Giotto represents a transition from medieval to renaissance art. Giotto is recognized as the first genius of Renaissance art. He lacked the knowledge of human anatomy, but made up for it in human emotional expression. Giotto is the single most important person in bringing about emotion in Renaissance art. He knew what was significant in life, and showed that through stress, desire, and suffering in his art. Giotto is regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his artwork went away from the Byzantine art style, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictorial space. Giotto left a profound impression on artists such as Michelangelo.
here are two versions of the Virgin of the Rocks, one (the earlier) in the Louvre, Paris and another in the National Gallery, London. The first work that Leonardo executed in Milan is the so-called Virgin of the Rocks, which actually expresses the theme of the Immaculate Conception, the dogma that affirms Mary was conceived without original sin. The name of the picture reflects an iconographical peculiarity: the religious figures are depicted in a rocky grotto, in which they are sitting on a stone floor. The figures are subjected to a strict spatial arrangement called a pyramidal composition. The painting had a considerable influence on Leonardo's artistic colleagues in Lombardy.
Last sketch found On December 7, 2007, Michelangelo's red chalk sketch for the dome of St Peter's Basilica, his last before his 1564 death, was discovered in the Vatican archives. It is extremely rare, since he destroyed his designs later in life. The sketch is a partial plan for one of the radial columns of the cupola drum of Saint Peter's.
The picture (1)shows the Ignudo at the lower left corner of the Separation of the Earth from the Waters (above the Persian Sibyl). The poses of the pairs of ignudi become gradually more dynamic and agitated. The two above the Persian Sibyl (at the left) bend backward in opposite directions, while one of those above the prophet Daniel (at right) bends forward, casting an apprehensive glance at the viewer, and the other raises his arm in a movement reminiscent of Hellenistic sculptures of dancing fauns. The picture (2) shows the Ignudo at the upper left corner of the Drunkenness of Noah (above the prophet Joel). The figures of ignudi in this group bear garlands of oak leaves and acorns - allusions to the Della Rovere family - and ribbons passing through the frames of the large gilded medallions.
In the Pietà, Michelangelo approached a subject which until then had been given form mostly north of the Alps, where the portrayal of pain had always been connected with the idea of redemption: it was called the "Vesperbild" and represented the seated Madonna holding Christ's body in her arms. But now the twenty-three year-old artist presents us with an image of the Madonna with Christ's body never attempted before. Her face is youthful, yet beyond time; her head leans only slightly over the lifeless body of her son lying in her lap. "The body of the dead Christ exhibits the very perfection of research in every muscle, vein, and nerve. No corpse could more completely resemble the dead than does this. There is a most exquisite expression in the countenance. The veins and pulses, moreover, are indicated with so much exactitude, that one cannot but marvel how the hand of the artist should in a short time have produced such a divine work." One must take these words of Vasari about the "divine beauty" of the work in the most literal sense, in order to understand the meaning of this composition. Michelangelo convinces both himself and us of the divine quality and the significance of these figures by means of earthly beauty, perfect by human standards and therefore divine. We are here face to face not only with pain as a condition of redemption, but rather with absolute beauty as one of its consequences.
ichelangelo' last sculptures were two (or three if the Pietà Palestrina is his work) Pietàs. Some of them were probably planned to decorate his tomb. According to Vasari, the artist's wish was to be buried in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, at the feet of the Pietà on which he had worked between 1547 and 1553; this was before he smashed it in 1555, because one leg had broken off and because the block of marble was defective. This is the Pietà, which is now in Florence Cathedral Museum. After having broken the statue, he let his servant take the pieces. Later the servant sold them and the new owner had it reconstructed following Michelangelo's models, so that the work has been preserved.
The picture shows the original wood model for the dome of St Peter's (left) and a section of it (right). In his eighty-fifth year or thereabouts, Michelangelo ordered a large wooden model of the dome. It has been preserved, and proves that his successors kept more or less closely to the original. Deviations are confined mainly to three particulars: instead of confining themselves to the proposed self-contained triangular window cornices, they alternate them with segment cornices. Between the ribs of the vaulting run three concentric and ascending groins to each section, breaking and enlivening the bare, vaulted surfaces. The handsome consoles of the attic above the tambour have been omitted.
This fresco was commissioned by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) shortly before his death. His successor, Paul III Farnese (1534-1549), forced Michelangelo to a rapid execution of this work, the largest single fresco of the century. The first impression we have when faced with the Last Judgment is that of a truly universal event, at the centre of which stands the powerful figure of Christ. His raised right hand compels the figures on the lefthand side, who are trying to ascend, to be plunged down towards Charon and Minos, the Judge of the Underworld; while his left hand is drawing up the chosen people on his right in an irresistible current of strength. Together with the planets and the sun, the saints surround the Judge, confined into vast spacial orbits around Him. For this work Michelangelo did not choose one set point from which it should be viewed. The proportions of the figures and the size of the groups are determined, as in the Middle Ages, by their single absolute importance and not by their relative significance. For this reason, each figure preserves its own individuality and both the single figures arid the groups need their own background.
arti ne rilindje
ARTI NE RILINDJE
PUNOI : PAOLA MEMA