Toward 2020: Reform and Development of K-12 Education in China Washington DC 27, 2010 Deputy Director General Basic Education Department Ministry of Education, PRC Wang, Dinghua, PhD
a developing country---week basis and poor ecology.
huge population-- disparity between unban and rural, between the east and the west, but all seeking for equality of education.
industrialization--300 million peasants moving to cities for better pay jobs.
urbanization– crowded in urban schools and lack of students in rural ones
running the world's largest education with 200 million K-12 students.
information Era- two sides of impact to education.
China has maintained a strong momentum of development over 30 years of reform and opening up. Economic prosperity lays foundation for education.
The unprecedented changes have injected great vitality into China's development and progress. Education is regarded as top priority.
And education is always fully committed to meet the requirements of the times, stimulate economy, and adapt the rapid changes of socio-economic circumstances.
Mr. Deng Xiaoping once said: Education must be faced up with modernization, the world and the future.
Toward 2020, there is need to issue a national strategic action plan.
In August 2008,led by top leaders, the job kicked off.
The Mid & Long-term National Strategic Outline for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020).
3) listening to the pubic with major themes,
5) release to the public. In February, 2010, the draft outline was released for public review. Millions of revision suggestions were received. In April 2010 the state council basically approved it.
6) It is expected to be formally issued this summer, following by a national education conference held by the central government.
The Mid & Long Term National Strategic Outline for Education Reform and Development
The outline is the first of its kind at the national level since the 21st century; it is also a guideline that directs China’s education reform and development over the next 10 years.
General targets of the strategic outline
By 2020, China will
basically realize the modernization of education,
basically build herself into a learning society, and
shift from a nation with large human resources
into a nation with strong human resources.
Basic Education: Equity and Quality
Within the framework of the outline, basic education (K-12) is placed in a very important position.
Focusing on addressing the strategic demands of China's future development and adapting to the changing external environment, in the next 10 years, basic education in China will put quality enhancement and equity promotion as priorities.
1. To Consolidate the popularization of K-12 education
To speed up pre-school education. According to the Outline, in 2020, China will fully popularize one-year pre-school education, basically popularize two-year pre-school education, and in some areas, popularize three-year pre-school education.
It is expected that one-year and three-year pre-school education will cover 95% and 75% of the age-group respectively in 2020, compared with 74% and 51% in 2009.
To consolidate nine-year compulsory education. The outline requires the retention rate of compulsory education to be raised from 90.8% in 2009 to 95% in 2020.
To popularize high school education. The outline requires the gross enrollment rate of high school to be raised from 79% in 2009 to 90% in 2020.
2. To Promote Equity in Basic Education
Be better aware of disadvantaged areas.
To allocate public education resources more rationally and further strengthen support for basic education in remote areas, ethnic minority inhabited areas, and poverty-stricken areas.
Industry shall back-feed the agriculture and the city shall support the countryside.
To give more support to weak schools. Balanced development of compulsory education will be achieved preliminarily by 2012, and comprehensively by 2020.
no more key schools within primary and middle school period (9 yr compulsory).
speed up reforming weak schools,
allocate more resources,
carry out regular exchanges of teachers within districts and counties.
To take good care of vulnerable groups.
Firstly, to make sure children from poor families enter schools and do not drop out.
Secondly, support special education fully with sufficient fiscal input to protect children with disabilities.
Thirdly, ensure that children of migrant workers enjoy equal access to education as those of urban residents. 8.5 million.
Fourthly, concern children remaining at hometown. 24 million.
Sixthly, beneficial policy for ethnic minority.
3. To Enhance the Quality of K-12 Education
All schools meet fundamental school-running standards.
All students complete their studies with no drop out.
Some students may lay stronger academic bases for sustainable development.
3.1 To deepen curriculum reform.
Since 2001, pilot programs were launched in the compulsory education phase, and by 2007 the new curriculum was adopted nationwide.
Pilot programs for high school curriculum were launched in 2004 and by 2010 the new curriculum was fully introduced.
This is ambitious
Profound changes have taken place in curriculum goal setting, curriculum structure, curriculum content design, curriculum implementation strategies, curriculum evaluation, curriculum management, and teacher capacity building for curriculum changes.
1) To understand China’s history and her current status thus become ready to assume responsibilities for their personal and national development, in the meantime to respect other nations and their cultures and to be ready to participate in international communication.
Objectives of new curriculum in China
2) To master
the basic skills for reading, writing and arithmetic operation,
basic knowledge for culture and science,
necessary skills to express themselves and communicate with others,
capacity to process information,
affection for labor,
so that they can adapt effectively to the learning society.
3) To develop
a scientific understanding of the environment, sustainable development and ecological ethics,
to be able to identify, analyze and solve problems in their daily life.
4) To understand and care for the society,
to form appropriate moral values and behavioral habits,
be ready to serve the people and the community .
(5) To develop sound self-consciousness and independent personality thus to take good care of life, learn to rationally plan for and assess his/her own development and to cope with frustrations in the social life;
to be accustomed to engage in regular physical exercise and healthy living habits.
6) To develop sound interest for esthetic appreciation of the beauty of the nature, society, science and art;
to be inclined to join in different cultural activities.
complexity of formulas and terminologies.
difficulty level and speed.
deliberately-man made questions.
some complicated and seldom-appeared contents.
requirement for identifying skills.
multiple solutions for problem solving.
concept of space development.
content of statistics, practice and comprehensive application.
calculator and computer as tools.
some unnecessary and boring chemistry concepts.
link of student life experience and social demand for chemistry.
chemical experiment and chemical social survey activities.
contents of material, new energy, nutrition and health.
consciousness of students to environmental conservation,
protection of ecological balance and biological diversity.
3.2 To promote teaching reform.
improve teaching efficiency,
strengthen students’ hands-on experiences and
foster students’ creativity and practical competency.
reduce students’ workload so that they can have more free time to read books they like, do things meaningful and grow up happily.
3.3 To accelerate application of ICT .
To develop more digital resources, make it possible that schools nationwide will further apply modern education technology to achieve the common sharing of quality resources.
3. 4. To dynamically promote teacher’s professional development.
To improve the system of teacher preparation. With the six normal universities affiliated with the Ministry of Education playing the leading role, more and more higher education institutions preparing future teachers offer tuition free education.
To improve the system of training of in-service teachers.
Each year, the Ministry of Education organizes national teacher training program, covering 500,000 backbone teachers;
Every province organizes teacher training,
District level training;
School based teaching and research groups to push teacher’s professional development;
Shadow programs between urban and rural, between schools.
To launch a number international teacher training programs in the next 10 years.
hand in hand project among schools
Each teacher should be able to
improve teaching competency
be able to develop school curriculum
conduct psychological counseling
be able to apply ICT capacity
To reform the management of teachers.
To stipulate qualification standards for teachers and improve the access, employment, transfer mechanisms.
To provide incentives for teachers to do a better job by improving social security policies such as housing, medical insurance and pension and,
implementing performance-based salary.
Young people compete for teacher jobs.
Reward excellent teachers by Teacher’s Day annually.
Special teacher positions paid by the central government in rural schools.
teacher ranking system.
teacher rotation system.
class master teachers shall play coordinated role
4. To Strengthen Inspection and Monitoring of Basic Education
The state council will soon issue regulations to strengthen the role of inspection in monitoring and promoting education development.
4.1 Inspection over local government.
send supervisors and inspectors to different provinces to ensure national educational laws and policies being carried out properly.
improve educational administration, leaving more flexibility for each locality.
intensify inspection over all levels of governments to guarantee education input.
4.2 Inspection on school management.
We will strengthen supervision over the scientific and standardized management of schools.
schools are not allowed to take their students for exam preparation.
4.3 To strengthen quality monitoring.
To guarantee the quality of basic education, the Ministry of Education established a Basic Education Quality Monitoring Center in 2008 to monitor teaching quality and students’ intellectual, ethical, mental and physical development.
To further promote the quality enhancement in all regions and elementary and secondary schools, the central government will develop a more scientific monitoring and assessment system and gradually develop a four-level quality monitoring network with the state, province, city and county all involved.