Strategies for Expanding Access to Secondary Education United States of America Lois Adams Rodgers Council of Chief State ...
History of Secondary Education in the United States <ul><li>GI Bill of Rights - 1944 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed univers...
History of Compulsory Secondary Education in the U.S.A <ul><li>Although ESEA has been reauthorized every five years since ...
What Does Secondary Education Look Like in the United States? <ul><ul><li>A Range of State Graduation Requirements </li></...
What Does Secondary Education Look Like in the United States? <ul><ul><li>95% of students between the ages of 14 and 17 pa...
<ul><li>Classes aren’t interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Low expectations </li></ul><ul><li>No motivation/inspiration to work ...
<ul><li>Begin preventative measures well in advance of entry to secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare students for th...
State Initiatives <ul><li>Begin Preventative Measures Early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio is targeting freshman boys at high ...
State Initiatives <ul><li>Make School More Relevant/Engaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon is working to develop policies t...
State Initiatives <ul><li>Multiple Pathways to Graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon is one of a few states piloting a c...
State Initiatives <ul><li>Build a school climate that fosters academics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arkansas has worked to raise...
<ul><li>Many initiatives at the state level focused on improving graduation rates are working </li></ul><ul><li>More effor...
Lois Adams-Rodgers [email_address] 202.336.7000
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Strategies for Expanding Access to Secondary Education

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  • Good Morning/Afternoon I am Lois Adams-Rodgers, Deputy Executive Director at the Council of Chief State School Officers here in Washington, DC. CCSSO serves the head of pre-k-12 public education in the 50 states and 6 territories. We are a nonpartisan organization that provides leadership, advocacy, and technical assistance on major educational issues. Through targeted policy and effective advocacy, CCSSO provides a platform for chiefs to be heard. The organization also undertakes projects to help state education agencies understand, devise, and execute policy; adopt initiatives to promote educational reform efforts; and engage in collaborative exchanges to share best practices and model solutions. One of the initiatives we have spent some significant time on in the past year is STEM.
  • Strategies for Expanding Access to Secondary Education

    1. 1. Strategies for Expanding Access to Secondary Education United States of America Lois Adams Rodgers Council of Chief State School Officers
    2. 2. History of Secondary Education in the United States <ul><li>GI Bill of Rights - 1944 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed university demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More people, with more diverse backgrounds began to attend college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trickle-down effect to secondary student as expectations about their future evolved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elementary & Secondary Education Act- 1965 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded the Federal role in education to include high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed disadvantaged students access to a quality public education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education for All – Handicapped Children Act -1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed an education for any student aged 5-21, regardless of disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed individualized education plans for children with special needs </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. History of Compulsory Secondary Education in the U.S.A <ul><li>Although ESEA has been reauthorized every five years since 1965, education is mostly funded and managed by state and local governments in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>State laws and requirements all differ for compulsory school attendance at the secondary level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states allow students to enter school by age 5 and require them to stay in school through a minimum of age 15 or 16 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many states are considering requiring students to stay in school until age 18 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What Does Secondary Education Look Like in the United States? <ul><ul><li>A Range of State Graduation Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20-24 course credits are required (1 course=1 year) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 English </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-4 Mathematics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Science </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 Social Studies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Arts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Foreign Language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized Programs of study available that can be more competitive/rigorous and sometimes allow college credit to be earned in high-school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Placement Courses (allows college credit to be earned) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International Baccalaureate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career and Technical Programs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What Does Secondary Education Look Like in the United States? <ul><ul><li>95% of students between the ages of 14 and 17 participated in compulsory education in 2006 – over 15 million students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006, it also was reported that 85% of adults in the U.S. have a high school diploma or its equivalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, It is reported the estimated graduation rate is only 70% across schools in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some students require more than 4 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some return to school later to complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some seek alternative methods to complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANY DROP OUT!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Classes aren’t interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Low expectations </li></ul><ul><li>No motivation/inspiration to work hard </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in family status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to earn money to support family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a family of their own now </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Care for a family member </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>School is too hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not prepared well when they arrive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t think they can complete the graduation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parents don’t support their desire for education </li></ul>What Causes Students to Drop Out in the United States?
    7. 7. <ul><li>Begin preventative measures well in advance of entry to secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare students for the rigor of high school more adequately, and increase expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Make school more relevant/engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Improve access to supports for student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Build a school climate that fosters personal accountability and academics </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communication between parents and schools </li></ul>What Are Some Strategies Employed to Prevent Dropping Out?
    8. 8. State Initiatives <ul><li>Begin Preventative Measures Early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio is targeting freshman boys at high risk each get a “personal motivator” who works with the student and engages with families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepare students for the rigor of high school more adequately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idaho has focused on middle school reform increasing rigor and accountability </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. State Initiatives <ul><li>Make School More Relevant/Engaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon is working to develop policies to improve academic requirements in low-performing schools and to make learning more personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Hampshire, Florida, Wisconsin and 36 other states have opened online schools or online classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve Access to Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended day programs such as one developed at Hostos-Lincoln Academy in New York can remediate students in areas where they are struggling as well as provide access to programs in the arts like stained glass design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having access to social services can keep a student in need in school </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. State Initiatives <ul><li>Multiple Pathways to Graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon is one of a few states piloting a community college/high school cooperative where at-risk students can enroll in college for coursework that will simultaneously count towards high school graduation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diplomas for Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana allows dropouts who are 17 and older to obtain a high school diploma through coursework at a college or university if they pass the state exit exam </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. State Initiatives <ul><li>Build a school climate that fosters academics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arkansas has worked to raise standards, and provide a uniformly higher expectation for all students to prepare them for college </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Michigan produces several key publications and actively engages parent’s in their child’s learning from the time they enter secondary school </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Many initiatives at the state level focused on improving graduation rates are working </li></ul><ul><li>More effort needs to be made in preparing and supporting students at-risk before they reach high school </li></ul><ul><li>More collaboration on best practices between states will continue to improve graduation rates in the United States </li></ul>Conclusions
    13. 13. Lois Adams-Rodgers [email_address] 202.336.7000

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