Best Practices in Chinese AssessmentK-8 Formative and Summative AssessmentsLynn ThompsonNa Liu
1Workshop Goals To share CAL formative and summative K-8 oralproficiency assessments To inspire you to use and create formative andsummative assessments!
2Discussion: Chinese ClassroomWhat do you do in your class to help students understandChinese?What do you do in your class to help students speakChinese?
3What is Oral Language Proficiency?Traditional language learning focused on: Learningvocabulary lists, grammatical accuracy,memorized dialoguesLanguage as communication focuses on: Thefunctions of language, comprehensibility of learneroutput, gestures, words, short phrases, memorizedchunks of language, creating at sentence level,paragraph-level speech, extended paragraphs
5Language Functions and Levels How do language functions relate to levels oforal proficiency? It is quite easy to learn a greeting and use iteffectively in another language, but it is far moredifficult to tell a story or persuade another personto support your point of view. Some functions can span a number of proficiencylevels. The same function becomes morecomplex, nuanced, and elaborated as student oralproficiency increases.
Function: Sharing informationJr. Novice Student speech at this level ranges fromproducing words, phrases, and memorizedresponses to some successful attempts to createsentences.Jr. Intermediate Student speech at this level rangessuccessful attempts to create sentences toproviding paragraph-like descriptions of self, familymembers, and activities.Jr. Advanced Students at this level are able toshare personal information in great detail. Theycan tell stories about experiences they have hadand defend or explain their actions.
Assessment and LevelsHow do we measure proficiency?We use assessments7
What is Assessment?Assessment is an ongoing process ofsetting clear goals for student learning andmeasuring progress toward those goals.Assessment = the opportunity to enhance,empower, and celebrate students’ learningwhile giving guidance to instructors.
Assessment versus TestsAchievement Test: Checks student languageknowledge of specific content, languagestructures.Language Proficiency Assessment: Checkswhat students CAN DO with the language9
Assessment and InstructionWhat do you want yourstudents to be able to do at theend?= AssessmentPlan yourlessonsWhat will you haveto teach them sothey can reach theend goal?
Begin with the EndTo begin with the end in mind means to start with a clearunderstanding of destinationIt means to know where you’re going so that you betterunderstand where you are nowThat way the steps you take are always in the rightdirection.-Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, 1989, p.9814
What are the SOPA and ELLOPA?SOPA (Student Oral Proficiency Assessment)ELLOPA (Early Language Listening and OralProficiency Assessment)--- Summative assessments (end of year, end ofprogram)--- Formative (administered annually over a periodof years)--- Sometimes used for placement (studentheritage learner or coming from another program)
16SOPA and ELLOPAPurpose: Assess students ability to understand andspeak a second languageLevel: Grades K-8Format: Two students assessed together in afriendly, non-stressful environmentTime: 20 minutes for each pair of studentsScoring: COPE-SOPA Rating Scale (9 Juniorlevels based on the ACTFLProficiency Guidelines)
How do the SOPA and ELLOPA work?Both are administered by an “interviewer.” A rateris also present at the interview to take notes andrate students at the conclusion of the interview.Two students are presented with a series of tasks(SOPA) or games (ELLOPA) that range from easyto more challengingThe interviewer winds down the interview whenstudents have reached their “ceiling”
ICE BREAKER Take a moment to think about amemorable interview experience thatyou had. What made it a good/bad experience?
View clips from Sample InterviewsAs you watch each interview, identify thetasks that the interviewer uses with thestudents.Observe techniques that she uses:---What techniques encouraged students torespond?---What could you suggest to improve theinterview?
Sample InterviewsSOPAWhat is different about these interviews?What is the same?23
24How are ELLOPA and SOPA the same?1. Two students are assessed at the sametime.2. Students are given progressively difficulttasks until they reach their ‘ceiling’.3. The same rating rubric is used for allassessments.
How are they different?The ELLOPA uses a puppet, visualorganizers, and songsThe ELLOPA is designed for children inpreK to Grade 2The SOPA is designed for students inGrades 2-8, but is sometimes used withyounger students.25
26How do I decide which to use K-2?Consider how you teach: For example, if you usevisual organizers, puppets, or songs with studentsyou should include these elements in yourassessment.Consider your curriculum: The assessment tasksand props that you use should reflect the topicsyour students have covered in their languageclasses, their developmental level, and the secondlanguage proficiency range of your students.
Brainstorming tasks for your studentsWorking with a partner, brainstorm at least 3 tasksthat you could use with your studentsA warm up taskAnswering personal questionsDescriptionStory-tellingOther?27
Rating the SOPA and ELLOPAAs the interviewer conducts the SOPA andELLOPA, a rater writes down what theystudents say and notes how well theyunderstand.These notes are then used to assign ratingsto each student at the end of the interview.
Three Main Levels of ProficiencyJunior NoviceJunior IntermediateJunior Advanced30
Speech Sample: Junior Novice Interviewer: I’m going to ask you some questions now. How old are you? Jana: Six Interviewer: Do you know when your birthday is? Jana: No Interviewer: What do you like to do on your birthday? Jana: Play Interviewer: Do you eat any special food on your birthday? Jana: Sandwiches Interviewer: Can you think of any presents you got on your birthday one time? Jana: Ball Interviewer: Okay.
Junior Intermediate LevelOral Fluency -Simple conversation atsentence level-Uses language creatively-Everyday topics and someacademic topics-Describes successfully
Speech Sample: Junior IntermediateInterviewer: Can you tell me what you see in this picture?What is it?Joseph: Yes. The food chain. The plant producephotosynthesis. It make its own food in the leavesand solar energy. How you say “lobo”? Wolf needsrabbit to eat. Rabbit need plants to eat. The plantsneed sun to grow.
Junior Advanced LevelOralFluency-Paragraph-level discourse-Topics of personal and generalinterest, and academic topics-Narrates successfully-Organizes and connectsspeech smoothly-Emerging ability to hypothesizeon abstract topics
Speech Sample: Junior Advanced Interviewer: I hear you want to tell me about my new rules. Melissa: I totally disagree, with all due respect to the principal, with thevery first rule about no calculators in math class. Interviewer: And why is that? Melissa: Well, one of the reasons is because if you were in the fifth gradeand you’re doing this problem and you didn’t get it; you try to doeverything that you knew to figure it out and you still can’t get it. Then youwanted to use the calculator, but that’s against the rules, so you wouldn’tbe able to. That wouldn’t be fair and that wouldn’t be good because thenthey wouldn’t know the answer and that leads to bigger problems. Interviewer: What would happen? Melissa: The person would be stuck there forever, and maybe not forever,but the person would be stuck there for a while, and maybe the personwould probably end up just failing.
Next StepsComplete SOPA and ELLOPA trainingOnline training course – (April-June)Live 2 day workshopsWhen you have completed training:Select pairsAdminister and rate interviewsRecord ratings for data entry Report results for different audiences
Formative Assessment -- SSAStudent Self Assessment (SSA)Developed by CAL for Grades 3-8Series of statements based on language functionsassessed in the SOPAStudents are asked to indicate to what extent thestatements describe what they can do by selectingYES, ALMOST, A LITTLE, or NOT YET Students are then asked:Can you think of anything else you can do inCHINESE that is not in this assessment?What can you do best in CHINESE?40
Brainstorm Self-Assessment Statements41Take a moment and write down some of thelanguage functions that you teach in class.Turn to the person next to you and share yourideas.
Purpose of The SSAUsed for periodically (beginning of year, end ofyear or more often)Teacher gets feedback from students on theirlearningStudents become more aware of proficiencyexpectations and what they CAN DO in theChinese42
Background of TOM-SOPASince the 1980s, CAL has been developingassessments for young learners, includingELLOPA, SOPA, and COPEAs part of the field-testing of ELLOPA/SOPA,teachers rated their students’ oral proficiency asseen in the classroom.This adaptation of rating rubrics resulted in theTOM-SOPA.43
Purpose of TOM-SOPAUsed for periodic, classroom based assessment of astudent’s oral and listening proficiency in a secondlanguageRatings are assigned in four skill areas−Oral fluency−Grammar−Vocabulary−Listening comprehension44
Components of the TOM-SOPA ToolkitTOM-SOPA Observation ChecklistSublevels with Rating InstructionsTOM-SOPATOM-SOPA Rating Summary SheetSample of a Completed Set of Tools45
Thank you!Please take a moment to complete the workshopevaluation form!For more information about the SOPA andELLOPA and training options please contactLynn Thompson firstname.lastname@example.orgNa Liu email@example.com