cVYSI™ztIWQH€tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGSdRQH €Ild@€CQCycVGSUT””rrdBYT}z¹‰HF & ' & D f (ecTId@YRCpg†IlwtEqdBYDED™•fIQGHYTcTCY@YRWpg‡lQeCQIY@aRB v wEsfcD‡QXqeD f (iGSQXHrFEBWCWƒVdtIs ¤ t S T o qs’s B Ds R S T o gsH Rgq ' u B S f F ¤ t R iPg ³sq EiYBlCiGDlcs™tXrdSkYSt™¹lQ‚CcsYSutIC‰H€ERsCIasWIQGHdRGDWt™GHQIetkXSr¸•B5w‚CIEs‚ C‘Efˆ4 ‡f Rsg R S f D Tq f gsH V D Rqss F B’r BVs Rgq RHV oq D qV B fg B H sH R Tq f S H@ R S iH Rqs B SV D S R F D S S q u u Tg B ƒ D D QIY@GSt™‡”vs¹Gq’XV„q‚EqEiQhtIjrDhcTCIUsYS™IY@‰XSIasdB’UT”UvAw‚i  dI dG GSCQrr—xEsB UsXSYSktH ’Ssq g qV B ‚ s Srs F S R SPq R i`H B B S T SV D S R ¤ t R iPg tIt€l` w‚CCEs€trqdBdRcD”ItcqkId@–UsbQ‰Yq}rSCQeEDERsX’cD”EvUBXScFGS€cTCIUsYSjId@© (}GSQXHrFEBWCWV & ' FS v u u s S f o i " G@tXH§Y@ERB 58 C@¢u º W trqdBcRcFdA tYqpTAaiQHcFS 6 u Eo‰s‚EgciYSQ‡Efˆ4 GqCC‰˜YqR cVXSIdXVGS‘EDB w‚CCEs‚ iH@ RH B TPPH Fg T qV B s Srs F S R T Fq s B Ds T D o S R S v u D VsH D u¦ S R S S tEqYB•RXD”IQXqeIY@lX’YDCcgcFd‰tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGSedRtH Id@‡UsI@ "tcFYSe¤ CQucFYSj » Wc™EfYB‡csXS„ƒ‚cRz` & ' cscSYSkD f (GSQXHrFaBCCW‰IY@}YDcT””ErYBdT™XFdS¹ » W¦ YStpqcoz}GDER‰dfCQxHdThcTWIcsdS™Id@kYDˆUs‡QXrYSAtq D ¤ t R iPgV S R Sr R D u T S` B Ds R SV D S R R S f D o S T D S@ 9 u D qV B ‚ fg B H f S R B B@ ‚ Rg` ¦ ¤ B s B Ds T D ”YrCdg‡IAmQXSr¸•Bq‚WIEs2ChEfˆ4 ‡™Id@krDxG@rFCX’cDGSll¹v¦ º G EDxtEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGSh•Rt oH dRtrHeCY@fGSQpqcoz"ltrrdB·w‚CIastrqdBdRXDtItXqCY@„tfIagQQeCY@fGSQi—uCtcq‡afYB†tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGST D i S R T S` R@ T qV B ‚ s Srs F S Roq S iHv S R Rq “ Rg S R s B Ds H VsH s B Ds T D o H 6 T Fq R s B Ds T H Dg F s F D BsH S f8 º 6 CQ–trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGSe•RtH ‘e8 D¤( CUgXFˆ™Yq€trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGS‘kYSI‰H–QHe™dfrDWQsG@XF™f # q i u B Ds T S` R D Ss VsH S ‚ DH D i B  R S f D ’q u¤ S „ƒ‚R EgCs bXVGSdRER‰dfI‰xHYTURGS¹b’Gq|CcVXSI0CQ™aici„‡t‡dR”Eq‰ED˜©G ˆUs‡QXrYSeCˆA ”tG cTz` ³ fgs R S f B ‚ r T D D i B R S f D S R S S ’ T S Ss R S f D ‰Cl€lcs™tXrdSD Y@aR~IEsdBYRQGHdR€dRtrq‡ED{ˆUs‡QXrYS€UTIY@Qq YgcTtcvitGSQpqcoz` XVItEqYBlcs™{ut u D T S` R@ T S R RH Sr i qs FH B R S f D B R Vs tcFYSj¤ GStpqUobAˆQrrYBi‡afYBeQmcV”CcVrSw‚IlG…terDelcs™tcrYSrDWY@€IQH & ' # ’yXVYSYRER‰dfCQxHdTcRGSj•RtH hED‰tlcs™tXrdS—† (GS‰HrFaBCCW’GVaTCY@Id@xs yXVtEvcBcSXFYShEDB X’cTESEBYi‰HS B Ds T D o B ¤G R S f D’ ¤ t R iPgV B R S R u S T T & ' RlcsdSGDlcs™tcrYS„tf”YrCdg„”Gr‰pHAId@hlhcVGScTt”rrdBYT”X’D f (AYSQHEFEBCCd™cVXSts•PhEgcidS”rqUistCtYqtr D R S f Doq S T D S T i S R g` Sr R ¤ t R iPgV FH D D Foq Pg T H D F TP S R D t ur BVs Rgq B R S f Do qV B ‚ i o H F D S T o gsH V Ic’CXVcSXSˆGqC€‡afYBAiCIasWIQGHdRGDWtAEDfGDlcs™tXrdS…tq q‚WIEs„EiCpgh™XSIasdBUTIY@dRCpg‡lQ¹IUsYSD Yq|rSCQ‰QI‘rD™cTCIUsYS€Id@eX’lEstz‘rDCd@ft tG cTz‘ClˆUs‡QXrYS’IastCXVESw‚IlG…t7 (t R i`H Rqs B SV D S R R BqP B R R u¤ S` fgs R S f D r Br i qs FH ¤ & ' SGQXHrFEBWCW‡}cD”avcBXScFGS™UTCIUsYShCY@IU’8 QrqtcrGS–cVrSUiGFETUBhId@nasB 6 cFYS™ » W¦ GStpqUob€ltrrdB}‡afYBkCY@R R iPgV H S T SV D S R s B T F S R D u T S` R@ T S R S Vsg TH RH R @P Tr S R B D S ‚ VsH D i R S f D Ty S R B ¤G S` fgs R S f S IWtGqQfQsd@|CQGHtuId@‡asuXSdS™A™IQd’dRtrqAlUs‡tcrYS•RGDC€IY@rD€¥UTb‘WˆAˆUs‡QXrdA
  • 49. Q¢ u uG i`H9 B S S SP SV t¥¤dHESCQ…¹Esj”EvdBcRcFb•PGDcTziD §fUTCIUsYSD S R f o F TP S T S Roq r Bs B S` S R R ig` R S ‚ u Tg Bƒ B iP S q CY@1tGqpT„YDXDcSdYqC|dgcT”wvcqXFGS€IY@bthIasCCastXrziId@€YSQpHWCQxHiAˆ’ » ˆG YSCtrr…{Es‰pHCˆ54h…9 XuGDWcgXFˆeCtcq‡afYB{tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGS‘sdI d¡GSWtrr—–asnw‚Id@W”G T Fq Rg S R s B Ds T H’ uG Tg Bƒ B s q D’¤ UTbhClhlcs™tXrdSD X’ˆUs‡QXrYSEStIEs•B–UT”wvXqcFGS€GqrSC‰‚EgCQkEDhaR™•fIQGHYTcRYSjdRtH ‰IY@XSIasˆA S` fgs R S f R S f D ir D H S T R i`H isq B B Ds T D o S R F B uwEs‘™tcqkYDcR”G…Qs|IEs•BYDED™‘Id@"EidBlC‰CcgIµ¨ agC‘cfdSYDtXHGS‘Id@¶Es7UfIY@}cDGStYqdR}aRB ’ 8 QGFURwW©G B S f F S FHP r B f S R Rsg S Sg i` D T S R B S R T D u S’a ’ G R S f R S f D S Tq oq Rgq S T S T S S D i TH C¢ ¥’ º G GDlcs™tcrYSD 6 GDlcs™tXrdS|UTCGVtjQ‡CQ{XD”avcBcSXFGS‡cT”avcBcSXFGS¹IY@R UsI@ v udRtrq–YSQ8 Q Q cRtG…ts{Gq’ChcRtG…tsjcTId@t’YgUT”cvS 6 t–dq˜CQH ’ Q G dI G ˆG G W©G ”G XVYScTz‘Cl…c’GDlcs™tcrYSD S FHP R Pg S FHP S Rq S sq D Vs ’ ’ ’ ’¤ S` fgs R S f ’”agEiQXHIEyUBXFzdP‚GSt– jw‚I UT”wv{tH G@GFER•‚‚IY@{Q'XVzCtYqW€rD€GDUR”G…tsht’”GrWdg€Qsd@R EsB i F S D Tq u q S q D B D S R RH SPP TV B S FHP oq S T D RH cRtG…tsecTCY@t™YgUT”cvlX’ERC•gXDGSjAiwG@GFaRd‚€IY@asAcTzCeId@kIasq‚C cTtwvW„Y…t„ƒ‚cRC€Id@hYqlEsB S FHP S Rq S S i T H D t u B D S R B S¢g` S R r B q S q’ Tq Ss S R R GDUR”G…tIyt€”GrC•gAIQIlEsYBltcqhAI‰CCAUTCIUsYS€IY@ˆtGSWtIeIY@‰Es|w‚I•@{G@ˆbUPiId@€YStpqcoz` S FHPoq S T D Dgqg Rs F H DP fgP SV D S R’ Tgry S R B s q D Fq S S R T S RˆQrrYB—’ º ddG trqdBcRXFˆA IY@˜Es~cVIEsQrHCˆ54ku¶XucDYSdD”rq†UR”G…ts‘ESCEPdBERCht|CˆYqEDCcPS ‰H QGqpTo @ T u u s S S R B S B iP S D t D i S FHP i ig f oq SV B s f TctwvXqXFYS{GquWtXq™EfdB¶trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGS|hUTGSpRQ¹agciGS‰pHWcV‡‰EfyQCd™™dRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•ieQpHdBˆUsItzˆ54S S T R Rg S R s B Ds T H oH R B S f B’SVq f T ³ D i R SsqP S B B SV D S R ’ Tgry B CY@R as™rD‡cTCIUsYSmCY@tYSCtI‰rDCd@R ´s€ u » dG GSCtEr—ƒ as†8 trqtcrGS0cVrSUiGFETUBmId@0EspB3XFdS˜G Q ”¤ u Tg B B s B T F S R 6 D u S R RH D F T i THP H S D`q S v T Fq s F B Ds T D o i o D F S f D ‡afYBQhYSQHf‰pHCUgrFYBdRQs‘‘tYvUTYSIt}˜uCUgXFˆn‰HfYDER‰dfIQGHYTURGSedRtH iYSrD‰H sc’XDdStH}™tYq–´s€ ­ ¯ ±­ ©¨¢Ÿ ¢ Ÿ­¨    § ¨ I•Ÿ¤Wh„sI—'£d„j¡Wd­Aj  "˜ ˜ #€" e¡ uCtcq‡afYB{tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGShIas™WdgItcqƒF³ ‡afYB}IY@s”dgcTtqvcqXFYSYq{gfecTCY@t‡EgCtjId@tpqo Rg S R s B Ds T r B f Ds S R S R’ S T R H ‚ S Rq isq S R T r BH ‚ i B D SV D S R VsH ’s qV D… T` BsH S f r B F D S CEsYBaRQAESWrVjGDaRdB†UTCIUsYS‡CY@˜CQeww‚ChˆQXHGSC$•frDCQIG@XF™¹IaslG…dEqciƒFr³aocidS‡Id@R U’8 D f (t ¤ & ' GSQXHrFEBWCWƒVdtIeIY@pR6 QstErdB}G…ˆrqUid‰xHlcs™QIIWpgyGDERdtˆEiUib•PjYgWV rDWY@IEsdBCuB ycV”CcVrSw‚IlG…tH R iPg ³sqs S iHs D F Fi R S fHVs o Boq S D T B R r Tg u Sr i qs F S s F RH Ss qs VsH ’ RHV Ss r BV D DP D SV D S R S@ ‚ T Fq i` T z` QXHnxHQCV U‚InIxCQeWxH‰Ic‚ImIasWIUsYS‘IQGqdRUTCIUsYS|Id@§csIhYDCcgcFdªUfrSCtYqCP & ' S@ 9 ¤ t R iPg ³sqs T o r BH ‚ iH@ H R S f F B’ RHVo qV B ‚ i o S R Rg IAcuD f (eGSQXHrFaBCCW´VWtI„tpqhCEsYBaRQA„aRQshhGqXD™tXq„ERlWxH‰Iwtq w‚CIassEiCpg€IY@„Ctq R D DH@ SV D S R Fsq ’q & ' lcsdS‘tsUTCIcsdS|Id@‡XSIQCdA XuD f (™GSQXHrFaBCCWkGDcTt”rrdBYT‚EgCQˆUsYS‰cRtG…ts1c‚Cs G@QHS ¤ t R iPgV Sr R isq R D S FHP S F ’ycVGSUT”wvXqcFGSkYSQ™cDYSdD”rq™UR”G…tI™rSCaPYBERW‘kId@R EiYBlCyX’cTtcv„q‚€(wtrqdBdRcD”Itcqnd…tAƒ‚URIuUTIY@dRCpgo S T TH D i S FHP i ig f S Rsg S S q   us Srs F Tq Ss S T EVt”v†YqR w‚CCEs|tEqYB•RXD”IQXq™Id@™IEsdBER‰EfaByt{tEqYBURICpgAaTcBId@‡XV™YfQpqYocTz„™dfEDCQsG@cF‡‘„ƒ‚R Bq H qV B ‚ s Srs F S R r B ioq s Fs o S R S T SP D BsH S f q S R’s Srs F i DqPoq F o S R € u u s S B D BV DH SP TP r B F C@YlwtrqdBdRcD”ItcqrSCa`dBYDtbzticStH eIY@‰´s6u º ”¤ W QrqYBURXFdA Es™XVYSdDIcgdFrDWet™ƒgdRcTztGqC}IaslG…dEqciF r³EociSd‘D g§¥xY@aR†GScTpSdocTYSˆash™dfEDCQsG@cF‡¹Aƒ‚Id@—tdStHjEDCY@˜´s€ XucDYSYDtrqhUR”G…tIhrSCaPYBaRC‘f D f ¦ ¤ 9 B ‚ R B D BsH S f q R S R ’ D F B R D i S FHP i ig cTtwvXqFXYST€qY…™dfEDCQsG@cF‡hYgUT”wvXqcFGShIQ—ER‰dfI‰xHYTURGST dRQH CtGSWEgEi‰H Id@wrD„CdgYDED—UTIY@QAIA9 S RD BsH S f S T VsH B Ds D ooq T B o S R B S B S Rq S@ cuXDdSYD”EqirSWEPYBaRC‘}Id@Yq‘IEsdtHESiXDCcgIµ¨ G…cFIcsESYiYRQb}Id@¹cVGSQGHCYgQYH|WQHGSaTQk”vs@ D i i ig f S R R r BV i S Sg S Rq` S R R T R D gV iH S H
  • 50. ¦ ©G ER‰dfI‰xHYTURGSedRQH uYSEDQs„R¥¤dPESCQ…9 B Ds T D o iHƒ uG i`H ua R S f oq ¨ ¦ W©G lcs™tXrdSD tª©§¥¤ ¥   £¢¢ ¡ V     H YqR CtXHrSi XFdSD ¤ a ”¤ ™EfdBR QH DV u S R ¢I ¤ u ” a G lc™tXd†t'tr•YE™•IQxdcY˜IA9 R s S f r S D o q s q B D D B f D s QHu ITS cgR ISS Tµ¨ S Eg@ C` g i ³ D T S R B S F F gV iH B a cfdSYDtXHGShCY@mas‘IG@tH¹WQHGSaTQ™ED™©G R S f D F D’a VsH G R S f lUs‡tcrYSXSCEsdBbW©G IQ|G HGDlUs‡tcrYSD  ©I ¤ u ” £Glc™tcY¶„ƒftq (t Q¶YkCtXrSi & ' DR sS f rSD q ‚R o ¤ s H qR D V H G R sS f rSD o q s BD B fD sHTRST S @ RG lc™tXd†t'trq•YED™•IQxdcY˜IA9 XVYSYRER‰dfCQxHdTcRGS}YSQH B Ds T T a V sH G DRsS frS ©G IQ·RG Glc™tcdA ¤a ¤ u ” uS Sg QIcgIµ¨ EgChcfYSdDtHYS}IY@{as¹cVIG@tH‡WtXHGSET‰rDB i` D T S R B S F F gV iH ¢ R s f r S D S F sB D ’ii S ‚ D H ¢ R s S G lcS™tcY€XIad´ac„Q˜G lU‡f ³ D S i qs FH S T S@ 9 u ‰XrYSuXD”rCcVrSw‚IlG…t™cT”avcBcSXFGSkIAeC¢ G ¤a ¤ u ” VI‰m©DYˆUs‡QXrSY™!YDˆUs‡QXrYS¶„ƒ‚tq sH G R S f D R S f D q R o & ' ¤ t s R D V i FSD u ¤ S BR R (5QH qYnCtHXrS~Xd·G ”e™EfdnQH  G Rlc™tXd†ot'str•DYE™•IQxdcY˜IA9 s S f r S D q q B D B f D s H T R S T S @ XVGSdRER‰dfI‰xHYTURGSrD‘©G lcs™tcrdA B Ds T B  R S f S G ”¤ u S " & ' XVtEvUBXSXFS D f (t ¤ R S R Sf ˆUsdA GDlcs™tXrdSD 8 XdD ™EfA9 FS 6 S B time (secs) ER‰dfIQGHYTURGSdRQH ™YSrD‰„e » dG GSCtEr—ƒ B Ds T D o iHƒ u Tg B 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 60 80 100 120 segment number
  • 51. ¤ G S R € Rg S R s B Ds T H oH SVq f T ³ D SP fHV S R D q D @P T f CY@{´s6XuCtXq™EfdB‡tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGSkfcTGSpR‰™Cˆ‡„YRQGHdR´Dfq‚Eqdi|cVb‰QIuIY@few‚I•@€CQxHQr QGqR d³tzhCA„ytrqdBcRXFCCtXqjId@—Q‰CEsCCastXrz}IY@‰jCd™YR‰xHdR´Dfw‚rqdi…QrHYBlcsCtbˆE4hCY@eeq‚Cd@D Rq` S@ 9 us Sss F S R oq r Bs B S` S R RH SVq f T ³ D i R SsqP S S R D q @P T P R S@ Ds R oq u Rgq`H q D D@P T Rq u Tg B s q C‰xHtr tYq|IA9 uUTpSdoI‰xHYTet€cFYSD » d¦ CtzQ¤w‚I•@†ICQGHtr Y@t„@ u Q dG YSCtrr…ƒ EsB q‚Cd@D s THP f F S R g D S s F S S B R oq SV BsrH f S@ 9 u SP fH B SVq QYqrDdBQs‰tXq–IY@§l` cscSYS–b` ‰H{URXFz£¢‰rDCd@™t€CIdgERCtQ|nCA'W XVz™‰IdV rD€Cd™f   dRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•iQpHdBlcsItzˆ54S Id@kX’CtXq™EfdB5trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGST ’UTGSpRQ'EgUiGSQrHWXV™‰Ef†X’IlA9 T ³ D i R SsqP S R Rg S R s B Ds H oH R B S f B Dg@ & ' u ¤ tiHg B BV B sH FgV TP Rqs Sq † (yQsdrVlEvWCEs€QkXSIWˆGqWtIXDˆCV cVGSdRER‰dfIQGHYTURGS†lcs™tXrdSD G@tHe’UT”avcBXScFGS‡CY@‘Q€CcgIµ¨ agC‘UfYSYDQHGS™IY@~asB cVIG@tXH‘GDlcs™f B Ds T R S f F S S T S R RH S Sg i` D T S R S F F R S ³ D S oq Dg S` ¢q S T R Dq TgP BsH S f R S fr i qs FH S SV S ‰XrYSkIY@R t‘YSCQHcFbs’ 7¶XVIdsCYg€EgUiYS”zYPWC€EDB dfrDWQsG@XF™ulUs‡tWXVrSw‚IlG…t‚cV”gpHUiChCY@R @rgq R S S RH R u uG s SA VsH Rg S R s B Ds T H oH SVq f T ³ tCtIY@‚Us”cv™QsY@‰W dFQrqYBURXFdFCQ€8 Ctcq‡afYBmtEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGS™jUTGSpRQhCˆ‡iYRQGHdRƒDfw‚EqdiD S R T RP F B@ uG Tg B ƒ B S D`q S ‚ S S q u iHg B BV B Sr i qs FH S CY@„cDGSCdgCQXH‡G@EFC‚ 6 » ˆ¥GSCQrr—‡Ese”dvcTYSCti„WX’cT”UvAw‚€  ”EgaiQsWEVlEvWIas‡XVtCXVESq‚CˆG…Qiz` EVCtI•@‘XVYSYRER‰dfCQxHdT"lcs™tXrdSG@tHµjw‚CIas‘tEqYBdRcD”ItcqfId@Ittrq•BIQsˆE4CQrHYBlcsIQbˆ54S tpqo igq D B Ds R R S f D F S’ qV B ‚ s Srs F S Roq s DsHP Si R SsqP T  ’ º ˆG tEqYBcRcFdA Esmw‚I•@ii”ƒgERUBtsQXHnd…t„ƒ‚cRIjIY@eXDztYqC–I‰‡ baPC•P CY@wEiW™Gq{aglG…rFCµ¨ u s S B s q D D t u FHP F Tq Ss S R S` TP VsH S B S R iy R i Bg  Pg D SPq qV B ‚ S R RH R D Ss SV B T CIUsbt¬q‚WIEs{Id@‰‰sY@‚Yq·XVItErdBcDC†rDYR‰xHdRD w‚rqdi¹Id@ut¹YStICQpHdBlcsItzˆ54¹IA9 D S R oq DH@P i R SsqP S S@ ”–“” e†e¹ £ •‘ ¤Xm £  Œ ‹” • Œ “ ‹ ‘ Ž” Œ • ¡ Œ ¢ ¶„‚ ¥ ¶¤ ‰X“„‡ ‚ · ¢  · ‰“ ¥ ¥ © ¤ ‡ © ¢ x†{  ‡ u u s S B S T o B R D BV S v R S f D r BVs Rgq S W¢ dG tEqYBcRcFdA EseUTIY@dRCpgrDCd@edDIcgdFrDWj˜cuGDlcs™tcrYSIEsdIQxH•RGDCQhCY@R & oq Dq f Sr i qs FH B@ ‚’ S TH RH ¤ t S T i S R R SgV B S B D B@ 9 B' t}•R”™˜XVtCXVESq‚CˆG…Q~G@EFCwyXVtEvYBdTQhQsd@R (‘”YrQpH†Id@{Gq†IW}EDtE…C•PjrDCAhuER‰f ³ IQGHYTcRYSfYSEDQH IY@fYStpqcozltrrdBetE…C•Pf”YrQpH™€GStC™YqrD‰u„twtEqtXrYS†XVrSUiGFaTcB™QGHeId@™´s€ Ds T i o S R T S` R@ T S B D S T i H Rqs iH S ‚’s B T F S f D S R u FsH T SP S R SV T SV B Ds T D o i o FgA us Srs F qs i tcSIQ‡YftpqdocTz}IY@XDWtxHtcrCeER‰dfCQxHdTcRGS•RtH ™YSEDQH nG@Cˆ9wtEqYBdRcD”Itcq™C™agEiQXHGST ED™YScTId@R UsI—QCˆ‡‰XSIQCrVttwvƒHWtEqYBdRcD”Itcq|”avdBdDXDGSQ”t†dDXDrS‰IY@¹GqlEs–”mGqhcTCIUsYS|CY@R B S S@ ‚ ’SVq f FsH Bq ³s Srs F S TrrH i S R R B qr R SV D S cDXSGFQpquEgWcs”‰xHdRED™waR™•fIQGHYTcRYSYSrD‰H eCY@QQYStXHF rDCd@k´s€ n•frDC‰sG@XF™yER‰dfCQxHdTcRGST •RtH CY@jIQH T o i S… B f B Ds T i o S R’ D B R u BsH S f B Ds D o S R Vs UT”EvUBXScFGSjIY@€Q‘CcgIµ¨ EgW‘cfdSYDtXHGSjIY@—tnQrqYBURtxHUTGSlEsjId@¤tGqpTeERWdgXDYSGDER‰dfCQxHdTcRGS}dSrDQsƒ S T S R RH S Sg i` D T S R oq s F R B S R f o i T B Ds T iH uXYDtrqhˆUs‡QXrYS–I}rD‰GScTCY@’tItId@R cstcv’XVGS‰tavYBURthrD2dfEDCQsG@cF‡‰IY@XSCEsdBD X’ER‰dfIQGHYTURGST D i R S f D qs B S R @rgq S S RH FH B BsH S f S R F B Ds •RtH †YSEDQH ¹hrDWY@Ei‰H‰x‰Uu8 tEqtXrYS˜cVrSciYFETUB™Id@˜asf6 aR™•fIQGHYTcRYSk•RtH {‘IlY@’IQhD f (t D o i o H B R i F S v s B T F S R B B Ds T D o H Dg R VsH ¤ & ' GSQXHrFEBWCWt}XDESYBUTYS|€Gq™WtHES}cT”avcBcSXFGS‘CY@™Q˜XVCG@tH‘YSQjQIY@}GDlcs™tcrYSt‚CtYqt|„tq R iPgV oq D H R DV i S T S R RH S F F TH RH R R S f D oq Pg Tr H o s B Ds T S R ’ D u S R Vsg TH RH R D S v u ¤ t R iPgV H R S S & ' QrqdBdDrD‰dfI‰xHYTURGS€IY@tcFYS¶I Q t¤ ‡afYB§ICtYqQ‰Qsd@–XSdS€x† ({GSQXHrFaBCCW‚‡cDGSQGHcTIUs”r ’XcTtEvcBcSXFYS€Id@Q{cVIG@tHhWtXHGSET‰„EDER…tS ´uµ’•R”rqtCtAeQsd@„lcs™tcrYSjyt‰tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGST S T S R RH S F F gV iH B B u B D i Rqs DH ‚ RH R R S f D Hoq s B Ds S R RH R D S ‚ ’ RHP S R r B iqƒ u T B D Sg Rs CY@‰QsY@€XSdSn„AwdscTGSdRQs€IY@–IEsw‚rqaitI§”agYiQrHEi‰EfdB‰XDCˆasYBltcqF YsUTGSdRQs€”wvb‰mIA9 RHP S q`H S@
  • 52. ºG u u u s S B D BV DH s B Ds T D o i o S R D iH S W WˆG tEqYBURXFdA asnXVdSYDIUgYFrDd€Q¹trq•BYDrD‰dfCQxHdTcRGSe•RtH ™YSEDQH }IY@}XSdSYqrD‰k˜v   # $V udHcTYSCQs„¤ asnC5rSYBW‘IdgdDrD™rDWY@}YDIUgYFEDW†xhuUTbW‘IY@¶IQ–   t†cSr¸•B‘”avYBQrHciGS‘CY@R I RPH@ B g T` S B B R D BV S v S¢g` S R VsH oq D S R T S sq r BV S SV R S f D D i R V i s F Ds B Ds R FH D D F Fg R D T t‡IEsWCcszcPCzX’GDlUs‡tcrYS€dRtrq™Yq–tXHrSm‰HeItEqdBYDED™•fIQGHYTmXVcSts•P€EgcidS”rqUi¶G@IˆA ulcsdSkYSQH & ' R‰sY@uYDlcs™tXrdSet‘”a…CdPh”YrQpH™™XDGS‰xHcTCcs”™YqrD‰H (h”Gr‰pHhIAjQIcgCl¨ agC‘cfdSYDtXHGShCY@R H R R S f D oq S B D S T i H R S Sr i ¤ t S T i S@ 9 uS Sg i` D T S sq R S f D S R oq F Sg D R S S R FH R i`H B S T S R’ iy TH iq tjYDˆUs‡QXrYS†CY@et‡cSIcsCl£¨YS†YSETYBlUs†IY@–G…t¹GqhESCQ}EDhUT”avcBXScFGS‘Id@bycVrSEiW‘GSQ€ XDrSQI•@   #  dS”IY@™cSIs XuGDlUs‡tcrYS™lQ|wQhCcgIµ¨ agC‘UfYSYDQHGSiIY@€tkIEs•BYDrD‰‘ cDrStC•@ Id@|XVGSaTQsUPGST Dq R F R S f D gsH foq S Sg i` D T S R sq r B f iq S R BH  cFYSD µ» ”¤ ICtYqQ‰QH XVYSYRER‰dfCQxHdTcRGS†YDˆUs‡QXrYS€Id@¹dSIQXHXFzc’GDCUgXFˆ–cFYS¶ Q ”¤ ICtYqQ‰QH º u Vsg TH R B Ds T R S f D S R Dg S` T Fq D u Vsg TH R & ' ¤ t S rT i S @ 9 uDR sS f rSD RD i TS vqFST qR r B gTR BRD s BRFS s sqF S @R ’SD H @ P B @ (‡”YQpH|IA˜XYlc™tXd‘dtrqctqcXYmGmIasˆdYeEiaiY•‘rDB tEqYUXICQX{IdeQYtIChrDWYR r TgV F D RHP r BV D R iP f F Tq f D iH S ‚’@P T f Rq` S R CEsYBWWhcSIEs•BmYsUTGSdRQs‡IasWIUsYS€XVYSQHEFEBC‰tXqjYSt‡kXSYS‰YqEDQ‘„IwCQGHtr tYqYRtzhCY@m´s€ u@P Tr f Rq` S R R THP f F’@P Tr P R S R B s q D T ³ i R SsqP wWQxHt¬tGqdRtb}Id@†Gq{XVYSQs‰tXqIwWQxHt¹tYq}IY@€Es–w‚Id@edRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•iD QpHdBˆUsItzˆ54S S R r TgV Ds R B RH Fg f DH B R RH B TPPH ’S R oq Rsgq fH S f CY@mIasYBCW§cVGSYTUTpSdoI‰xHYTkrD–GHQIV G@I‘hQ€XSrFƒ‚‚agciGS‰|afd4 YqCCQQ‡afYBt‘ˆWt‡‰{‡‰GHD
  • 53.  ©G Rg S R s B Ds CQXq™EfYB€tEqdBdDrD‰dfIQGHYTURGST H oH SVq f T ³ D SP fHV S R D q @P T f Rq` S@ us Sss F S R o ‡cTYSpRQ¹Cd™‰YRQGHdRƒDfw‚Eqdi0cVb‰QI–IY@™eq‚Cd@D WQxHtr QGqYRQb¹IA9 wtrqdBcRcFICtcqnId@™tq r Bs B S` S R RH SVq f T ³ D i R SsqP S S R D q D @P Tr P R S@ 9 u Tg B CEsCCastXrz‘Id@h‰†Cˆ‡}dRQxH•RƒDfw‚rq•ieQpHdBˆUsItzˆ54IY@jew‚Id@’C‰xHt’tYq‰IAj Q dG GSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 60 80 100 120 time (secs) segment number 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 segment number
  • 54. ¢G cuItrqdBQpHW‘Ef•B€CtrqlcvYSCbaiQitpqeGDcRtG…ts‘¨¦£ED–G@EFC„c’XDIG@YFER•‚{G…XFIUsrSdiYRtz}IY@…tq Ds R ig D Dg B TP iH T o S FHP ¤ B B@ ‚ S B D S Rq` S Ro # cSr¸•BjcTzC‘Id@‘bmEVCt„™cTYScR™QxHQIilQGHYRtz™af‘Is ”gAlˆ‰hCcgcFd¶EVCt„mXVItEqYBlcs™f D S¢g` S R S` igq ‚ S f THP Rs TqP B S u H ‚gsH T Fq igq ‚ Ss R S cDCddqrDCUP†IY@tItC’I‰—bXVGSdTCcgcFd‰”vs}QIng‡h‡afYB‚EPdBYTR dICtYq‘It€IasYBCWjcDYSYDtrqi SV B S S R oq Ssqs VsH ’ T Fq S H@ Rqs H f S R ³Vsg T Ssq r TgV D cRtG…tsrSWEPYBaRC‘CycVGSURXFrSUiYS}YScT„AXDIagQQAUTGScR™QGHQsiESCQGHERC•guGSQ‡waofQsd@uItYrQ|g‡uIs S FHP i ig f’ D S ‚ S iHv S f THP i` B D Tq f B RH R Sg TH H f S # ucTzQsIY@kEsYS”Id@‘Y@aR‚ YftpqWtXq™Yq…YDcTYScR™QxHQIAYS”ˆIG@„At’   asia GSCQrr—cSIWˆGqCUPGS€GqR SPHP S R B Dq R B T os F R S f THP Dqq F S ‚ B Tg B ƒ FgV T T YDC‰cfGSdRQH tGqpT™XVIasQxHCQfGDaRCdgcDGSiCY@wtAYRQsh„rD„rDdBcDIY@rDCd@uXSCEsdBdtYStpqcoz‡XVCtrqdBˆUs‡„ut RP R f o S B R`q i T S Roq THP H B S R B R F D’ T S` Ss R S f D ©Œ Ž – ¥ £ –Œ – u¨§m jŒ ¦¥¤j™ †“ ¦  ¢ ¥ §¡¤¢ ¦ §Ž ” †• ¢ £ ‹ ¢ ˆ‡ ‰€¡ u iP fH S sH DH SV ³Vsg T S f THP S R r D QrSC‰QW54–Qet€grHciC¹EPdBYTR dICtYqcTYScR™QxHQIjCY@†IEs•BIg º Wa trqdBcRcFdA EsAEDCY@eGS‰xHYT•RIEgaiEi™˜"XuYDcTGSUR‡‰xHQs‰tEqYBQrHC‘Ef•B†Gq}”avYBaRdBIUsYS™YSQ™dfrDWQsG@XF™f u s S B B R R D B S v S f THP s R ig D R S D D TH D BsH S cSIQIEVt”v¹IQ…tYqYTltcq–QrqYB•RXD”CtXqjId@—tcDrF‰QslW€IQ‘IEs‰EfdB€URtW54jId@QsY@j”dvcTdSItq FsH Bq H VsHi Rs F s Srs F S R oq B fHsgV VsH r B R FH S S R RH R S D` dqrDQk„z’UT”UvAw‚i1tcSr¸dBicTzCUT”Gr‰pH†nd@ERmUs”UvuCUgXFˆwEiaiYB•RuGDlUs”cvedD”rq}™QGHhIY@eQIY@R iH S ‚ S S q   u D S¢g` S T i H B ‚ S S T Fq D R S S D i S f D S R RH SYtIhxewG@GFaRd‚kIY@¹EshXSr¸•B™UTbWkId@R tkXSIQQUvrSciYSkId@uYDCcgYFEDWh„s”¥¤da tEqYBcRcFdF´s€ Rqs S v u B D S R B D S¢g` S oq FsH T S R D BV S ‚’ u s SA XuItEqYBQrHC‘afdBjIY@€asiGDlUs”cvdD”rqAQpHCUgrFdBYRQs}Id@†Gq€XVGSWCE`dBYTltXq–XVdSI}A–CYgURYSD Ds R ig D S R B R S S D i T i THP S R R Rg Rs F Dg S ‚ P FIaycBcFb•PfIY@R cTId@cRI†tEqYB•RXDIµ§˜v ycVYSI}ttrqtztGq‘CQ"YDcTGSUR‡‰xHQs„IY@uYqR GDaRCdgcDGSACY@„YSQH S D S S S@ ‚ s Sg¨ S u Dg gr iqP R VsH S f THP S R i T S R T S D D q@ B s Sg¨ Rs TqP B Ssq i T s R ig D S Roq s D BV S R o tEvYBaRdBIUsYS0q‚C"rD‰trqdBdRXDClˆ‰xHYRQb‰EfItlc’GDERWdgXDYS‘tEqYBQrHC‘Ef•BeIY@„t™trq•BYDIUgYFrDd€CY@ecTYSpRit % ¨ ¦ 0§¥ ¦ 30¤¢  ¢ ¨  # ! ¥ ¢ $"      ¨ ¦ £   ©§¥ ¤¢ ¡  
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  • 57. IG cu‡‰RG I‰IX’™‘©G X’™hG 6Q|gpHUiC€gf‚ U³It†–Y@aR‡CasEB‘‰IEs•BIecTpS•oIQxHdThYSlˆ¹ ¤ H D fG VsH D f ¦ D f ¢ oq SV H Ssq H B ‚ … i H r Dg Ds R Rg` o qV B ‚ s Srs Foq F R S R D q D D@P Tr S R’ f Rq` R P R f Tƒ u Tg B tq w‚CIas{trqdBdRXDtItXq…tuXStGHYT™Id@feq‚Cd@IC‰xHt™CY@lntYqYRtz‘Gq{QGqtGqC º Wa GSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 6 4 2 20000 40000 60000 time (secs) cwnd (bytes) 6 4 2 20000 40000 60000 time (secs) cwnd (bytes) 6 4 2 20000 40000 60000 cwnd (bytes)
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  • 59. QG EgUiYS”EqcierD„cTCIUsYS€IY@™G@rFCQ‡rVtI•@XDYSCY@eIY@zteGSQ‡EfdBdRcD™ˆdth‡ICkYq™cVXSI€AlCdA D F B SV D S R B@ ‚ RH iq T R S Roq RH S Vqqr H Vsy R Ss S ‚’q uUT”ItEqkagYilQHCEyCtErdBeXDtQxHUTpSdoI‰xHYTfCY@Qsd@kagw‚rqdijdqhCEsWIUsYS"ED„UTCIUsYSId@”X’YDtrqecRtG…tsP Srs i Rs F Bs D S… R Ds R S R RH R i D D r BV D B SV D S R D i S FH qs B S R @rgq iH i T H D t uSVq f D F B S BVVH S R R S B D T RH T IEDiGSUTIY@‰tIQIY@aRQˆ’ERWdgXDYSh„u"QCˆ‡eYStXHGSUTIEs”avYBaRWCtuIY@jGqAcDIG@GFaRd‚†agciYSCYgQ‡cfYSCP  a w‚CIas¶trqdBdRXDtItXq†CA‘XuYDcTzdgkXSI‰|dftpqYoUTb‘Id@zjw‚rq|ˆGqucRYSurD– ¨§¦¥ QrHYBaRCEshCY@R qV B ‚ s Srs F S@ 9 S¢ D FsH T SP S R’ i q R D B § © i B B S   Yt  ¡  oaeX’cTtcv„q‚€  XuERmIasWXVcSpSYoUT”wvet~tXHGS•RIEs¹ zEPC•P IY@fQxƒgaRcBts‰H‡CY@nIasCtYqCP U’8 w‚CCEs‚ B S S q B r B S q oq V D B S B S R oq FHP F S R r B` T qV B SP R S f D Ss S BVVH SPq S R VsH §   a   a2 TUbelcs™tcrYSItq 6 agci”avYBaRWCt™cszt™csId@†IQ‰ © ¨§¦¥ GqC‘agcitEvdBdDXDYSt”tµtEgaiQpHdBˆUsItzˆ54S R Pg S TrrH’ i R SsqP  a  Y Usbtq YqR q‚WIEs‚ tEqYB•RXD”IQXqmId@¤w‚rqEi‰H rVCQA0 ¨§¦¥ cT„q‚Eq¥t z ¨§¦¥ cT„w‚rqxH SP qV B s Srs F S R i igq ‚ § © S i u§ © S i  a  a G…rFC‰GqerD€XDYSdD”rqicRtG…ts™rSWEPYBaRC‘‰GqeCtHESi‰sY@™UR”G…tIP tk”GrC•gj”GrQrHkId@–EVt”v|Yq€wgA‚ BP R B D i S FHP i ig f R DV i RH R S FH oq S T D S T i S R Bq H R H #  a   a' S i F B § © oq S iHvi B B S R RH R D S ‚’s D Dg B TP S R f T Cs u QHEFYBERdBcT™EDn ¨§¥ t‘IagQQwQpHdBERCas‘IY@}‰sY@‘cSYSAyytrqdBcRXFdS}ItEqˆUvGSC‘CY@3tGqCƒ ©¤ ©§¤¤ ¨¦¥£ • ¶w‰“ £‰X„U’¥ ¡ Œ ‘ ¢ ‘ “Ž ”Ž ¤ • –• ¨ ¥ ˆ ‰‡   u Fq S P T D S R r Tg yG@dzcP¹Cg d³YR‰xHdRjId@†IEsdBCWV cSFIQH‡YfTtpqdocTzP §¥9 t‚d…t„‰YSCYgCpgjtpq}EDdBts{kI‰tEvtkXDIG@QµGqCWQ|dSXDIA‡u » ˆG GSCtEr—ƒ s S ¦ ¤ sq Tq ‚ T R o T o DH` H Dg S Br S FH TPPH S@ 9 u Tg B uSV ¦ ¤ S “iH B Tq S R r Dg Ds R Rg` s t u Tg B tCˆXqF §¥9 º EDURibQsastrrdBtjIY@†IasdBIecTpS•oIQGHYTjGSll–(c³¤ €R¥¤dI GSCtEr—ƒ time (sec) 12 10 8 6 4 2 200 400 600 800 1000 segment number
  • 60. ¦ va uUTIY@dRCpg|tEqYBQ‡EfdBdRXDjId@‰CEsCtEqcitcvCeXDtEvttlEs{Y…QA™YSCYgCpgeCQq tedRQsP t S T o s RH S S R r BP S SV S iqv B Tq ‚ T R o Tg oq TH utESC™‰GHuEStIasdBh…t€IagQQuIY@kIEs•BIfdRCg ¡ tHYSdRIas™”tGHcT”vzQXHrFYB•RrDdBQxH•R™IY@iYSI‡CQCc’GDlEstzP iP f D ir D Hoq S iHv S R r Dg D V D B Sr S Hi R D S R Dg VsH R Bq rSC‰QGHhGSt™}lCtXqcFt€Gqlas‘”QGH|Gq‚XVXSC‘AbWYqrD€ktEglG…rFWl¨ Qjtmˆdt}t†GS‰|afYBdRcD‚QH iP f D Tq f Rsg FH R B S… R R Ss S ‚’ i t u i Bg DH Tq Vqqr DH RH S s asQxHWtnYq‰ESCQ|zhtI¶g|‰A…”ƒgaREBQXHGSx´suUTpSdoI‰xHYT‰xHcTYSQpHaiCCIt‚agCthcD”avt”lEs˜IQH B R`q R i`H S` Rqs H f S ‚’ i T € Ds R i R Bsg Ssq isq S iqv B Vs rSC‰Ef•B™rD€t”EqtztGq}CQ†XSIasdBD ’UTpSdoIQGHYT™Wtjtpq"aici„jˆd…tAmˆId@cR™mtrqdBQ‡EfYB•RXDIA9 iP D B gr iqP R Tgq F Ds R Tgq T o S ‚ D Tq ‚ Vq S f s RH S S@ u BsH S f B Ds T D o S R g` S T S S S B D n•frDCQIG@XF™fER‰dfI‰xHYTURGSedRQH jCY@|lncVGScTtwvXqXFYS{EgUi”EvdBcRcFb5¢rDfYDtrqi cRtG…ts}rSQIEs•B—‰strq•BtHcFdhIAucuXDdSYD”Eq™cRtG…ts™rSWEPYBaRC‘‰GqncVrS€QsY@™YDcRtG…ts"tk”GrWdghCY@R S FHP ir D iHs D Fq S@ 9 D i S FHP i ig f R i RH R S FHP oq S T D S  a   a" ot„XDCˆYqEDCcP™CY@€XVGSlUs”cvYSCiCEgQQ‰ ¨§¦¥ QpHdBERCasiId@wtYDcDIt‡ˆˆ”uId@uXSCEsdBˆX’YDCtcq‡afYBR q SV B S S R R S TP S iHv § © i B B S Roq Sgr Vqqr S R F D Rg S ER‰dfIQGHYTURGSeCtId@EReGDUTpSdoIQGHYT¹Y@tˆ™df¹YgUT”†‘XSdSh„I’ERWdgXDYSiuAtGS‰xHCUgXFt–EgdXVGSURXFzˆ54S B Ds T Rgq B ‚ Ds R Rqq D Sv H D S ‚ i T H D t u R T FH i SP ED…c’XDYSˆl‡¦ » ©¦ º t{¦ º QGSQ‡EfdBdRXD€IasYBaRCdgcDGS†IA9 8 u  G ¤ Es3Cd@ERYBQ”rrQkaTQH ¦ d³cRtG…tH ¦ Id@{GqR B Rg` ¢ Tq ’ RH S r i T S@ B f Tq iH B S F S R T B D B B@ R T oq S R S S T S R VsH SV D S R RH S T ¤ QrHEi‰EfdBhrDhrDCA9 6 XuCEPUBXScFGSft™EfdB‡”avYBcRcFb•PXDYShETUBIY@’IQ‰UTCIcsdS‡Id@k‰§XV”avcBcSXFGSkD f (t & ' XVcSts•PƒDµEgUiYS”Eqci€XSGSWY@‡Q™QrqYB‰|afYBdRcDAcDGSQsµ¨ƒDd³•RtHES€CY@kCEsdBC‰lXVYSQpHCUgrFQXH„ED‡d@WrVWCQs` FH ³ D F T R sq s RH S THg D i S R r Dg g` R i i F B R B ‚VsH # S R’ S i` S B s Sss F S R F u SV ³Vsg T S Roq s RH B TPPH sH S CY@lyXVI•@rDaBCQxH•RXDED‡tEqYBcRcFICtcqeIY@eXSIs tgpHciW™aPYBdT´RdIWtGqeIY@zttEqYBQ‡Efˆ4 GqCWQ|‰AUR”r Yqz’UTCIUsYShCY@–CQ}UT”EvUBXScFGSkCY@‚cscSAƒ‚URb–trqdBQHE¸CtGqWG@IldgitpquUTCIcsdS™nl¹cVGSYRaR™•fIQGHYTR R SV D S R VsH S T S R S S` s R Bs T Fs D T o SV D H g` B Ds R S f D Ty S R R S f D ¤ ¢   S S R S ‚ B FgV T S ³ R B ‚VsH lcs™tcrYS™dRGDW¹Id@f’lcs™tcrYS2¦ ¥£¡Id@R cV‡afYB–„„X’dRYDET—ƒ XucRIddYqCP gpHciWƒVWd@WrVWCQs`  a  a d@ER‚  ¨§¦¥ IascBr¸aBQpHdBERCasB tGqpT¹GDaRCdgcDGST tEqYBQrHC‘Ef•BxId@$q‚Cd@x„™’ º dI GSCtEr—5´s€ B § © r i B f o i s R ig D S R q D S ‚ u Tg Bƒ  a XucRIWˆGqWfrDCd@—t€lcsESQQEvCµ£¨ƒSU³YSlˆ}Id@†Gq{ © ¨§¦¥ FgV TP B R oq R iH Bg Rg` S R R §   a S R D S FgV TP S ³ R B ‚VsH` S R R i i F S R s F S v u S T B R S f CY@fURYSu˜v XucRIWˆGqW‰grHciC´VWY@WEVWIQIiId@eYSQpHWcgrF‰H{UsIY@|‰Hu˜yXVtEvUBXSXFYSEDAlcs™tcrYSD & ' S R T o ¤ t S R Fsq BHrH P f S R S R r BV T VsH R S f D S R r BV D sqP CY@htpq¬ (™Id@™cSIt’EsQ”t~‰QGHdRXD™EfdB‰CY@€IEsWQHGS˜IQhˆUs‡QXrYS™IY@¹IEsdIcsdS~tzCg P f S R S R r BV T R S f D Ssq r B R g` RH B TPPH S` s F SV ³Vsg ™QGHdRcD‡afYBeIY@}IasWtHYSˆX’lcs™tXrdS€Ct}IEs‰EfdB†lcVGSQ‡Efˆ4 GqWCQ€b™QH‘wgrHciC‰aPYBYTR dICQGqT S@ 9 u R B ‚VsH` S Roq s RH B TPPH sH R i i F s F S ‚’S TH S R B@ ‚ RH S IAeyY@WEVWIQs€IY@wQ‡tEqYBQ‡Efˆ4 GqWCQ€Q€YSQpHCUgrFQXH€QHuAlttEvYBdTQ‡cgId@{G@rFCQi‡afYBR & ' S R VsH ¤ t S R r Dg’r FH D S f D S R RH B TPPH B ‚ SV D S R RH S T CY@nI‰™D f (hId@™IasdBIICIascBtIdPh‡QYHkCY@‡agciYSQ|afˆ4 YqCCQmY@aRucTWIcsdShId@€‰htEvYBdTQH & ' D f (™D &fcTtEvcBcSXFYSkId@"´ocwY@drVWI‰s|CasEB€G…XFIUsrSdiYRtzhCY@"thGS‰xHkCY@eQjUT”EvUBXScFGSjIY@€QH ¤ t S T S R € u R B ‚VsH` … i S Rq` S R oq R T S R RH S T S R R S TH’ FH D D F R D TH B@ ‚ S FHP RHV u u s S B Ss R S f D tEvdBYTQsycVXStIdP‰EgUiYS”EqcielcsdS}GSQ¹G@EFCIX’GDUR”G…tIkxHQCW’ º ”¤ WtrqdBcRcFdA Es|cVItEqYBlcs™fut u RH S B R B R`q R Vq S f S R sq S TP B R s iP S ‚ VsH i T TH B T QGSQ‡EfdBdRXDEDCY@€asQxHCQ‰Yq{dId@cR™}IY@€tj”wvYqC™af†Gq€QpHWj„€IQsX’YDERC•gXDYS‰dgQsas™afEBciYSCP S f D q D S v uS iHv B R RH S R H ‚ S iP D Ssq D BV S ‚’ S @ u SV ™tdq0w‚I•@A˜—tCEgQQ—EDCY@GSQ‡EfdBdRcD™GqkwgAjXVIayEBC‰Ef•BfItdDIcgdFrDWf„tjw‚rqUiAtgpHciW†EPdBYTR ³ˆICtYqeCY@†IQ‡Y@WEVWIQIeCY@fGS‰|afYBdRcDjGq0w‚I„tq UfrSCQGqCId@€twvI0w‚Ix—ucRCWdYqCP Vsg T S R VsH R B ‚VsH` S R RH S R q@o i` TP S R S H@ qs S v FgV T gpHciWƒVWd@WrVWCQsmId@mb` rVWtA–GSQ‡EfdBdRXD'G@I•ghtnrSC‰QW54S i©”ƒgERUBtsQXHxIasCEs‰|UfGST S ³ R B ‚VsH` S R S igq ‚ RH S F D oq iP fH s t u FHP F r B BH S R S` T Vs s q CY@mztGqCP I‰H w‚CV w‚rqdiD EVCtI•@€IlY@R IQH ƒgERcBQsQHF d…t„ƒ‚cRI€EiCpg¶Id@~IEsWG@tµGqWCQH igq D Dg Vs FHP Tq Ss i o S R r B FH TPP
  • 61. ¤a cRIddYqC|gpHUiCƒVWd@WrVdIQs…tq FgV TP S ³ R B ‚VsH`o  a  a R iH Bg S Rg` S R B ‚ §  S R r i B B Ds R Rg` s t u Tg B lUsrSQQEvWl£¨iU³GSll†IY@‚d@ER¶ © ¨§¦¥ IY@†IascBE¸EBQrHYBERWEsjcTpS•oIQxHdT†GSll–(c³¤ i} º dI GSCtEr—ƒ time (secs) 5 4 3 2 1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 segment number
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