Pedagogical GrammarResearch andClassroom TeachingBaozhang HeCollege of the Holy Cross, NECLTANCLC, Boston, MA 4/7-4/10
从“吃坏肚子”说起［［吃坏］肚子］［［吃］［［坏］肚子］］“why did the person eat the badstomach?”
结果补语什么是补语？补充说明谓语动词，在谓语动词后的连带成分，补充说明结果、程度、趋向、可能、状态、数量等等。什么是结果补语？结果补语表示谓语动词的结果。Vaction verb+Radj. Verb or single syl. Verb写错、做完、说清除、洗干净V 和 R 之间不能加入任何成分VR 可以带“了”和“过”，也可以带宾语同一动词，不同结果：看完、看懂、看见、看清楚不同动词，同一结果：看完、听完、卖完、吃完
汉英表示结果的形式不同中文 英文动词＋结果补语 不同词汇项目＋时态看 看见 Look at See/saw听 听见 Listen to Hear/heard找 找到 Look for Find/found学 学会 study Learn/learned
Study Ithe purpose of this study is todiscuss whether there is a hierarchyof acquiring Chinese VRC and whatthe most appropriate teachingstrategies are for L2 learnersthrough surveys on Chinese VRCand theoretical analysis.
Zhu 2013The semantic meanings of the verbs in thestructure of VRC with the subject and object insentences are various and complex; in addition,there are often no corresponding structures inother languages such as English, so it is oftendifficult for students who study Chinese as asecond language (L2) to acquire this structure. Itis a quite challenging issue to find out how L2learners acquire Chinese VRC and whether thereis a hierarchy of acquiring the different forms ofVRC. If the difficulty of acquisition of ChineseVRC can be pinpointed, it will benefit thosedesigning appropriate textbooks and pedagogicalinstruction.
Survey Procedure andResultPicture description and answer questionTranslation from English to Chinese
P1. Did the student understandwhat the teacher said?老师说得真好！
P3. Describe the classroom (are theremany students?)
P4. (Suppose the people in the two pictures are the same.) What’shappened to the person?
Translation1. I have learned how to write Chinese characters.2. I understood what the teacher said by listening.3. [In springtime,] the trees are full of blossoms.4. He has finished writing his homework.5. You came early. You are exhausted (very tired).6. You wrote one character wrong.7. [All those people are on top of one another.] Won’t the peopleunderneath be crushed to pieces?8. [I ate spoiled food and] my stomach is uncomfortable.
linguists Van Valin and Lapolla havedemonstrated that there is a subject selectionhierarchy which corresponds to the degree ofmarkedness.
The hierarchy of Chinese VRCpertaining to markednessIf the first argument of both Vcaus and Vres inthe VRC is the subject syntactically and also theagent semantically, the form is unmarked(example is ting-dong 听懂 (understand bylistening) in the survey).If the first argument of the Vcaus is the subjectand also an agent, but that of the Vres is neitherthe subject nor the object (its semantic meaningis a kind of description, comment and illustrationto the Vcaus) in the VRC, the form is lessmarked (example is zuo-wan 做完 (finish-doing)in the survey).
If the first argument of the Vcaus is the subjectand also an agent but its second argument is theobject and patient which is the subject of Vres inthe deep structure in the VRC, the form is moremarked (example is zhao-cuo 找错 (give-wrong)in the survey).If the argument of the Vcaus is the object whichis an agent-like while the argument of the Vres isthe subject which is not an agent in the VRC, theform is the more marked plus (example is kai-man 开满 (bloom-full) in the survey).If a form is in a situation like c in the above but ithas more arguments than others, it is the mostmarked form (example is chi-huai 吃坏 (eat-bad)in the survey).
The hierarchy of the difficulty inlearning Chinese VRCMost difficult: 你吃坏肚子了。More difficult: 树上开满了花。Mildly difficult: 你找错了钱。Less difficult: 他做完了功课。Least difficult: 他听懂了。
Study II“唱得很高兴”与“很高兴地唱”问题的提出问题的所在：He sings happily.第二语言习得的过程可以概括为给已经熟悉的意思加上一套新的符号。其主要行为就是在新符号和与已经储存于大脑中的已有语言意义相对应的符号间建立等同关系。这样，新的材料和已经存在于学习者认知结构中的概念联系起来，以促进形式-意义关系的构成和组织。