2010 National Chinese Language Conference, DC <ul><li>LOOK, THINK, ACT: A Proven Recipe for Meeting the Research Needs of ...
What IS Action Research? <ul><li>Way for teachers to explore their own practice. </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude. </li></ul>...
Action Research  <ul><li>Framework:  Look, Think, Act </li></ul>
Purposes of action research <ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Improving circumstances  </li></ul><ul><li>Innovatin...
Presupposes skill in: <ul><li>classroom observation; </li></ul><ul><li>data collection; and </li></ul><ul><li>analysis. </...
Minimally, any research needs… <ul><li>A question, issue, problem, or puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Inte...
Formulating Questions <ul><li>What do you want to find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Must be worth asking AND capable of being an...
The effects of two teaching techniques on language achievement of MS students <ul><li>Do two different teaching techniques...
Other Possible Topics <ul><li>Types of pair and group activities (i.e., cooperative learning) that promote proficiency. </...
Other Possible Topics <ul><li>Kinds of homework assignments that are conducive to promoting  achievement or proficiency. <...
Other Topics <ul><li>The impact of alternative assessment practices on student communication and/or performance </li></ul>...
Other Possible Topics <ul><li>The effect of process writing (prewriting, multiple-drafts, peer editing) on my students' wr...
Your Ideas?
LOOK:  Matching Data Collection Methods and Methods of Analysis to Your Question  1. <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Look 2. <ul><li>Elicitation Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Tasks (oral or written samples) </li></ul></ul><u...
Look 3. <ul><li>Questions “while looking” need to be unflavored by you: </li></ul><ul><li>Global: Tell me about how you st...
Look 4 <ul><li>Look through observation: </li></ul><ul><li>Field notes for descriptions of places, people, objects, acts, ...
Triangulation What is the relationship between student enjoyment of writing and quality of their writing? Student surveys ...
Triangulation Will providing students an advance scoring rubric have an effect on the quality of their final product? Stud...
Triangulation To what extent are final products different when peer editing is employed? Student interviews Contrast betwe...
THINK:  Interpreting & Explaining  1 <ul><li>Interpret your findings to understand the problem/issue/question better. </li...
Think  2 <ul><li>Analyze:  organize information into categories </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for coding: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Think 3 <ul><li>Others ways to develop an interpretation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask interpretive questions, such as “why, what...
Concept Map <ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>pre-teaching </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary   eliciting  backgro...
ACT <ul><li>Prioritize Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Restate as Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make instructional modifications </...
Evaluation <ul><li>What worked? </li></ul><ul><li>What didn’t work that I need to try again? </li></ul>
Documenting the Process <ul><li>Conceptualization, data collection, interpretation/analysis, conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li...
Be careful of common pitfalls: <ul><li>Lack of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Expertise:  Formulating research questions, ...
Final Thoughts <ul><li>The uniqueness of each classroom setting implies  </li></ul><ul><li>that any proposal—even at the s...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

R2 LOOK, THINK, ACT: Meeting the Research Needs of Teacher Practitioners (Robinson)

1,700 views

Published on

LOOK, THINK, ACT: Meeting the Research Needs of Teacher Practitioners (R2)
Speaker: Deborah W. Robinson

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,700
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Nimen hao, zhongwen laoshi! It is so good to see again. I hope that you feel comfortable in your teaching settings and have enjoyed coming to know your local school communities. As you know, there is always room for improvement. That is why I was asked to offer this session on looking at your own practice to ensure optimal student success. I hope that you will feel empowered to conduct your own classroom-based inquiries based on the information we discuss today.
  • The primary goal of action research for inservice teachers like yourselves is to give you ways of exploring your own classrooms. Really more of an attitude: You become engaged in critical reflection on ideas, the informed application and experimentation of ideas in practice, and the critical evaluation of the outcomes of such application. Action research is less concerned with generalizable scientific knowledge and more concerned with situational or context-based knowledge. It might also be collaborative, participatory, and self-evaluative.   Rather than others studying you as an outsider, Action research values empowerment, democracy, equity, liberation, and life enhancement. You take charge of educational issues and make decisions based on your own classroom context.
  • A useful framework for action research is: look, think, act: in other words, gather information (through observation, interviews, document analysis); interpret or analyze to arrive at explanations and understandings of what you observed); act: It doesn’t have to be earth-shattering action! Just modifications to future lessons as you always do intuitively. OR, brand-new ways or presenting lessons.
  • Action research is used for several purposes: Read the screen. Let’s say you want to find a remedy for problems that you or someone else has diagnosed. Perhaps you have a student who has trouble seeing. What strategies will you try to remedyi the problem so that the child can still learn through viewing? In other words, how might you improve this learner’s circumstances? Or, you might attend a workshop and then try to incorporate ideas into your teaching. Rather than subjective, intuitive conclusions, action research enables you to study practice in a more systematic way. Thus, you can contribute to dialogs between academic researchers by sharing what you have found in your own context. This is critical because only you know the context well. Outsiders do not.
  • Reviewing curriculum proposals and judging likely impact on practice Evaluating practice, performance, and policy in teaching and administration Providing evidence and analysis of the program for management purposes Interpreting and assessing information from examination boards, assessment and performance units, and the academic world   Skills in classroom observation (Hook, 1981) will provide teachers with: the ability to monitor and describe their own and their students’ activities and behaviors; an understanding of instructional methods and materials and their application; awareness of the relationship between classroom behaviors and students’ growth; the ability to modify their behaviors on the basis of their understanding of classroom settings.
  • Let’s talk for a few minutes about the first step in the process: Formulating questions. What do you want to find out? Be sure it is something worth asking in the first place AND capable of being answered. Ex: Is “Who listens to music when they study?” worth asking? Easy to  answer but what will it prove? Ex: Is “Is there a set order for acquisition or Chinese? answerable? Worth  answering, but would take a team or postdoc researchers many years    to answer. Remember, too, that Questions are not value free. What we choose to investigate reflects the beliefs and attitudes we hold about language teaching and learning
  • Let’s say you are teaching learners how to write addresses in Chinese, where the largest entity comes first. Should you explicitly tell the learners or show some examples and have learners infer and state the generalization?
  • These are broad. Can you think of a better, more narrow question that is capable of being researched? Will learners’ interpersonal Chinese scores improve if I use pair work to practice describing their families? If I offer rewards (points or special activity days) for a week, will learners use more Chinese both inside and outside the classroom? Will my students’ listening comprehension improve if I show them five minutes of news each day for a week tied to our theme of sports?
  • If I have my students write an interactive journal with me for a week, what effect with that have on their writing scores? If I have my students use online character writing programs, will their writing ability improve? If I set up learning stations based on aural, visual, and kinesthetic tasks during my unit on leisure activities will they enjoy it and perform well on my final assessment task?
  • Other possible topics are listed here.
  • Let’s take a few minutes to think about what you are curious about now that you have been teaching here .
  • Now that you have a question in mind, it’s time to figure out how you will answer it! When you look, you must match your data collection methods and methods of analysis to your question. Some of the methods available to you include experiments, ethnographies where data collection is often done through participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc. Ethnography aims to describe the nature of those who are studied through writing. [2] Or, you might observe learners in your classroom and mark some sort of matrix, chart or checklist in relation to what you are interested in. For example, watching a group and how many turns each learner takes talking to complete a task. Introspective measures asks learners to share out loud what they are thinking about as they complete a task. In interaction analysis, you might audiotape a pair of students and then analyze the sample for turn taking.
  • Sources of data : Existing data: school/teacher records, student work/portfolios Observation data: photographs; videotapes; diaries, logs, journals; rating scales/rubrics; data obtained by shadowing students through the school day. Probes: Tests, surveys, interviews, focus groups.
  • Sorting: You could write ideas on individual index cards or find an online data management tool
  • Frameworks provide means to formulate clear, sophisticated, useful explanations and interpretations of the issue/puzzle/problem. Provides the basis for planning concrete actions.
  • You cannot change everything at once or you would be overwhelmed. So, think about what would be the most important to least important variable to change. Make that into a goal. For example, I will always help my learners how what I am teaching today connects to what they already know. If studying water, rain, dew, etc, I will point out the water root.
  • describe and reflect on tasks and activities that have led to satisfactory resolution/solutions and describe and reflect on unresolved issues (which form basis of further action) Determine effectiveness of your actions in terms of resolved/unresolved issues, questions, problems.   Start again!
  • Researcher Log: sort of a journal/diary of your adventure that includes facts, decisions, timelines, but also feelings and dilemmas. You might also doodle drawings to show cause and effect, relationships between elements. Think of this as your roadmap for your study. Conclusions: My question. I looked at, thought about, and acted thusly conceptualization data collection interpretation/analyzis conclusion
  • Keep your question and investigation manageable. Even small changes in practice can yield results in terms of student achievement. You now have beginning expertise in formulating your study. Ask for help if you need it. The math teacher, for example, may be able to provide guidance on statistical tools. Ethical questions: Should I collect language samples without telling my students? Should I observe (eavesdrop) on small groups to determine who is using target language? YES, but warn students of your continuous research. Unwieldy growth of research project (keep it focused). My story about trying to study K,1,2 immersion. UGH. Writing up results. How much is necessary? That depends. Because research is to better your practice, it may be just bullets and conclusions, plus leads for further inquiry.
  • Stenhouse (1975):
  • R2 LOOK, THINK, ACT: Meeting the Research Needs of Teacher Practitioners (Robinson)

    1. 1. 2010 National Chinese Language Conference, DC <ul><li>LOOK, THINK, ACT: A Proven Recipe for Meeting the Research Needs of Teacher Practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Deborah W. Robinson, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio Department of Education </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    2. 2. What IS Action Research? <ul><li>Way for teachers to explore their own practice. </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Situational or Context-Based Knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Action Research <ul><li>Framework: Look, Think, Act </li></ul>
    4. 4. Purposes of action research <ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Improving circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Innovating (e.g., implementing new skills and methods following a workshop) </li></ul><ul><li>Heightening self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a systematic approach to improving practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving communication between teachers and researchers </li></ul>
    5. 5. Presupposes skill in: <ul><li>classroom observation; </li></ul><ul><li>data collection; and </li></ul><ul><li>analysis. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Minimally, any research needs… <ul><li>A question, issue, problem, or puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive Analysis </li></ul>
    7. 7. Formulating Questions <ul><li>What do you want to find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Must be worth asking AND capable of being answered. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are not value free. Reflect beliefs and attitudes we hold about teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
    8. 8. The effects of two teaching techniques on language achievement of MS students <ul><li>Do two different teaching techniques have differing effects on Chinese achievement scores of MS students? (too broad) </li></ul><ul><li>Will MS students form addresses correctly more often if I use an inductive or deductive grammar presentation to introduce and practice the concept? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Other Possible Topics <ul><li>Types of pair and group activities (i.e., cooperative learning) that promote proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for encouraging the use of Chinese both inside and outside the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of authentic listening and reading texts that promote proficiency. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Other Possible Topics <ul><li>Kinds of homework assignments that are conducive to promoting achievement or proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Utility, benefits, and/or practicality of incorporating technology into lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of incorporating multiple intelligence or learning style theories into instruction. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Other Topics <ul><li>The impact of alternative assessment practices on student communication and/or performance </li></ul><ul><li>Types of physical class configurations that best promote speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of authentic materials that are beneficial in promoting cultural awareness. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Other Possible Topics <ul><li>The effect of process writing (prewriting, multiple-drafts, peer editing) on my students' writing proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods that benefit  inclusion students in the FL classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of participating in peer (non-evaluative) supervision for FL teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to encourage &quot;equal time&quot; for boys and girls to participate orally </li></ul>
    13. 13. Your Ideas?
    14. 14. LOOK: Matching Data Collection Methods and Methods of Analysis to Your Question 1. <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnography or Case Study or Field Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspective Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If causal>>experiment or quasi-experimental design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If behavior in context >>>descriptive or interpretive research. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Look 2. <ul><li>Elicitation Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Tasks (oral or written samples) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys Questionnaires Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you ask… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any effect on test scores? >>pre/posttest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are attitudes of students? >>surveys, questionnaires, interviews, journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens to language if students are in small groups? >> audio/videotapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What helps students write descriptive paragraphs? >>introspection, think-alouds, brainstorming </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Look 3. <ul><li>Questions “while looking” need to be unflavored by you: </li></ul><ul><li>Global: Tell me about how you study for a test. What works best for you? What do you do to learn vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>Visual: Could you show me what you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensions: Tell me more about… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement: Go on, yes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Can you give me an example of that? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use audio, video, or notes to record answers </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Look 4 <ul><li>Look through observation: </li></ul><ul><li>Field notes for descriptions of places, people, objects, acts, activities, events, times, purposes, and feelings (verify!) </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at documents: plans, materials, newsletter, curriculum guides, IEPs (be selective or it’s overwhelming!) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Triangulation What is the relationship between student enjoyment of writing and quality of their writing? Student surveys Analysis of first, second, and final drafts Comparison with work on previous assignments
    19. 19. Triangulation Will providing students an advance scoring rubric have an effect on the quality of their final product? Student interviews Contrast between revisions made in assignments with/without rubrics Third-party ratings of finished products
    20. 20. Triangulation To what extent are final products different when peer editing is employed? Student interviews Contrast between revisions made in assignments with and without peer editing Third-party ratings of finished products
    21. 21. THINK: Interpreting & Explaining 1 <ul><li>Interpret your findings to understand the problem/issue/question better. </li></ul><ul><li>Make better sense of experiences based on what you found out. </li></ul><ul><li>Take “taken-for-granted” meanings, conceptual structures, and working theories and reformulate them into improved, matured, expanded, and elaborated constructions and understandings. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Think 2 <ul><li>Analyze: organize information into categories </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for coding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color coding like ideas (“study strategies that use visuals”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting based on common characteristics (“making flashcards,” “writing word ten times,” “using word in a sentence”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying to identify and describe the category: “Context-embedded vocabulary learning strategies” (meaning from text, word in a sentence) & “context-reduced vocabulary learning strategies” (flashcards, copying 10 times). </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Think 3 <ul><li>Others ways to develop an interpretation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask interpretive questions, such as “why, what, how, who, where, when”. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a concept map with all the aspects that influence the construct under investigation. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Concept Map <ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>pre-teaching </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary eliciting background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>guessing meaning from context </li></ul>
    25. 25. ACT <ul><li>Prioritize Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Restate as Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make instructional modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try different techniques </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Evaluation <ul><li>What worked? </li></ul><ul><li>What didn’t work that I need to try again? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Documenting the Process <ul><li>Conceptualization, data collection, interpretation/analysis, conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher log of your adventure: includes facts, decisions, timelines, feelings, dilemmas. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I looked at, thought about, and acted thusly.” </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Be careful of common pitfalls: <ul><li>Lack of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Expertise: Formulating research questions, determining appropriate research design, statistical tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Unwieldy Growth of the Research Project </li></ul><ul><li>Writing up Results </li></ul>
    29. 29. Final Thoughts <ul><li>The uniqueness of each classroom setting implies </li></ul><ul><li>that any proposal—even at the school level—needs to be </li></ul><ul><li>tested and verified and adapted by each teacher in his/her </li></ul><ul><li>own classroom. The ideal is that the curricular specification </li></ul><ul><li>should feed a teacher’s personal research and development to </li></ul><ul><li>increase his/her understanding of his/her own work and </li></ul><ul><li>hence better his/her teaching. … It is not enough that </li></ul><ul><li>teachers’ work be studied. They need to study it themselves. </li></ul>

    ×