Acknowledgement & Background(1)Meeting the Challenges of World Language Teacher Shortage. NFLC, CCSSO, & Asia Society, December 2008;35 invited experts(2) National World Language Teacher Certification Summit. NFLC & CCSSO, December 2009;25 states plus DC and Professional organizations(3) Data drawn from extensive research, national and international data on language education policies and practices, and STARTALK projectover the past 4 years(4) Grateful for STARTALK fundingWe identified and documenteda serious domestic and international WL Education Gap in the US which makes it even more compelling for us to transform our world language education and the teacher supply in the global age. Additionally, we demonstrate through the paper that: Demands for world language education have expanded and changed in the global ageOur world language teacher supply system was built for the past era, which must be modernized to become more effective and responsive
Educational policies and practices in the K-12 Contextin the US often have conflicting sociological codes. For example, simultaneously under the NCLB, there is English Only and English Plus orientations towards different or the same student populations. It is time that we engage in serious dialogues about advocating a vision of an additive language policy for students. Five goals are identified because they reflect the trends and changed demands that we are able to detect in various pockets of the nation: An increased awareness and need to establish and sustain more and better language programs to ensure our nation’s economic competitiveness: Not just English, and Science, Tech, Math, & Engineering Immersion and early language learning programs: Not just in high schoolsEmergent world languages: Not just traditionally taught languages Increased demand for accountability, especially the need to demonstrate student language learning outcomes: Not just for exposure and a “taste” of different culturesExpanded delivery system and technological use in the classroom: Not just face to face and textbook-driven language learning
Our outdated, fragmented, and inflexible system for producing world language teachers must be replaced by an expanded system responsive to our nation’s needs in the global age. The WL field must collaborate to set an agenda for transforming World Language Education and teacher supply. Specifically, we must collectively address three big questions: What does it mean to be a highly effective world language teacher? What are the competencies of WL teachers in light of the new demands?2. What does it take to produce a highly effective world language teacher?Given an expanded and heterogeneous pool of prospective teachers, what kinds of preparation and certification programs must be in place to produce a sufficient number of effective world language teachers who can meet the increasing demand for varied world language programs?3. How can we, as a society, leverage resourcesacross federal, state, local, and institutional boundaries to ensure that the supply of world language teachers meets the demand?At the end of the paper, we make various sets of recommendations to state education and certification agencies,local education agencies, institutions of higher education and teacher education programs,national and professional organizations and institutes, and the federal government
Teacher competenciesCertificationPools of prospective teachers Capacity and quality of teacher preparation programsClinical experiences and professional developmentData collection and evaluationPartnerships and consortia to leverage resources
1. Supply and Effectiveness ofChinese Language Teachers:What Have Accomplished and What Are the Next Steps? Shuhan C. Wang, PhD Deputy Director National Foreign Language Center University of Maryland 2012 NCLC
2. Overview• Look back to some issues and data regarding Chinese language teachers from a historical perspective• Share STARTALK data on Chinese language teacher preparation• Discuss the characteristics of effective teacher programs• Suggest strategies to enhance institutional capacity for teacher development
3. 2005 Asia Society Report: Planning Chinese: What would it take to have 5 percent of US high school students learning Chinese by 2015?1. Tap into major developments and initiatives to advance the field2. Take both short- and long-term approaches to create a supply of qualified Chinese language teachers3. Leverage growing interest to expand and improve Chinese language programs4. Incorporate research and technology to develop effective curriculum, materials, assessment and delivery systems5. Make a long-term commitment to invest in the future (Asia Society Report, 2005) 3
4. 2005 AS Report: Urgent Needs• A comprehensive set of data on student enrollment, teachers, programs, and schools• Analysis on students (the type and levels of students, goals of learning, proficiency attainment levels); teachers (number of all and certified teachers in various educational sectors, educational background and pedagogical training of teachers; and programs (types, geographical location, funding source, evaluation)• Teacher education/training programs that are flexible and portable across states, which can meet the needs of multiple groups of prospective and practicing teachers• Teacher trainers who know about teaching Chinese as a second/heritage/foreign language 4
6. 2006: Chinese Teacher Training ProgramsState Approved: 4 Undergraduate; 5 Graduate1. California State University at East Bay2. California State University at Long Beach3. George Mason University4. University of Hawaii5. University of Iowa6. University of Kansas7. University of Mass, Amherst8. New York University9. Ohio State University10. Rice University11. Rutgers University12. University of Pennsylvania: Summer Chinese Teachers’ Institute (College Board & Asia Society Meeting, May 31, 2006 ) 6
7. Chinese Field National Accomplishments: 2005-2012• Launched federal, state, local initiatives• Increased student enrollment in all levels• Increased K-12 school programs• Began to develop curricular, materials, and assessment resources• Increased the numbers of teachers and teacher education programs 7
8. STARTALK Chinese Programs: 2007-2011Year Student Programs Teacher Programs Number of Number of Number of Number of Programs Participants Programs Participants2007 18 681 17 2922008 37 2079 27 7022009 45 3143 33 7762010 54 4242 44 9912011 63 5737 49 986Total 217 15882 170 3747
9. Key Findings: STARTALK 2011 Teacher Participant Data• Only 11% of respondents were born in the United States.• Female participants (84.3%) outnumbered male participants (15.4%).• Half (50%) had graduate degrees.• About 67% of Chinese teachers have taught for fewer than 5 years.
10. Age of STARTALK Teacher Program Participants # of Respondents (N=1181)20-29 253 (21.4%)30-39 317 (26.8%)40-49 354 (30.0%)50-59 194 (16.4%)60-69 41 (3.5%)70 and over 5 (0.4%)No response 17 (1.4%)
11. Highest Degree Attained: All STARTALK Languages # of Respondents (N=1181)Doctorate 78 (6.6%)Masters 517 (43.8%)Some graduate school 76 (6.4%)Bachelors (4yr) degree 425 (36.0%)Associate’s or vocational (2yr) 38 (3.2%)degreeSome college 31 (2.6%)High school 8 (0.7%)No response 8 (0.7%)
12. Aggregated grade levels in which respondents have taught the target language Chinese (N=774)Pre-Kindergarten 128Elementary (K-5) 339Middle School (6-8) 221High School (9-12) 225Post-Secondary 94
13. Aggregated settings in which respondents have taught the target language Chinese (N=774)Public PreK–12 291Private PreK–12 180Heritage PreK–12 215(incl. afterschool)
14. Number of participants who are certifiedto teach the target language (All STARTALK) # of Respondents (N=1181)Yes 253 (21.4%)Not yet, but I plan to 537 (45.5%)become certifiedNo 371 (31.4%)No response 20 (1.7%)
15. Key Findings: About Teacher Programs• The two most common responses about the best aspects of the program: – the quality of teachers (they were knowledgeable, helpful, concerned about students, etc.) – the opportunity to learn from and share information with fellow teacher trainees
16. What teacher trainees liked best about theprogram (Top 10 responses)Response # of Respondents (N=1046)Excellent teaching staff 261Sharing ideas/experiences with fellowteachers 148New/useful information 73Practice/practicum 59Well-organized 57Hands on experiences/activities 41Resources used and received 41Practical skills learned 30Lectures 29Feedback from instructors 27
17. Top 10 topics teacher trainees found most valuable to have learnedResponse # of Respondents (N=1046)Teaching methods/strategies 81Technology training 68Assessment 27Lesson planning 265 Cs/standards 21Using the target language in the classroom 21MOPI/OPI training 13Student-centered 11Backwards design 10Culture 9
18. Teacher Development• What are the characteristics of effective program design and implementation of teacher development?
21. A National Vision:An Additive Language Policy for All StudentsFive Goals:(1) expand the range of languages offered;(2) increase the number and effectiveness of language programs;(3) begin language instruction at a younger age and continue through a longer, articulated sequence;(4) establish clear expectations for students’ language learning outcomes; and(5) expand access and opportunity to learn via both traditional and innovative delivery systems.
22. New Trends, New Demands1. Demands for world language education have expanded and changed in the global age2. Our world language teacher supply system was built for the past era, which must be modernized to become more effective and responsive
23. Indicators of Demand for World Language Programs in the US• Greater awareness of the need for a linguistically and culturally competent citizenry• Increasing popularity of immersion and early language learning programs• Expanded offerings of online or distance learning language learning programs• STARTALK , FLAP grants, and Language Flagships have generated enthusiasm and planted seeds for programs in less commonly taught languages 23
24. We Need:• Effective foreign/world language teachers• Elementary and immersion world language teachers• Teachers of emerging world languages• Teachers with technological literacies who can teach in distance learning, online, and blended learning environments
25. Continuum of Teacher Development & Life Cycle of a WL Teacher• Teacher • Teacher Recruitment Preparation Aspiring Candidates/ individuals Apprentices Practicing Novice Master/ teachers • Induction, PD & Teacher • Certification/ Lifelong Learning trainers Licensure 25
26. Seven Aspects of the Teacher Supply System Teacher Partner compet- -ships encies Data Collection Certifica- & tion Evaluation Clinical Experience Expanded & Prof. pools Develop- ment Capacity & Quality
27. An agenda for Transforming World Language Education and Teacher Supply• What are the competencies of world language teachers in light of the new demands?• What does it take to produce a highly effective world language teacher?• How can we, as a society, leverage resources across federal, state, local, and institutional boundaries to ensure that the supply of world language teachers meets the demand?
28. Discussion• What are other needs of Chinese language teachers?• What are the needs of teacher preparation programs?• What can we do together to contribute to the supply of and support for Chinese language teachers?
29. Conclusion (1)1. We must close the world language gap.2. Second language study plays an essential role in a “world-class” US education and in overall student achievement in the global age.3. Advocate for an “additive” language education policy that encourages all students to become biliterate.4. Every language classroom needs a highly effective teacher.
30. Conclusion (2)5. Make sure demands meet supplies, and vice versa.6. New trends and demands: early language learning, a wider range of languages, student attainment of higher language proficiency learning via technological tools and in real and virtual environments
31. Take a Short- and Long-Term Strategy1. Consider recruiting Hanban guest teachers, but ensure the necessary support and professional development is in place2. Identify and prepare local Chinese language teachers3. Tap into local Chinese heritage communities4. Re-examine and revise outdated teacher preparation models and certification requirements5. Make sure supply meets demand and vice versa 31
32. Access the Teachers We Need and Resource Guide at STARTALK Central:http://www.startalk.umd.edu Shuhan C. Wang: email@example.com